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From this rough sketch we see that the prevailing school departmental committee is known to all interested in the of botany has arisen very independently of that which matter. From the character of the evidence tendered it is preceded it. The discontinuity between them you might not surprising that no action has been taken. I am at a almost call abrupt. All through the middle parts of the loss to find any adequate reason for the continuance of two last century we so busy amassing and classifying separate herbaria. It has been urged, no doubt, that plants that the great questions of botanical policy were botany would suffer if unrepresented in the Museum collec. left to solve themselves. Great herbaria became of the tions at South Kensington, and that the dried collections order of things : they received Government recognition, and and herbarium staff are a necessary adjunct to the mainten. they continue their work apart. Those who built up these ance of a botanical museum. But there is little force in great collections neglected to convince the schools of the the contention. The specimens
maked importance of training a generation of botanists that would herbarium are not proper subject matter for museum dix use them. The schools were free, and they have gone play; nor is there anything about herbarium work which their own way, and that way does not lie in the direction intrinsically fits the staff to engage in the arrangement of the systematic botany of the herbarium. So long as of museum cases. The function of a botanical musput is this tendency prevails the herbaria must languish. When to interest, stimulate, and attract. It should convey an I say languish, I do not mean that they will suffer from idea of the current state of the science, and particularly of inefficient administration—their efficiency probably has the problems that are to the front, in so far as it is possible never been greater than at the present time. But the effort to illustrate them. It requires a curator with imagination involved in their construction and upkeep is altogether and ideas, as well as an all-round knowledge of his subject. disproportionate to any service to which they are put. He must also be an artist. Logically there is no reason Work, of course, comes out of them ; it is no question of why a museum should be part of the same organisation the devotion or ability of individuals. It is the general as systematic collections. There is, indeed, a danger of position, the isolation of systematic botany, to which atten- making the museum too exhaustive. I am speaking, ol tion should be directed with a view to its alleviation. course, of a teaching museum, which belongs really to the
If things are left to take their course there is the fear province of a university, or university extension if you like of atrophy through disuse. The operation of the ordinary Systematic collections kept exposed under glass are luxuries. economic laws will no doubt serve to fill vacancies on the All the world agrees that the museum side is admirable staff as they arise, but the best men will be reluctant to done at South Kensington, and most people attribute this enter. Of course the pendulum may begin to swing the success to the systematic element which is paramount other way, though no indication of such a change is yet behind the scenes. But, as we have seen, this is a fallaci. apparent.
and the museum argument for keeping the herbariun Let us now attempt an analysis of some of the causes at South Kensington may be ignored. which have led to this condition of affairs.
By the fusion of the herbaria at Kew one would look In the first place, our two national herbaria (Kew and for increased economy and efficiency, more time for origina' the British Museum) stand apart from the ordinary work as distinguished from routine duties, and a mor botanical current. They are administered, the one
complete specialisation. portion of the Kew establishment under the Board of Agri- We now approach another aspect of the question. Much culture, the other as a department of the British Museum has been said on the value of anatomical characier in under a Board of Trustees. Neither has any connection,
classification, and it is pretty generally conceded that they direct or indirect, with any university organisation. The ought to be taken into consideration, though, like other Keepers and Assistants as such have no educational func- characters, they are beset with their own special difficul. tions allotted them; I mean positions in these herbaria ties. As Dr. Scott-who has always urged their import carry no teaching duties with them. There are no facilities
ance-says: I“ Our knowledge of the comparative anatomy for teaching; there are no students. No machinery exists
of plants, from this point of view, is still very backward for training recruits or for interesting anybody in the ideals
and it is quite possible that the introduction of such and methods of systematic botany. A recent event illus
characters into the ordinary work of the herbarium mat trates my meaning better than any words. My friend Dr.
be premature ; certainly it must be conducted with the Rendle accepted the Keepership of the Botanical Depart
greatest judgment and caution. We have not yet got sur ment at the British Museum a few months ago. Previously,
data, but every encouragement should be given to the as Assistant, he had held a lectureship at a London college.
collection of such data, so that our classification in the One of the first consequences of his new appointment was
future may rest on the broad foundation of a comparison his retirement from the teaching post. Now that was bad. of the entire structure of plants." This passage will Under the conditions which one would like to see there would have been no resignation. On the contrary, the
written ten years ago and we are still awaiting its realisa
tion. Keepership should have entitled Dr. Rendle to promotion
It is perfectly true that in the case of a recent propos; to a full professorship. I do not mean a great post, with
to found a new natural order of powering plants anatomied elementary classes, organisation, and so on, but one in
characters find due consideration ; still, on the whole, w which he would be occupied with his own branch, giving course for advanced students, let us say, once a year
are content to rely on the traditional methods that he
been transmitted from Linnæus and the old taxonomis; during the summer months. Nor is that all. Such are
So much material is always passing under the hands of the vagaries of our university organisation in London that
our systematists that they cannot devote the time for the we run some risk of losing Dr. Rendle from the Board of
claboration of a fresh method. In particular there at Studies in Botany. Automatically he
the new things which require docketing and provision? recognised teacher,” and unless some loophole can be
description. Circumstances, as ever, place obstacles in our found the connection will be severed.
way and tend to make us unprogressive. Next we come to the question of routine duties. These are heavy in herbaria, and must include a great many
Now it seems to be of the first importance that refort
should come from within ; that these problems, which ar that could be satisfactorily discharged by handy attendants. As in the case of those who work in laboratories, half a
systematists' problems, should be solved by taxonom man's time should be at his own disposal for original
I am sanguine enough to believe that much might : investigations. It is important, for a variety of reasons, that the members of the staff should take a leading part
done by a redistribution of duties, especially if this a* in advancing systematic botany.
accompanied by the fusion of the great herbaria, to which Then there is another way in which a great economy
reference has already been madr. But the greatest hope could be effected in effort, time, and money. This is the
I think, must lie in the possibility of some form of allianc transfer of the collections and staff of the Botanical De
or understanding between the authorities responsible for the
administration of the herbaria on the one hand and the partment from the Museum to Kew. This is a very old
local university on the other. For directly you give the proposal, first seriously entertained some fifty years ago
Keepers or Assistants in the former a status in the latter after the death of Robert Brown. There must be endless files of reports and Blue Books in official pigeon-holes
you place at the disposal of the systematists a consideratta dealing with this question. The most recent report of a 1 1 D. H. Scott, Presidential Address, Section K, Brit Assoc. (1806)
supply of recruits in the form of advanced students possess- degree to reflect current botanical ideas in the grouping of ing the requisite training to carry out investigations under our plants. Let me illustrate my meaning by a good direction. And if this be true of the herbaria, it holds example. The Succulent House is generally conceded to equally in all the branches of knowledge represented in the form one of the most interesting and stimulating exhibits Sational Museum. Really | fancy our Museum is rather to be seen at Kew--not merely from the weird and groanomalous in its isolation. In am confident that any tesque forms assumed by the individual plants, but chiefly understanding or arrangement that might be reached would because here you have assembled together plants of the bw
attended with great reciprocal advantage. Nor am I most varied affinity having the common bond of similar -peaking without some data before me. The movement adaptations to a like type of environment. The principles jowards a closer relation between the museum and the that underlie the arrangement of the best sort of museum university has already entered the experimental stage. For may be applied with advantage in the case of a garden, un several occasions during the last few years members and with tenfold effect; for is not a live dandelion better of the Museum stafi, from more than one department, have than a dead Welwitschia? This feature, introduced as it given courses of lectures in connection with the university would be with moderation and discretion, would immensely xhemes of advanced study. From all I hear, the experi- | enhance the value of the Gardens both to the student and tent may be regarded as distinctly encouraging.
general visitor. Before leaving this subject it may be appropriate to recall But to return from this digression : on the whole the that the English edition of Solereder's great work time seems ripe for the new departure. Fresh lines are stematic Plant-anatomy is rapidly approaching comple-opening up in systematic botany that call for special proLion, and should be available very shortly. Its appearance vision. Now it was evident from the circumstances of the (annot fail once more to arouse discussion as to the import botanical renaissance twenty-five years ago that when it
op of anatomical characters. I hope the result produced acquired strength some readjustment between the old and may reward the devotion and labour with which Mr. L. A. the new would have to be made. The thing was inevitable. Rrodle and Dr. Fritsch have carried out their task.
The administrative acts of recent years all point in the In another and even more fundamental branch of system- same direction. The founding of the Jodrell Laboratory, bir work the future seems brimful of promise. We are the enhanced efficiency of the Gardens, the great extension borginning to recognise that a vast number of the species of the Herbarium building, all help to pave the way. But of the systematist have no correspondence with the real more is wanted. Reference has been made to the advantunits of nature, but are to be regarded rather as sub- ages that would attend the migration from the Natural jative groups or plexuses composed of closely similar
History Museum. But it is most important of all to units which possess a wide range of overlapping variability. devise a mechanism for securing a flow of recruits to carry Thul such might be the case was apparent to Linnæus, on the work. This would follow in the wake of a but the prooi depends on the application of precise methods rapprochement with the schools on the lines already b analysis.
sketched out. Difficulties, no doubt, will be encountered In the year 1870 our great taxonomist Bentham happened in Me initial stages of a reorganisation, but these are in meet Sägrli at Munich, and, as we find recorded in Mr.
inseparable from our bureaucratic system. A very hopeful Daydon Jackson's interesting lise, “had half an hour's sign is the readiness which the Government has shown in Inowrsation with him on his views that in systematic | instituting inquiries in the past. That nothing has come fotany it is better to spend years in studying thoroughly of them may be attributed primarily to the attitude of to or three species, and thus really to contribute essen- botanists themselves. If they can unite on any common cally to the science, than to review generally foras and
policy, there should be no serious delay in giving it effect. rups of species.” Bentham does not appear to have burn convinced, for his comment runs : " He is otherwise, evidently, a man of great ability and zeal, and a constant und hard worker. At the time of this interview Bentham
UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL was seventy years old, Nägeli being seventeen years his
INTELLIGENCE. junior. The views of the latter are now bearing fruit, as The resignation of Dr. A. E. Dolbear, professor of
in the important results already obtained by physics at Tufts College since 1874, is announced. De Vries and others, who are following the methods of
DR. Kuno Fischer has resigned the professorship of paperimental cultivation with so much success. The supposed slowness of change has been a difficulty philosophy at the University of Heidelberg in consequence
of ill-health. many. This was one of the lions left by Darwin in the way, and it has driven back many a
Sir Walter LAWRY Buller, F.R.S., has left on trust ind Mistrust."
are gradually perceiving, 1000l. to found a Maori scholarship, to be called the it is only a chained lion after all; a thing to avoid and Buller scholarship, tenable by Maoris, but not by Europeans puisis by. The detection of the origin of species and varie- or half-castes. lies by sudden mutation opens out new vistas to the
Dr. A. G. RUTHVEN, who is at present collecting reptiles sistematist, and along these he will pursue his way. It
and studying their field relations for the American Museum will take many years of arduous work this reinvestigation of Natural History, has been appointed curator of the of the species question. The collections of our herbaria
museum of the University of Michigan. for the provisional sorting-out from which we must start ifresh. In the long run it may be that our present collec
THE Physical Society, Frankfurt a. M., has fitted up Lions will prove obsolete, but that will not deter us. The
an electrotechnical instructional and experimental instituwrap-heap is the sign and measure of all progress.
tion in which young people after finishing their apprenticeThe Garden thus becomes an instrument of supreme
ship may go through a further course in order to qualify importance in conjunction with the herbarium, and that is
themselves as works managers, &c. another reason for the transfer of South Kensington to Dr. J. K. H. IngLis, of L'niversity College, London, Kr*. The resources of the latter could then be directed has been appointed principal lecturer in chemistry at Uni1.) fully than ever to the advancement of scientific versity College, Reading; and Mr. F. J. Cole, of the hoiany, and the Gardens would be revealed in a new light. University of Liverpool, has been appointed principal for the operations and results of experimental inquiries lecturer in zoology at the same institution. would form a new feature, very acceptable to the specialist
Plans are being prepared for a building for operative and public alike. And, as I am on the subject, it may not for out of place to remark that we all look forward cagerly university hospital in connection with the college of
surgery, and experimental pharmacy, and for the 10 the time when the multilarious activities of Kew will
medicine and surgery, the University of Minnesota, this permit the development of other features of which traces are already discernible. The arrangement of the living having been made possible by the recent bequest by Dr.
A. F. Elliott of 30,00ol. sillections is at present based largely on horticultural confinience, geographic origin and systematic attinity, happily THE Austrian Government has sanctioned the granting subordinated to an artistic or decorative treatment.
of the title of “ Doktor der Bodenkultur to be conferred time we shall go further than that and attempt in some upon those students of the Vienna High School for Agri
NO. 1921, vol. 74]
culture who pass a satisfactory examination, which shall also in some instances provide the necessary books and consist of the preparation of a scientific thesis and a instruments, or they offer prizes for the best student in viva voce ordeal not more than two hours.
their employ. Other employers increase the wages of those THE “ Craggs " research prize will be awarded by the
of their servants who attend specified classes and pasa London School of Tropical Medicine in October next to
the examination held at the end of the course. The time a past or present student of the school who during the year
spent at evening classes is allowed to count in reduction (October, 1905, to October, 1906) has made the most
of the working hours of apprentices by a third days of valuable contribution to tropical medicine. The competing employer. Every plan which tends to bring home the essays must reach the medical tutor of the school on
importance of technical training to the manufacturers and
their workmen deserves commendation, and it is to be hoped before October 1.
that the Bristol experiments will be tried in other large Prof. G. S. Boulger has accepted the post of honorary centres of industry. professor and external examiner for the diploma at the Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester, in succession to the late Dr. W. Fream, and Mr. W. Hunting has accepted the position of honorary professor and examiner for the
SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. diploma of the same institution in succession to the late
Paris, Sir G. Brown, C.B.
Academy of Sciences, August 6.-M, H. Poincaré in the ACCORDING to Science, the General Education Board, chair.-The iodomercurates of sodium and barium: A. endowed by Mr. J. D. Rockefeller with 2,000,oool., has Duboin. The author has isolated crystals of the double made the following appropriations to nine institutions on iodide of sodium and mercury, having the composition condition that the sums in question be augmented three 2 Nal, Hg!,,4H,0, and of the corresponding barium comtimes in value from other sources :--Coe College, Cedar pound, Bal,,Hg) 2,5H,0. The latter crystals were remark. Rapids, Ia., 10,000l. ; Washburn College, Topeka, Kan., able for their length, approaching 2 cm.-The boro5oool. ; Tulane University, New Orleans, 15,000l.; stannates of the alkaline earths : the reproduction of Wofford College, Spartanburg, S.C., 5000l. ; Furman Uni- nordenskiöldine: L. Ouvrard. Calcium borostannate, versity, Greenville, S.C., 5000l. ; Wake Forest College, possessing crystallographic characters identical with those N.C., 7500l. ; Howard College, Birmingham, Ala., 5oool. ; of the natural mineral, was obtained by heating precipitated South-western University, Jackson, Tenn., 5000l. ; and calcium borate with tin dioxide to a white heat in 3 slow Mississippi College, Clinton, Miss., 5oool.
current of hydrogen chloride. The influence of the temperaThe number of students attending the twenty-one German
ture of dehydration of alabaster on the setting of the plaster
obtained : E. Leduc and Maurice Pellet.-The causes al universities during the summer semester just ended is given as 45,630 matriculated students and 4566 non
the appearance of so-called anomalous forms in plants. P.
Vuillemin.-Researches on the gaseous exchanges of a matriculated students, 665 of these being at Berlin University. Among the matriculated students there were in
green plant developed in the light in the absence of Freiburg, Heidelberg. Leipzig, Munich, and Tübingen Jules Lefèvre. Under the above conditions it has bren
carbonic acid, in a soil to which amides have been added : taken together 182 women, whilst the number of non
found that a green plant can develop, increasing its dry matriculated students included 1536 women. The number
weight three times, without any oxygen being given ofi.of science students (including mathematics) at these uni
The action of the X-rays on the ovary of the dog. M. versities, that is, apart from the technical high schools,
Roulier. Contrary to the results obtained with rabbits, is given as 6323, as against 6125, in the corresponding atrophy of the ovary is very difficult to obtain, in spite of semester of 1905; the number of pharmaceutical students
the production of serious lesions of the skin.--Experimestal is stated to have been 1767, against 1481 in 1905.
lagana. The variations in the number of the trypanosom Prof. Röntgen having declined the offer of the physics in the blood of the dog. The intravascular trypanolysis chair at Berlin University in succession to the late Prof. and trypanolytic power of the serum: A. Rodet and Paul Drude, the direction of the physical institute has G. Vallet. been temporarily placed in the hands of Prof. W. Nernst, the director of the neighbouring physical chemistry institute. The designation Physikalisch-Chemisches Insti
CONTENTS. tut was only recently granted to Prof. Nernst's institution, which had hitherto been known the " II. Tunnels and Tunnelling Chemische Institut”; it may also be observed that the
Ancient Astronomy . equipment of the institute has been extended on the
Our Book Shelf:electrical side by means of a grant of 10,000 marks, so Glück: “Biologische und morphologische Untersuch. that the various workplaces have easy access to direct
ungen über Wasser- und Sumpfgewächse" current of voltages of 10, 110, and 220 volts, and a low- Latter : “School Gardening for Little Children"
Letter to the Editor:voltage alternating current for electric furnace work.
The Earth's Interior. -Sir Oliver Lodge, F.R.S. . 412 The following appointments have recently been made :
The Earthquake in South America Dr. Wilhelm Deecke, professor of mineralogy in the Uni
Prof. Brouardel. By A. N. versity of Greifswald, as successor to Prof. Steinmann in
Notes the University of Freiburg i. B. ; Dr. Johannes Walther
Our Astronomical Column: as ordinary professor of mineralogy in the University of
Comet 1906d. Halle ; M. R. A. Raiss as extraordinary professor of scien
A Memorial to the late Prof. Tacchini . tific photography in the Lucerne l'niversity ; Dipl.-Ing. Johannes Galli, technical director of the Annen Steel
Italian Observations of the Toral Solar Eclipse (1903) 11; Works, Ltd., in Westphalia, as successor to the late Prof.
The Spectra of Sun-spots and Red Stars.
Section G.-Engineering (Illustrated).- Opening professor of mineralogy in the University of Breslau, has
Address by J. A, Ewing, LL.D., F.R.S. been offered an appointment in the l'niversity of Bonn, in
M.Inst. C. E., President of the Section succession to Prof. Dr. Laspeyres, retired.
Section I.-Physiology: - Opening Address by Prot The calendar of the Merchant Venturers' Technical Francis Gotch, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., Wayn. College, Bristol, for the session 1906–7, contains an interest. Aete Professor of Physiology in the University ing section dealing with the attempts being made in Bristol of Oxford, President of the Section to secure the cooperation of employers in the work of Section K. -Botany. ---Opening Address by Prot. educating apprentices and artisans suitably. The plans
F. W Oliver, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., President which certain firms adopt to secure this object are enumer
of the Section ated. Some firms pay the fees of students attending classes University and Educational Intelligence
435 relating to the industry in which they are engaged; they | Societies and Academies
One power and one Eye-piece.
8 5 I BELMONT ST., CHALK FARM, LONDON, N.W.
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