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NEW MODEL SPECTROPHOTOMETER
For accurate quantitative measurements of light absorption, accurate
comparison of light sources, &c.
Can be used for
Very great accuracy is readily obtainable.
Absorption of Liquids, &c., for light of any desired wave-length.
The Telescope is
Intensity of Illumination of Light Sources throughout the Spectrum.
The Instrument is rigid, and all the parts required for measurements are mounted on one strong base.
ADAM HILGER, Ltd., 75a Camden Road, London, N.W.
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The photograph reproduced is taken from Mr. DudDELL'S paper before the Royal Institution, March 16, 1906, on "How to improve Telephony.” It shows the curve of the current produced in a telephone by the sound of “O" as in NO! The speed of the photographic plate was 250 cms. per
second and the time reads from left to right.
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SEPTEMBER No. READY ON SATURDAY.
A MONTHLY MAGAZINE OF EDUCATIONAL WORK AND PROGRESS.
CONTENTS FOR SEPTEMBER. The Curriculum of Secondary Schools. By the Hon. and Rev. E. Lyttelton, M.A. - The Secondary-School Curriculum and the Training of Teachers. By Arthur C. Benson, M.A. –The Balance of Studies in Secondary Schools. By T. E. Page, M.AThe Curriculum of the Preparatory School. By G. Gidley Robinson, M.A. – The Curriculum of the Primary School. By Arthur Burrell M.A.-Examination and Inspection. By Prof. Henry E Arms rong, Ph.D. LL.D., F.R.S. - The Teaching of Mechanics by Experiment. By C. E. Ashford, M.A.-School Training for the Home Duties of Women. By Prof. A. Smithells, F.R.S.- Education at the British Association. By F. E. Pullard, M.A. -On Physical Education By Sır Lauder Brunion, M D., D.Sc., LL.D., V..P.R.S.-Future Work in English Education. By Prof. M. E. Sadler, LLD. — The Constructive Work of an Inspector of Schools. By W. Mayhowe Heller, B.Sc. – The Place of the Mother Tongue in National Education. By Prof. H. C. Wyld, B.Litt.— History and Current Events. – Items of Interest : General ; Scottish ; Insh : Welsh. - Reviews of Recent School-Books and Apparatus.
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physical anthropology, and the papers led up to a dis- In the afternoon Prof. Petrie gave an illustrated lecture cussion on the physical characters of the races of Britain.
on the Hyksos and other work of the British School of Dr. F. C. Shrubsall gave a demonstration of the methods Archæology in Egypt. The most important work was the of determining racial characters, in which he explained excavation of a great camp of the Hyksos or Shepherd the meaning of the various terms used in craniology, and Kings. The camp consists of an earth bank faced on its showed the distribution of the various races in Europe. outer slope with white stucco, and with a slope, more than
Dr. G. A. Auden exhibited a collection of crania, all 200 feet long, serving as an entrance. This slope does from the neighbourhood of York, and to a great extent not pierce the wall, but goes over it. Flanking walls were from the collection of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society. added to command this entrance, and the whole scheme The exhibit included specimens of Celtic, pre-Roman, and of defence proves that archery was the only arm employed. Roman skulls, while one series showed the great change Some sixty years later a wall of limestone was built out. in head for which took place in York after the Norman
side the bank, There seems little doubt that the place conquest. Some of the Roman skulls had a sentimental is Avaris, and the account in Manetho's chronicle agrers interest, as they were from coffins unearthed in York and with the arrangement of this site. The people appear to the names and ages of the persons were known.
have been Semites from Syria and Mesopotamia. Other A paper by Messrs. H. Brodrick and C. A. Hill on a work resulted in the discovery of the city of Raanises, recently discovered skeleton in Sooska cave was then read. built by the Israelites, and of the town and temple of The bones, which all belong to one individual, were found Onias, under whom the Jews founded a settlement in the under a layer of stalagmite. The skeleton is that of a
second century B.C. female Celt, and the skull is brachycephalic. Above the
The work of the section concluded on Wednesday mornright mastoid process is an irregularly shaped hole, ing, August 8. Mr. J. L. Myres read a paper on early evidently the cause of death. The height appears to have
traces of human types in the Ægean. The population of been about 5 feet 3 inches.
the Ægean area as far back as the beginning of the Bronze Mr. J. R. Mortimer communicated a paper on the relative age, before which there is no evidence, was not a purely stature of the men with long heads, short heads, and
Mediterranean type of dolichocephalic man, as brachy. those with intermediate heads in the museum at Driffield. cephalic individuals occur sporadically over the whole disSome doubt was thrown on the correctness of the figures, trict. Ægean culture, therefore, cannot be the exclusive but if correct the paper was most important, as it entirely production of " Mediterranean" man. This evidence for reversed the accepted theories as to the height of the brachycephalic types in the Ægean, when compared with Neolithic peoples of Britain, showing that the long-headed
the evidence as to the existence of a very pure brachy. Neolithic man was taller than the broad-headed Neolithic cephalic race in the Balkan and Anatolian highlands, makes and Bronze age man.
it probable that these latter people were established in these Mr. J. Gray read a paper on England before the English, highlands at least as early as the beginning of the Egean in which, after stating the present condition of our know
Bronze age, and were in competition with dolichocephalic ledge of the subject, he argued that Neolithic man corre
Intruders from the north cannot sponds with the present Mediterranean race, and that the have been brachycephalic, as the steppe of southern Russia Anglo-Saxons and other fair races of northern Europe are
was inhabited from Neolithic to Classical times by a a variety of Neolithic man with somewhat broader heads. dolichocephalic population. It seems improbable that the The Bronze age race, which subsequently settled in Britain, brunet dolichocephalic type of the southern Ægean could was brachycephalic and tall, and came by sea from the
have arrived by a land route, owing to the presence of a eastern Mediterranean and Asia Minor.
brachycephalic type in the Balkan and Anatolian highAt the conclusion of the papers Dr. W. Wright opened lands, while its brunetness precludes affiliation to the dolithe discussion on the physical characters of the races of chocephalic peoples of the north. This type, therefore, Britain. After quoting Cæsar to show that the coastal must be considered an immigration by sea from North area was occupied by the Belgic Gauls and the interior Africa, and its littoral habits are a strong argument in by another race, he argued that all the evidence pointed favour of this view. to the fact that a mixed race came to Britain in Neolithic Dr. T. Ashby, jun., and Mr. D. Mackenzie commun times, and that the population was not a pure broad- or a cated a paper on the ethnology of Sardinia. pure long-headed one.
Two papers were then read by Dr. W. H. R. Rivers. Dr. Shrubsall urged the necessity of knowing exactly The first, entitled “ A Survival of Two-fold Origin," dealt where skulls were found, considering that as careful with the relation between a man and his inaternal uncle evidence was required as in geology. He thought it a This connection, although in most races a survival from mistake to deal only with the length and breadth of the mother-right, in India originates, in many cases, in the skull, and felt that the proportions of the face were just regulation that the children of a brother and sister should as important. Also all work required revision on biometric marry one another. This involves that a man's material lines. As to coloration, which was very important, he uncle is also his actual or potential father-in-law. pointed out that the Anglo-Saxons never called the Welsh practice is now chiefly confined to the southern parts of dark, and felt that it was by no means certain that the India. Britons were a dark people. He also considered it quite Dr. Rivers's other paper dealt with the astronomy oi thr possible that there was a Teutonic element in the popula- | islanders of the Torres Straits, who group together many tion before Roman times.
stars in constellations, which often represent mythical Prof. Ridgeway insisted that all classical references persons. In Murray Island private property was found in speak of the Celts as a fair or rufous and tall race, and stars, two stars being the property of two men who had considered that there was no evidence of a pre-Celtic inherited them from their ancestors. language in Britain.
Two physical papers
communicated by Dr. Mr. J. L. Myres urged Prof. Rhys's view as to there W. L. H. Duckworth. The first directed attention to a being a non-Aryan structure in Welsh and Irish, and also rare anomaly in human crania from Kwaiawata Island, protested against the practice of arbitrarily drawing con- New Guinea, the anomaly consisting in the presence clusions from skull measurements.
small but sharp spicular projections of bone springing Prof. Petrie considered that a prima facie case had been from the margin of the nose due to a bony deposit formed made out for an invasion of Britain, even in pre-Brythonic in fibrous bands, which in all cases exist in a correspondtimes, by a mixed race, but felt that much more material ing situation. Dr. Duckworth's other paper was was needed before any definite conclusions could be drawn. chronicle of observations made on a "eunuchoid " subja
Dr. C. S. Myers threw doubt the ' Crania in the Anatomy School, Cambridge. Britannica " records as perhaps affected by the collection The last paper presented was å demonstration of photoof type skulls, and Mr. H. Fleure gave some account of graphs of racial types by Mr. T. E. Smurthwaite. Mr. the anthropometric work at present in progress in Wales. Smurthwaite has evolved a new classification of the raras
The general conclusion to be drawn from the discussion i of man from observations of the contours of the head and was that it is of paramount importance that the existing face, and he resolves all the races into six common types, material should be revised by improved methods, and that Three important reports were taken as read, namely a better comparison with Continental data is essential. that of the committee to conduct anthropometric investi
gations among the native troops of the Egyptian Army, to The metallurgical laboratory of the Technical High which was added some observations on nasal and cephalic School, Charlottenburg, is to be divided into two sections, indices in Egypt by Dr. C. S. Myers; that of the com- the one, especially for iron and steel, to be under Prof. mittee to conduct anthropometric observations in the British Mathesius, and the other, for the metallurgy of other Isles, which issued in its report a series of photographs metals, under Prof. Doeltz. Near the technical chemistry and diagrams of the living figure with the points, between institute of the same high school a chemical museum has which dimensions are to be measured, marked; and that been provided and placed in the charge of Prof. O. N. of the committee to collect anthropological photographs, Witt. which issued a first list of photographs registered.
PROF. EDUARD Suess, president of the Vienna Academy of Sciences, celebrated his seventy-fifth birthday on
August 20, and also the fiftieth anniversary of his appointMI. LIPPMANN'S METHOD OF PHOTO- ment as extraordinary professor of palæontology in the GRAPHY IN COLOUR.
University of Vienna. Prof. E. Ludwig, the holder of the THE original method of photography in colour proposed
chair of medical chemistry in the same university, has been by M. G. Lippinann was based on the production of
elected an ordinary member, and Prof. J. Herzig, professor interference fringes in the photographic plate, and had the
of chemistry, a corresponding member, of the Vienna disadvantages of requiring very delicate adjustments and a
Academy of Sciences. long exposure. In the Comptes rendus for July 30 M. The issue of Science for August 17 gives particulars as Lippmann gives an account of a method in which long to the degrees of Doctor of Philosophy and Doctor of exposures not required. Consider a photographic Science conferred during the past year by American unispectroscope consisting of a slit, a prism, a lens, and a versities. The number of students receiving one or other sensitised plate. The light falling on the slit is analysed of the degrees in 1906 was the same as in 1905, viz. 325, by the prism, and the rays produce a corresponding number while the total number of doctorates (in philosophy or of dark lines on the negative, each of which is a conjugate science) conferred in nine years was 2387. The names of image of the slit. If a positive is taken from this negative, those on whom the degrees were conferred, the subjects of and the former placed in the exact position originally their theses, and the names of the institutions conferring occupied by the latter, the system is reversible. If the the degrees are given in the number. plate is now illuminated by white light, the light passing
In connection with the meeting in Canada of the British through the transparent portion of the plate formed by any
Medical Association, the honorary degree of LL.D. has particular line will produce at the slit only that ray which
been conferred by the University of Toronto upon the originally imprinted the negative. On the whole spectrum, the net result will be to reconstitute at the slit the original | Dr. A. H. Freeland Barbour, Sir Thomas Barlow, Bart.,
following medical men :-Prof. T. Clifford Allbutt, F.R.S., colour. In order to apply this principle to photography in
Sir James Barr, Sir William Broadbent, Bart., F.R.S., colours, the following apparatus has been arranged. The
Prof. G. Cooper Franklin, Prof. W. D. Halliburton, single slit of the spectroscope is replaced by a series of
F.R.S., Sir Victor Horsley, F.R.S., Dr. Donald MacAlister, slits very close together, consisting of fine transparent lines
Dr. W. Julius Mickle, Dr. Louis Lapicque, Paris, Dr. ruled five to the millimetre. This grating is fixed at one end of a solidly built box, the other end carrying the photo- of the American Medical Association.
Ludwig Aachoff, Marburg, and Dr. W. J. Mayo, president
The degree was graphic plate, and between these is a converging lens, in
also conferred in absentia upon Dr. H. W. Langley front of which is a prism of very small angle. The object Browne, chairman of the British Medical Council. The to be reproduced is projected on the grating, illuminated with white light. The light passing through the prism Thomas Barlow, Bart., Sir William Broadbent, Bart.,
same degree is also to be conferred in absentia on Sir and lens falls on the sensitive plate producing a negative F.R.S., Prof. T. Clifford Allbutt, F.R.S., and Sir Victor in black and white, which under the lens appears lined,
Horsley, F.R.S., by the McGill University, Montreal. each line being divided into small zones, which are parts of an elementary spectrum. If the negative be now re
In the last of six lectures on British institutions, de
livered placed in its original position and illuminated by white
to students attending the University Extension light, the eye being placed at the distance of distinct summer meeting at Cambridge, Prof. Masterman dealt vision from the grating, the image of the object photo
with education. He said we are just at the beginning of graphed is seen in colours, these colours being comple- a systematisation of our secondary education as an attempt mentary to those of the object; the latter appears in its to complete the ladder for brilliant pupils from the own proper colours when the negative is replaced by a elementary school to the university. There is a danger, positive. The spectrum of the electric light has been pro- he said, that the majority of children unable to climb such duced with this apparatus by the aid of a positive in its a ladder may be neglected. Prof. Masterman thinks that natural colours. It is necessary that the angle of the the next two towns to obtain a university charter will be prism used should be so small that the leng of each Bristol. and Newcastle. The new universities are largely spectrum produced by it should be less than the length be- dependent on the subsidies of municipal authorities. In tween each line, otherwise the spectra interfere with each this the lecturer sees the danger, and he does not speak other. Ordinary sensitive orthochromatic plates can be
without knowledge, that the universities will be hampered used, and the exposure required is very much less than from the higher education point of view by the entirely with the interference method. The chief drawback at
inadmissible conditions of the municipal authorities. The present is the necessity of using the identical apparatus
men who provide the money may claim to control the in which the exposure is made to view the colours, but expenditure of it and disregard the opinions of experts. M. Lippmann suggests a method by which this difficulty
That can only be averted by a large subsidy paid from the may possibly be overcome.
central authority. He urged that universities ought to receive greater assistance from the State.
SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.
Royal Society, Mav 10.—“The Action of Anästhetics CAMBRIDGE.-The Frank Smart studentship in botany has been awarded to Mr. D. Thoday, of Trinity College. The
on Living Tissues. Part II.-The Frog's Skin." Ву
N. H. Alcock. studentship is held at Gonville and Caius College.
This paper is a continuation of researches made on ENGINEER F. R. EICHHOFF has been appointed professor and the phenomena here described are to be considered in
isolated nerve (Proc. Roy. Soc., B, vol. lxxvii., p. 267), of irony metallurgy in the Berlin Mining School.
connection with them. A MOVEMENT is on foot for the foundation in the Glasgow The experiments may be summarised as follows :Agricultural College of a bursary, to be known as
(1) CHCl, vapour locally applied to the outer surface of Biggar Bursary," in memory of the late Mr. James Biggar. the frog's skin abolishes the normal ingoing resting current.