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1 has been laid on the importance of electricity in connec- religion. The medicine man, shaman, or priest is merely tion with radio-active changes. Papers by Prof. E. H. the possessor of a more powerful orenda than his neisn. Barton and J. Penzer and by Prof. W. F. Barrett were bour. It might be objected that this theory was upset by taken as read in the absence of the authors.

the Australians, and especially the Arunta, who are In the department of mathematics, Prof. A. C. Dixon supposed to be in a state of primitive atheism ; but not one read a paper on expansions in products of oscillatory of the Australian tribes is, strictly speaking, primitive, functions, being extension of

paper published and in none of them is the idea of religion entirely absent, recently by the author in the Proceedings of the and what ideas they have are not at variance with, but London Mathematical Society. It deals with the

complementary to, the thcory here suggested. expansion of a function of two variables f(x, y) in the The remainder of the morning was taken up with papers form {qm(4)\n\y), where o and are functions of given on general ethnology. type. Prof. W. H. H. Hudson described an analytical Messrs. T. A. Joyce and E. Torday communicated a investigation of the

traversed by particle paper, notes on the ethnography of the Ba-Yaka. These in a cyclonic storm. The

appear to agree people, who live between the inzia and Kwango rivers, fairly well with observation, thus justifying the assump- tributaries of the Kasai, in the Congo State, have not tions on which they are calculated. Lieut.-Colonel A. previously been described, and the paper was consequently Cunningham gave some new properties of certain high of unusual interest and value. Their culture, which is powers of 2 called hyper-even numbers. Prof. A. R. distinctly allied to the primitive West African type, prova Forsyth gave an interesting account of a revised theory them to be closely connected with the tribes on their of the solution of Lagrange's linear equation Pp+Qq=R. southern and western borders. The men are small but He showed that the solution hitherto accepted as the most well built. They do not practise cannibalism, but eat prargeneral, viz. v = f(u, v), where u=a, v= b are any two tically every other kind of Aesh. They are skilled in handiindependent integrals of the equations dx/P=dy/Q=ds/R, crafts, but they have never heard of stone implements, is not in reality the most general, and that other solutions The tribe is ruled by one paramount chief, but each village exist which cannot be put in the usual form. Major P. A. is immediately governed by a petty chief. The dead are MacMahon read a paper on two new symmetric functions buried in a sitting position, and the people believe that the which showed certain very interesting reciprocal relations soul leaves the body at death and visits the living in between two sets of algebraic quantities. Papers by Mr. dreams. In the case of important persons it is thought H. Hilton, on finite groups ; by Prof. T. J. l’A. Brom- that the soul is transferred to the body of a large animal. wich, on multiple series, giving a new test for the con- Mr. F. W. Knocker read a paper on the aborigines of vergence of a double series of positive terms; by Mr. A. R. Sungei Ujong, who inhabit the hills to the north and northRichardson, on many-valued functions of real variables ; west of Negri Sembilan, in the Malay States. The people and by Prof. Alfred Lodge, on a new method of computing are short but well built, with thick black hair and dark Bessel functions for high values of the argument, were

brown eyes.

They have no birth, marriage, or death read by Dr. L. N. G. Filon in the absence of the authors. ceremonies, no religion or belief in an existence after The last paper was the means of the creation of a new death, nor do they practise any form of magic or wirits committee with a small grant for the purpose of the further craft. Their chief weapon is the blow-pipe, with poisoned tabulation of Bessel functions.

darts. Besides these papers there were the usual reports of In a short discussion several speakers expressed them committees, which contain much interesting matter.

This selves as very sceptical as to the absence of religious belirts is especially the case with the seismological report. Un

among the people, and Mr. Knocker, while stating that he fortunately the programme of the section was so full that had made every possible inquiry, admitted that the natives the reading of these and of other papers had to be cut were extremely reticent when questioned on such matters, down. In order to indicate how full the programme was, Mr. S. S. Buckman communicated a paper on marriage it may be mentioned that on the Tuesday morning meeting and mating, in which he contested the views of Mr. Lang the section met in three departments simultaneously, as and Dr. Westermarck; and the morning's work was conwell as at the same time sending representatives to two cluded by a paper on the Bushmen of Basu toland, by Mr. other sections where joint discussions were being held. In S. S. Dornan, in which he had collected all that is at spite of this segregation the separate departments were present known about these interesting people. very well attended. Altogether great interest was taken In the afternoon the report of the committee appointed by the committee and members of the association in making to explore the lake village at Glastonbury was taken. The the meetings a success.

A. W. P.

work on this site is now nearing its completion, and in

the past season a large area situated in the north-wes! ANTHROPOLOGY AT THE BRITISH

corner of the village was explored. During the exploration

another dwelling site, hitherto unrecognised, was brought ASSOCIATION.

to light, bringing the total number up to eightv-three. The THE. Anthropological Section met this year in the finds were well up to the average of former years.

Victoria Hall, York, under the presidency of Mr. E. Dr. A. C. Haddon then gave an illustrated lecture on Sidney Hartland.

the ethnology of South Africa, in which he dealt chief The president delivered his address on Thursday morn- with the manners and customs of the tribes whom he ing, August 2, taking for his subject recent research in the came across during the visit of the association to South origin of magie and religion. After tracing the universal Africa last year. belief held by savage peoples that objects, animate or in- On Friday, August 3, the papers were generally of an animate, are endued with a life and personality which is | archæological character. not confined to any particular obiect, but to all alike, Mr. Major P. Molesworth Sykes exhibited a collection of Hartland showed how this personality was only bronze weapons and implements found near Khinaman in endowed with qualities, but by virtue of these very quali- south-east Persia. The find consisted of five bowls, to ties possessed a potentiality and atmosphere of its own. pins, two knives, two javelin heads, two armlets of This potentiality is known among some tribes by the name ordinary penannular form, two axe-heads, two rods with orenda, among others by the name mana, but by what- curved ends, and some clay vessels. ever name it is called the idea is substantially the same. Notes on the collection were communicated by Canno In this orenda is found the root of all magic and religion. Greenwell. The objects are undoubtedly grave goods, and “Magic is primarily an application of orenda. By his are of the utmost interest on account of the ligh: thr orenda a man bewitches his enemy ... causes rain or

throw upon the early metallic culture of the coun'r sunshine ... divines the cause of sickness and cures it, The bowls are of hammered copper, and one of them is raises the dead, spells out the future." His incantations provided with a handle or spout. It is difficult to say and spells would be useless without this. Similarly, prayer what the rods represent, but they may be simbols during is an application of orenda ; in fact, this belief in a man's authority. The axes are the most important part of tha supernatural power and the efficacy by which the super- find. They were not weapons, as the method of fastening natural can be used to benefit man is the foundation of the handles precluded them being used for cutting. Tres

not

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were cere

must either have been made expressly for the purpose of been the subject of much speculation and controversy, but burial or were for ceremonial use. Both are double-ended no satisfactory conclusions have been arrived at, except and are ornamented, while one has, in addition to an that they appear to be of Roman date. incised ornament, two figures of beasts, one standing over

A paper

communicated by Dr. E. Cartailhac the top of the socket, the other on the curve of the sharp entitled “ Découverte archéologique,” which recorded the end.

discovery, in the grotto at Gargas, of hands painted in The paper led to an interesting discussion. Sir John red on the walls of the cavern. These hands have distinct Evans considered the axes ceremonial, and in some respects affinities with similar paintings found in Australia. It is similar to Egyptian and Mesopotamian examples. He noticeable that at Gargas left hands predominate. thought the pottery was of no great antiquity, but beyond Miss Nina F. Layard read a paper on the Palæolithic that would make no attempt at dating. Prof. Ridgeway site at Ipswich, supplementary to two papers laid before considered the objects were of a date within the Christian the association at former meetings. The finds of impleera, possibly the first or second century, but perhaps even ments have, on the whole, been up to the average of former later. Prof. Petrie felt certain that the axes

years, but the most important result was the discovery alonial. He hazarded the suggestion that the curved rods that the two layers of the pit, which seemed to point to might have been models of polo sticks, on the analogy of

two distinct and widely separated dates, are in reality one, games found in Egyptian burials. He considered the date and have been separated by a layer of mud silting in. of the find to be either late B.c. or early A.D.

This would account for the occurrence of tools of a similar Mr. E. M. Andrews communicated a note on the type in the upper and lower gravels, and tends to show that Webster ruin, Rhodesia. So far as is known the ruin the pit must be dated from the highest position in which is unique, as it is situated within a sacred enclosure con- the implements were found. taining a large number of graves. The building was prob- Miss Layard also read a paper on an Anglo-Saxon ably intended to be circular. Immediately in front of the cemetery at Ipswich. Thirty-three graves

were found entrance, which is rounded, are pairs of monoliths, appar- from which numerous relics were taken, the most important ently to guard it. Other monoliths are distributed among being fibulæ of a type rarely met with in England, one the graves. The building appears to have been a royal | being cruciform with a stud in the bow. Remnants of tomb.

garments, consisting of a loosely-woven plaited fabric with Prof. Ridgeway read a paper on the origin of the guitar a dress of coarse material above, were found adhering to and fiddle. Ho argued that these instruments were de

one of the brooches. veloped from the shell of the tortoise, as there was a

An account of excavations in another Anglo-Saxon Tradition that Hermes made such an instrument, and cemetery, at South Cave, Yorkshire, was given by Mr. T. Pausanias speaks of tortoises existing in Arcadia. There Sheppard. Several skeletons were found, and with one, a ran therefore be little doubt that instruments with a female, was associated an exceptionally fine series of ornatortoiseshell sounding-board existed in Greece. The waist ments which appear not to have been previously worn, but of the instrument developed from the slightly narrowing

to have been new when interred. The relics consisted of waist of the shell. Guitars of tortoiseshell are still in use amber and glass beads, annular and other fibulæ, a pair in some parts of the Mediterranean basin.

of girdle hangers, and brooches. With a male skeleton Prof. R. C. Bosanquet gave an account of the excavations several iron objects were discovered. undertaken at Sparta by the British School at Athens. The Mr. Sheppard also gave an account of some Roman and wall of the Acropolis was traced, and general conclusions other remains from South Ferriby, on the Humber, now urre drawn as to the extent and disposition of the town in the Hull Museum. The collection consisted of coins, al different periods. The famous sanctuary of Artemis fibulæ, rings, &c., mostly of bronze, as well as of speciOrthia was examined, and although its complete examin- mens of Samian ware and other pottery. The objects were ation will take at least another season, many interesting probably from the site of a small Roman camp and finds have already been made, including geometric pottery cemetery. and ivories, some of which show interesting affinities to A collection of pygmy flint implements from Lincolnshire those discovered by Mr. Hogarth in the Artemisia at and Yorkshire, made by the Rev. R. Scott-Gatty, was Ephesus. These Spartan ivories were associated with spiral exhibited by Dr. G. A. Auden. fibulæ and other bronze objects, lead figurines and masks, Two important reports of committees were taken as sonie undoubtedly intended to be worn. These masks point read. The first, on the age of stone circles, chronicled to the existence of some dramatic performances connected the results of diggings at the Stripple Stones in Cornwall, with the temple, and, in fact, in the third century A.D., a

with the result that the date of the circle is shown to be theatre-like building was constructed in the temenos, the not earlier than late Neolithic or later than early Bronze proszenium of which was the front of the temple.

age times. The other report, of the committee to conduct Mr. T. E. Peet communicated a paper on the prehistoric explorations on Roman sites in Britain, gave some account civilisation of southern Italy, with especial reference to of recent excavations at Caerwent, Melandra Castle, NewCampania. The object of the paper was to discuss Prof. stead near Melrose and Silchester. rigorini's interpretation of the discovery of a well-marked Mr. D. G. Hogarth gave an account of the recent explortorramare settlement in Scoglio del Tonno. The general ation on the site of Ephesus, and of the discovery of the conclusion arrived at was that the culture of Campania primitive Artemisia. derived its Villanovan elements from the north, and that In the afternoon Dr. T. Ashby, jun., described the Scoglio del Tonno was the result of an isolated raid of excavations now being conducted at Caerwent. During ierramare people, not a representative of a widespread the first part of the season the inner side of the south culture of Italic type.

gate was cleared, and the inner arch was found to be In the afternoon Miss L. F. Pesel read a paper on the to a great extent still preserved. The rest of the season "volution of design in Greek and Turkish embroideries. was spent on work in the northern half of the town. Five The materials on which the paper was based were collected buildings were excavated, one of which appears to have in Greek lands round the shores of the Ægean. The been the public bath. Of the other buildings, one possessed embroideries are of various ages and styles; the earliest a colonnade, while in another remains of painted plaster ran be dated 1760, but the designs show the influence of were found on one of the walls, which was preserved for Byzantine art modified by contact with Oriental styles from a height of more than 10 feet. Two wells were also Asia Minor and Persia and with Italian art of the Middle excavated, and yielded a number of plant remains. Ages and Renaissance.

Dr. Ashby also gave an illustrated lecture on On Monday, August 6. the papers were again archæo- discoveries in the Roman Forum, in which he detailed the logical, and with the exception of two, dealt with the results obtained during the past year in the excavations. early antiquities of England.

These included the discovery of the Lacus Curtius, of the Messrs. F. W. Rudler and W. H. Dalton communicated tribunal prætorium, and of the position of the rostra. a paper on the “red hills " of the east coast salt marshes. The place where Cæsar's body was burnt and the base of The hills are low mounds of burnt earth, and are scattered the equestrian statue of Diocletian were also found. along the estuarine marshes of the east coast. They have The work on Tuesday morning dealt exclusively with

recent a

man.

man.

physical anthropology, and the papers led up to a dis- In the afternoon Prof. Petrie gave an illustrated lecture cussion on the physical characters of the races of Britain. on the Hyksos and other work of the British School of

Dr. F. C. Shrubsall gave a demonstration of the methods Archæology in Egypt. The most important work was the of determining racial characters, in which he explained excavation of a great camp of the Hyksos or Shepherd the meaning of the various terms used in craniology, and Kings. The camp consists of an earth bank faced on its showed the distribution of the various races in Europe. outer slope with white stucco, and with a slope, more than

Dr. G. A. Auden exhibited a collection of crania, all 200 feet long, serving as an entrance. This slope does from the neighbourhood of York, and to a great extent not pierce the wall, but goes over it. Flanking walls were from the collection of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society: added to command this entrance, and the whole scheme The exhibit included specimens of Celtic, pre-Roman, and of defence proves that archery was the only arm employed. Roman skulls, while one series showed the great change Some sixty years later a wall of limestone was built outin head for a which took place in York after the Norman

side the bank. There seems little doubt that the place conquest. Some of the Roman skulls had a sentimental is Avaris, and the account in Manetho's chronicle agrers interest, as they were from coffins unearthed in York and with the arrangement of this site. The people appear to the names and ages of the persons were known.

have been Semites from Syria and Mesopotamia. Other A paper by Messrs. H. Brodrick and C. A. Hill on a work resulted in the discovery of the city of Raamses, recently discovered skeleton in Sooska cave was then read.

built by the Israelites, and of the town and temple of The bones, which all belong to one individual, were found Onias, under whom the Jews founded a settlement in the under a layer of stalagmite. The skeleton is that of a second century B.c. female Celt, and the skull is brachycephalic. Above the

The work of the section concluded on Wednesday mornright mastoid process is an irregularly shaped hole, ing, August 8. Mr. J. L. Myres read a paper on earls evidently the cause of death. The height appears to have

traces of human types in the Ægean. The population of been about 5 feet 3 inches.

the Ægean area as far back as the beginning of the Broner Mr. J. R. Mortimer communicated a paper on the relative age, before which there is no evidence, was not a purely stature of the men with long heads, short heads, and

Mediterranean type of dolichocephalic man, as brachy. those with intermediate heads in the museum at Driffield. cephalic individuals occur sporadically over the whole dis Some doubt was thrown on the correctness of the figures, trict. Ægean culture, therefore, cannot be the exclusive but if correct the paper was most important, as it entirely production of Mediterranean

This evidence for reversed the accepted theories as to the height of the brachycephalic types in the Ægean, when compared with Neolithic peoples of Britain, showing that the long-headed

the evidence as to the existence of a very pure brachy. Neolithic man was taller than the broad-headed Neolithic cephalic race in the Balkan and Anatolian highlands, makes and Bronze age man.

it probable that these latter people were established in these Mr. J. Gray read a paper on England before the English, highlands at least as early as the beginning of the Egean in which, after stating the present condition of our know

Bronze age, and were in competition with dolichocephalic ledge of the subject, he argued that Neolithic man corre

Mediterranean

Intruders from the north cannot sponds with the present Mediterranean race, and that the have been brachycephalic, as the steppe of southern Russia Anglo-Saxons and other fair races of northern Europe are

was inhabited from Neolithic to Classical times by a a variety of Neolithic man with somewhat broader heads. dolichocephalic population. It seems improbable that the The Bronze age race, which subsequently settled in Britain, brunet dolichocephalic type of the southern Ægean could was brachycephalic and tall, and came by sea from the

have arrived by a land route, owing to the presence of a eastern Mediterranean and Asia Minor.

brachycephalic type in the Balkan and Anatolian bighAt the conclusion of the papers Dr. W. Wright opened lands, while its brunetness precludes affiliation to the duljithe discussion on the physical characters of the races of chocephalic peoples of the north. This type, therefore, Britain. After quoting Cæsar to show that the coastal must be considered an immigration by sea from North area was occupied by the Belgic Gauls and the interior

Africa, and its littoral habits are a strong argument in by another race, he argued that all the evidence pointed

favour of this view. to the fact that a mixed race came to Britain in Neolithic Dr. T. Ashby, jun., and Mr. D. Mackenzie communi. times, and that the population was not a pure broad- or a cated a paper on the ethnology of Sardinia. pure long-headed one.

Two papers were then read by Dr. W. H. R. Rivers, Dr. Shrubsall urged the necessity of knowing exactly The first, entitled “ A Survival of Two-fold Origin," deait where skulls were found, considering that as careful with the relation between a man and his maternal unde. evidence was required as in geology. He thought it a This connection, although in most races a survival from mistake to deal only with the length and breadth of the mother-right, in India originates, in many cases, in the skull, and felt that the proportions of the face were just regulation that the children of a brother and sister showdin as important. Also all work required revision on biometric marry one another. This involves that a man's materra! lines. As to coloration, which was very important, he uncle is also his actual or potential father-in-law.

Ibir pointed out that the Anglo-Saxons never called the Welsh practice is now chiefly confined to the southern parts of dark, and felt that it was by no means certain that the India, Britons were a dark people. He also considered it quite Dr. Rivers's other paper dealt with the astronomy of to possible that there was a Teutonic element in the popula- islanders of the Torres Straits, who group together many tion before Roman times.

stars in constellations, which often represent mythi si Prof. Ridgeway insisted that all classical references persons. In Murray Island private property was found speak of the Celts as a fair or rufous and tall race, and stars, two stars being the property of two men who bed considered that there was no evidence of a pre-Celtic inherited them from their ancestors. language in Britain.

Two physical papers

communicated by Dr Mr. J. L. Myres urged Prof. Rhys's view as to there W. L. H. Duckworth. The first directed attention to a being a non-Aryan structure in Welsh and Irish, and also rare anomaly in human crania from Kwajawata land protested against the practice of arbitrarily drawing con- New Guinea, the anomaly consisting in the presence of clusions from skull measurements.

small but sharp spicular projections of bone springine Prof. Petrie considered that a prima facie case had been from the margin of the nose due to a bony deposit Tip made out for an invasion of Britain, even in pre-Brythonic in fibrous bands, which in all cases exist in a correspues times, by a mixed race, but felt that much more material ing situation. Dr. Duckworth's other paper was was needed before any definite conclusions could be drawn. chronicle of observations made on a " eunuchoid sut Dr. C. S. Myers threw doubt the

“ Crania

in the Anatomy School, Cambridge. Britannica " records as perhaps affected by the collection The last paper presented was a demonstration of poeto of type skulls, and Mr. H. Fleure gave some account of graphs of racial types by Mr. T. E. Smurthwaite. We the anthropometric work at present in progress in Wales. Smurthwaite has evolved a new classification of the rac

The general conclusion to be drawn from the discussion i of man from observations of the contours of the head wat was that it is of paramount importance that the existing face, and he resolves all the races into six common types material should be revised by improved methods, and that Three important reports were taken as read, narrer a better comparison with Continental data is essential. that of the committee to conduct anthropometric inte

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gations among the native troops of the Egyptian Army, to The metallurgical laboratory of the Technical High which was added some observations on nasal and cephalic School, Charlottenburg, is to be divided into two sections, indices in Egypt by Dr. C. S. Myers; that of the com- the one, especially for iron and steel, to be under Prof. mittee to conduct anthropometric observations in the British Mathesius, and the other, for the metallurgy of other Isles, which issued in its report a series of photographs metals, under Prof. Doeltz. Near the technical chemistry and diagrams of the living figure with the points, between institute of the same high school a chemical museum has which dimensions are to be measured, marked ; and that been provided and placed in the charge of Prof. O. N. of the committee to collect anthropological photographs, Witt. which issued a first list of photographs registered.

Prof. EDUARD Suess, president of the Vienna Academy of Sciences, celebrated his seventy-fifth birthday on

August 20, and also the fiftieth anniversary of his appointV. LIPPMANN'S METHOD OF PHOTO

ment as extraordinary professor of palæontology in the GRAPHY IN COLOUR.

University of Vienna. Prof. E. Ludwig, the holder of the THE original method of photography in colour proposed

chair of medical chemistry in the same university, has been by M. G. Lippmann was based on the production of

elected an ordinary member, and Prof. J. Herzig, professor interference fringes in the photographic plate, and had the

of chemistry, a corresponding member, of the Vienna disadvantages of requiring very delicate adjustments and a

Academy of Sciences. long exposure. In the Comptes rendus for July 30 M. The issue of Science for August 17 gives particulars as Lippmann gives an account of a method in which long to the degrees of Doctor of Philosophy and Doctor of exposures not required. Consider a photographic Science conferred during the past year by American unispectroscope consisting of a slit, a prism, a lens, and a versities. The number of students receiving one or other sensitised plate. The light falling on the slit is analysed of the degrees in 1906 was the same as in 1905, viz. 325, by the prism, and the rays produce a corresponding number while the total number of doctorates (in philosophy or of dark lines on the negative, each of which is a conjugate science) conferred in nine years was 2387. The names of image of the slit. If a positive is taken from this negative, those on whom the degrees were conferred, the subjects of and the former placed in the exact position originally their theses, and the names of the institutions conferring occupied by the latter, the system is reversible. If the the degrees are given in the number. plate is now illuminated by white light, the light passing

In connection with the meeting in Canada of the British through the transparent portion of the plate formed by any

Medical Association, the honorary degree of LL.D. has particular line will produce at the slit only that ray which

been conferred by the University of Toronto upon the originally imprinted the negative. On the whole spectrum,

following medical men :-Prof. T. Clifford Allbutt, F.R.S., the net result will be to reconstitute at the slit the original

Dr. A. H. Freeland Barbour, Sir Thomas Barlow, Bart., colour. In order to apply this principle to photography in

Sir James Barr, Sir William_Broadbent, Bart., F.R.S., colours, the following apparatus has been arranged. The

Prof. G. Cooper Franklin, Prof._W. D. Halliburton, single slit of the spectroscope is replaced by a series of

F.R.S., Sir Victor Horsley, F.R.S., Dr. Donald MacAlister, slits very close together, consisting of fine transparent lines

Dr. W. Julius Mickle, Dr. Louis Lapicque, Paris, Dr. ruled five to the millimetre. This grating is fixed at one and of a solidly built box, the other end carrying the photo of the American Medical Association.

Ludwig Aachoff, Marburg, and Dr. W. J. Mayo, president

The degree was graphic plate, and between these is a converging lens, in

also conferred in absentia upon Dr. H. W. Langley front of which is a prism of very small angle. The object Browne, chairman of the British Medical Council. The to be reproduced is projected on the grating, illuminated

same degree is also to be conferred in absentia on Sir with white light. The light passing through the prism Thomas Barlow, Bart., Sir William Broadbent, Bart., and lens falls on the sensitive plate producing a negative F.R.S., Prof. T. Clifford Allbutt, F.R.S., and Sir Victor in black and white, which under the lens appears lined, Horsley, F.R.S., by the McGill University, Montreal. each line being divided into small zones, which are parts of an elementary spectrum. If the negative be now

In the last of six lectures on British institutions, deplaced in its original position and illuminated by white livered to students attending the University Extension light, the eye being placed at the distance of distinct summer meeting at Cambridge, Prof. Masterman dealt vision from the grating, the image of the object photo

with education. He said we are just at the beginning of graphed is seen in colours, these colours being comple- a systematisation of our secondary education as an attempt mentary to those of the object; the latter appears in its to complete the ladder for brilliant pupils from the own proper colours when the negative is replaced by a elementary school to the university. There is a danger, positive. The spectrum of the electric light has been pro

he said, that the majority of children unable to climb such duced with this apparatus by the aid of a positive in its a ladder may be neglected. Prof. Masterman thinks that natural colours. It is necessary that the angle of the

the next two towns to obtain a university charter will be prism used should be so small that the length of each Bristol. and Newcastle. The new universities are largely

In spectrum produced by it should be less than the length be- dependent on the subsidies of municipal authorities. tween each line, otherwise the spectra interfere with each

this the lecturer sees the danger, and he does not speak other. Ordinary sensitive orthochromatic plates can be

without knowledge, that the universities will be hampered used, and the exposure required is very much less than from the higher education point of view by the entirely with the interference method. The chief drawback at

inadmissible conditions of the municipal authorities. The present is the necessity of using the identical apparatus

men who provide the money may claim to control the in which the exposure is made to view the colours, but expenditure of it and disregard the opinions of experts. M. Lippmann suggests a method by which this difficulty That can only be averted by a large subsidy paid from the may possibly be overcome.

central authority. He urged that universities ought to receive greater assistance from the State.

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SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.
UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL
INTELLIGENCE.

LONDON.

Royal Society, Mav 10.-“ The Acrion of Anästhetics CAMBRIDGE.-The Frank Smart studentship in botany has

on Living Tissues. Part II.-The Frog's Skin." been awarded to Mr. D. Thoday, of Trinity College. The

By

N. H. Alcock. studentship is held at Gonville and Caius College.

This paper is a continuation of researches made on ENGINEER F. R. EICHHOFF has been appointed professor and the phenomena here described are to be considered in

isolated nerve (Proc. Roy. Soc., B, vol. lxxvii., p. 267), of iron metallurgy in the Berlin Mining School.

connection with them. A MOVEMENT is on foot for the foundation in the Glasgow The experiments may be summarised as follows :Agricultural College of a bursary, to be known as

(1) CHCI, vapour locally applied to the outer surfare of Biggar Bursary," in memory of the late Mr. James Biggar. the frog's skin abolishes the normal ingoing restis

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(2) CHCI, to the inner surface leaves the current un- trees in various localities round Paris, damage which may, affected.

given a few dry seasons, become as disastrous as at the (3) CHCI, to a combination of (outer-inner) surfaces, Cape of Good Hope, unless prompt measures are taken. connected with another spot on the outer surface, diminishes - The Valparaiso earthquake (August 16, 1906), registered the current.

at Paris : G. Bigourdan.-Observations of the Finlay (4) The electrical resistance of the skin is diminished by comet made with the large equatorial of the Bordeaux about 24 per cent. of its value by CHCI,.

Observatory : E. Esclangon.-Definitive orbit of the Certain conclusions can be deduced from these observ- comet 1905a : M. Giacobini.--The boiling points of some ations :

secondary and tertiary alcohols : G. D. Hinrichs. Reler(a) The apparatus furnishing the current is located at ring to a recent note by M. Louis Henry on this subjer:, the outer surface.

the author points out that the relationships between the (b) A diagram of an electrical apparatus which would boiling points of the secondary and tertiary alcohols need give similar results to those observed on the skin shows not be regarded as unusual, since they can be deduced, at that the latter must consist of structures resembling least qualitatively, from a consideration of the moments galvanic cells, the positive elements of which lie towards of inertia of the molecules.-Researches on the relations the outer surface, and are insulated from each other, the between functional groupings in distant positions. Detanegative elements towards the inner surface, and connected methylene-imine : E. E. Blaise and L. Houillon.-The together. If it is assumed that the current in the skin is influence of some mineral compounds on the liquefaction due to the movement of ions, it appears from the present of starch ; J. Wolf and A. Fernbach.-Cultures of experiments (and also from those in part i.) that there Protozoa and variations of living material : ). Kunstler must be some semi-permeable apparatus in both skin and and Ch. Gineste. nerve, and that choloroform renders this apparatus com

New Souri WALES. pletely permeable, so making the whole tissue iso-electric. The diminution of resistance can be accounted for by this president, in the chair. -The testing of building materials

Roval Society, July 4.-Prof. T. P. Anderson Stuart, action, which is equivalent to a diminution of viscosity. If this interpretation of the results is correct, it furnishes

on abrasion by lie sand-blast apparatus : H. Burchartz. an actual demonstration of the existence of some form of

The paper described a method of testing building materiai

by means of semi-permeable apparatus in the tissues, and suggests that

sand-blast apparatus. The sand-blas! a similar mechanism may play a larger part in vital pheno

apparatus is used on cubes of the material, exposing an mena than had previously been supposed.

area of 4:34 square inches for two minutes, and the loss

of weight, and the appearance of the area eroded by the PARIS.

sand, give accurate data in regard to the durability of the Academy of Sciences, August 13.-M. Bouquet de la material. The author compared the results of testing Grye in the chair.— Irrigation and the permeability of great variety of materials by means of the sand blast with soils : A. Müntz and L. Faure. The authors discuss the those subjected to the grinding process proposed be value of the application of irrigation to parts of France, Bauschwiges, and showed the superiority of the sand blase and argue that irrigation works must prove unremunerative over all other tests for abrasion. in private hands, and should be undertaken by the State. Proper attention does not appear to have been paid in the past to the different requirements of different classes of soil for water. The nature of the soil is not a sufficient

CONTENTS.

PAGE guide in this matter, apparently similar soils having been The Late Duke of Argyll

437 found to require very different amounts of water. A de Chemistry and the Detection of Crime. By c. s.

440 scription is given of a simple instrument for making this Nervous Disease determination.-The two specific heats of a slightly de- Our Book Shelf:formed elastic medium; the fundamental formulæ : P. Mathey: “ Traité d'Exploitation commerciale des Duhem.—The preparation of pure barium starting from

Bois" its suboxide : M. Guntz. Equivalent portions of mag- “ Illustrations of British Blood-sucking Flies. "nesium and barytá, heated in a vacuous porcelain tube

W.F. K. containing a water-cooled steel tube, gave a deposit on Villiger: "Gehirn und Rückenmark. Leitfaden för the cold tube of one-half the magnesium employed, together das Studium der Morphologie und des Faserwith traces of barium. The residue in the boat possessed

verlaufs's properties corresponding to an oxide Ba, 0. If the mag

Erdmann and Köthner : “Naturkonstanten in alphanesium is replaced in this reaction by aluminium, crystal- betischer Anordnung.”—J. A. H. lised barium deposits on the cold tube. This was found

Letters to the Editor: to contain 98.8 per cent. of barium, and on a second dis- Thermodynamic Reasoning. - Prof. Henry E. Arm. tillation in a vacuum gave pure barium. Strontium can strong, F.R.S. ; W. C. D. Whetham, F.R.S. 443 be obtained in the same wav.-The aromatic azocyan- The Iron Arc.-Prof. W. G. Cady

443 amides : P. Pierron.--A property of diastase : J. Duclaux. Volcanoes and Radio-activity. - Dr. T. J. J. See The application of recent studies on colloids to diastase. The Radio-activity of the Chemical Elements.-C. W. The author holds that the quantity of active material in

Raffety .. diastase, by reason of which it exerts its diastatic func- The Oxidation of Atmospheric Nitrogen in the tions, need, in a set of experiments, bear no constant and

Electric Arc. (Illustrated.) By Dr. F. Mollwo necessary relation to the quantity of crude diastase taken,

Perkin. and that different experiments, even simply made at The Electrical Signs of Life and their Abolition by different dilutions, are not comparable among themselves.

Chloroform. (Illustrated.) By Dr. Augustus D. -The copper-steel alloys: Pierre Breuil. Copper in

Waller, F.R.S. creases the tenacity and reduces the ductility of steels, but | Meteorological Kites in India. the results obtained with a given alloy depend very largely

Notes upon the treatment the metal has received. --The cultiva

Our Astronomical Column:tion of micro-organisms in chemically defined media : Astronomical Occurrences in September J. Galimard, L. Lacomme, and A. Morel.

Discovery of a New Comet (1906) August 20.- - M. Bouquet de la Grye in the chair.--The Finlay's Comet (1906)

453 progress of a fruit-attacking insect, Ceratitis capitata, in Greenwich Sun.spot Numbers the neighbourhood of Paris : Alfred Giard. Six years ago The Origin of the Zodiacal Light, the author pointed out the presence of this destructive A Modified Form of Solar Eye-piece exotic in the neighbourhood of Paris. At that time there Physics at the British Association. By A. W. P.. 453 were only a few apricot trees attacked, and it should have Anthropology at the British Association.

456 been easy to prevent its acclimatisation. The author's M. Lippmann's Method of Photography in Colour 459 suggestions made at that time were, however, disregarded, University and Educational Intelligence and at the present time damage is being done to peach

Societies and Academies ..

440

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