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ance" is very rare, except for this or that committee; The addresses of 1902 and 1905 deal mainly with and the neophyte of science who, led by some special scientific education. Many wise words are said in guest, enters with bated breath within its doors, finds them, but so much has been and is still being said ample rooms held in a solemn silence broken only by about scientific education that nothing need be added the scratching of the pens or the guarded tread of the here except perhaps to express regret that the officials, and goes away chilled with the rarefied air manifesto of the council of 1904, a sequel to the of the higher realms of science. He meets with a address of 1902, should have produced so little good. warmer, more congenial atmosphere in his own : It seems to have served chiefly as an instrument in "special society."

the hands of those upholding the old ways, a result The presidential address of 1903 makes it clear, on partly, perhaps, due to the fact that the statement of the one hand, that the special societies ought to a body consisting of a number of men of diverging exist, to prosper, and even to multiply, and, on the views was naturally purged from all strong words, other hand, that the attempt to establish formal rela- and took the form of a chain of mild platitudes. tions between them and the Royal Society would The address of 1904 deals with the difficult question

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probably fail to secure any really useful results. But of the relation of the Royal Society to the State. The might not much be done in an informal way? If the late president in that address gives an account of the society could put on a less solemn, more genial face, many great unpaid services which the society has if it could make its fellous feel that it belonged to rendered, and continues to render, to the State. On them rather than that they belonged to it, if it could the one hand, it seems most unjust that men of make it clear that it was really the central home for science, whose wrestling against poverty is in most all the sciences, that it was anxious to advance cases as strenuous as their wrestling for truth, should natural knowledge by placing its great resources give their time and labour to the State without any freely at the command, not only of the chosen few remuneration whatever. Had the society been rewho happen to be its present fellows, but of the great warded for what it has done for His Majesty's many whose work is pushing science on, it would be Government in the way lawyers are rewarded for weaving bonds binding to it the younger 'men and what they do for it, the society would by this time the special societies, in a way no written treaties with have böen rolling in wealth. But it receives from the claborate compromises could ever bind them.

State absolutely nothing beyond the use of the rooms

in Burlington House, and that portion of the roool. cannot be told with certainty for many years to come, grant for scientific publications which it allots to its when the Government who asked that it might be own printed output.

done and the man who did it have both long passed On the other hand, while thus giving freely that away. If a Government could realise this, and be which it cannot afford to give, it keeps untouched its prepared to spend its money, without immediate own freedom; and this is very precious to it. As the vouchers, feeling sure that in the long run the money late president points out in the address in question, the would be well and profitably spent, State aid to science purpose of the society is to advance natural know- would not be so hard a problem. ledge, and this it does mainly through stimulating, In this interesting volume the late president has encouraging, correcting and helping research by the not only brought before a public far wider than that methods which it judges best. It is true that it which is present at the anniversary meetings and also advances natural knowledge by helping and dinners of the society a knowledge of what the advising His Majesty's Government and in many Royal Society is, is doing, and is striving to do, but other ways, but its main work is to promote also has directed their attention, in a striking and direct

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Fig. 2.--Principal Library of the Royal Society, Burlington House. From “ The Royal Society," by Sir William Huggins, K.C.B.

way, to questions—the importance of which cannot be exaggerated, touching the relations of science to the nation. We thank him for it.

individual research. For this it must have perfect freedom.

Undoubtedly were the society to receive aid from the State under conditions which would fetter its actions, the result would be injurious to scientific progress; it would probably be disastrous if those conditions took the form of making the society more or less a Department of State. But is it not possible for the State to buy science and pay for it, without making the seller a servant? The answer to this seems mainly to depend on whether the State is able to recognise that the value of scientific work cannot be appraised by ordinary business methods; the money worth of an inquiry carried out to-day

AN AMERICAN CONTRIBUTION TO ARCHÆ.

OLOGY.?
WE

E welcome this publication as fresh evidence of

the activity of archæological study and research in the United States at the present time. Nearly every American university now has its department of archæology, and the labours of its members are no

1 - Transactions of the Tepartment of Archäology. Free Museum of Srience and Art." Vol. i., Part iii. Pp. iv + 106 + 36 plaies. (l'niversity of Pennsylvania, 1905.)

reasons.

as

an

we

see

longer confined, as they were in great part until a few from their neighbours, but they never remained years ago, to the antiquities of Central America and content until these ideas had been changed and Mexico, but now extend into the wider fields of beautified to suit their own more artistic tastes.original research on Greek and Oriental sites. The We have quoted Mr. Seager's description at this present volume well illustrates this extension in the length for several

First and primarily scope of American archæology, for while in the first because of its excellence as a description of his article in the Transactions Mr. G. B. Gordon treats of important discovery; this pottery is highly remarkthe serpent motive in Mexican art, the five conclud- able, and may indeed be described as gorgeous, ing papers deal with the results of the excavations in the coloured plate showing specimens of it proves. Crete and Babylonia carried on by the American The explanation of its technique is probably correct. Exploration Society and the Babylonian Expedition of Secondly, on account of its being a good example of the University of Pennsylvania.

the way in which Greek archæologists run down the The papers of greatest interest and importance in poor Egyptians; but we will not quarrel with Mr. the volume are those dealing with the excavations at Seager on this score; he sins in good company, and, Gournià, in Crete, and on other sites on the isthmus of after all, it needs a considerable acquaintance with Hierapetra during the year 1904, which were carried Egyptian archæology before one realises that the out, as in former years (see NATURE, June 1, 1905, Egyptians were as capable of inventing new and vol. lxxii., p. 98), by Miss Harriet A. Boyd (now Mrs. original ideas as the Mycenæans. Thirdly, as Hawes) and her assistants. In the former article, example of the way in which an archæological stateabove mentioned, we described Miss Boyd's discovery ment which has long been given up as incorrect by of the little Minoan town of Gournià, its geographical the archæologists of the branch of work to which it position, and the results of the first excavations. Miss belongs may still be perpetuated by the archæologists Boyd's paper on Gournià, Miss Edith Hall's Early of another branch : the prehistoric Egyptians, whose painted Pottery from Gournia,” and Mr. R. B. pottery was discovered by de Morgan and Petrie, are Seager's " Excavations at Vasiliki,” published in the not known to have been Libyans, nor can their pottery present volume of Transactions, enable us to bring be called “Libyan.” We know nothing of the the story of the American work in Crete up to date. Libyans of 5000 B.C.; the pre-dynastic Egyptians can

The chief result has been the discovery of some only be called Egyptians. We may note in passing entirely new styles of pottery of very early date. also that it is more probable that the resemblance Those who know what a great part the classification of early Ægean

Ægean to' early Egyptian pottery is of pottery takes in early Greek archæology will appre- due to a possible common origin of their civilisciate the importance of this discovery when ations than that Ægean technique was

“strongly describe the most important of the new “Mycenaan ” influenced by that of Libya (read Egypt), so early. pottery from the isthmus of Hierapetra as a polychrome Finally, we quote this passage as a warning against ware much anterior in date to the well-known misprints. Agean for “ Egean” three times in a Kamares ware (middle Minoan period of Evans), few lines is not pretty, and not far off we which was contemporary with the twelfth dynasty “Cypress ” for Cyprus (p. 216). The American printer (circa B.C. 2000) in Egypt. Miss Boyd describes it as has original ideas, and often carries them out-at the ^ a remarkable new ware from Vasiliki, with Trojan author's expense. shapes, monstrously long beaks, and decoration in Another unusual ware of early date was found at black and red, mottled, with highly hand-polished Gournià ; its characteristic is white paint on black, surface." It is described by Mr. Seager, who dis- with geometric ornament. This ware is described by covered it in a Mycenæan settlement on the Kephala Miss Edith Hall. The most primitive ware of all, (ridge) of Vasiliki, in the Hierapetra isthmus-depres- from the rock-shelter burials at Gournià and Agia sion, two miles south of Gournià. One fragment only / Photia near by, is also interesting; it is sub-Neolithic was previously known; this was discovered at Zakro in date, and closely related to the Cycladic pottery of by Mr. Hogarth.

Thera and Imorgos, which it resembles. “ The hard red finish is perhaps the most remarkable The buildings at Vasiliki explored by Mr. Seager, in and characteristic feature of the ware. At first it which the strange new pottery was found, are remarkrecalls the Libyan ware of Dr. Petrie's Pre-dynastic able in plan and construction, and the description of race ... the body-colour is usually a red shading to the difficulties of excavating them is interesting. The orange, and the patches black to bronze green, owing rooms are filled with hard plaster, the presence of which to the different degrees of heat to which it has been is explained by Mr. Seager as follows. The ceilings exposed. Exactly how this effect was produced has

made of

covered with heavy clay not vet been satisfactorily explained, but possibly the plaster, and these were supported by transverse beams. vases were covered with paint and then put into a “When the beams gave way, the ceiling sank into bed of coals (sic) which were heaped over them, the the rooms below, making a layer of débris about fifty black patches being the effect of a live coal lying i centimetres and sometimes more in thickness. actually against the surface of the vase. This would This débris, owing to the action of fire and water, be only a variation of the method used in firing the has become an almost petrified mass on which the Pre-dynastic Libyan ware, where the necks, which picks of the men made but slight impression. Certain were in actual contact with the coal, have burnt to a rooms had to be abandoned on this account, as little black. Very possibly this technique may have been short of actual blasting would have been required to strongly influenced by that of Libya, but with his clear them. ... Is in Gournià, and, in fact, most characteristic ingenuity the Agean (sic) potter, not of the prehistoric settlements in Crete, the building content with the set form and colouring of the Libyan seems to have been destroyed by fire.

It is plain ware, experimented with the method until he produced that the building must have possessed several stories, this varied and at times gorgeous effect. The as the mass of débris which fits the rooms is far too greatest charm of the prehistoric ware of the Agean deep to have been the result of the collapse of a single is that the potters never allowed themselves to remain floor." Mr. Seager tells us that when, “as was often long tied down by a tradition of style and were con- the case," the clav plaster “had fallen on a deposit of stantly inventing new and original ideas of which the pottery or pottery from the upper rooms had fallen Egyptian workman seems never to have been capable. in with it, the objects were as fresh as on the day of The Agean peoples were always ready to receive ideas

th" catastrophe which destroyed the vuilding, but it

9

were

canes

time ago

required the greatest skill and patience to save them mittee would wish is to discourage the prosecuunbroken, and in some cases to save an unusually tion of observations, but they feel bound to express fine piece it was necessary to sacrifice inferior ones the opinion that no great advance of our present Surrounding it." A short

1 visited knowledge of the subject seems likely to be made Vasiliki myself under the guidance of Mr. Seager, until new methods are applied. What they should and can testify to the great interest of his work be it is impossible to suggest, but those used at there. The plaster-filled houses are remarkable.

present appear to have reached their limit." In this May it not be possible that this hard stuff, which mature opinion the present writer fully concurs. makes the excavation of the houses at Vasiliki The report under notice is not lacking in interest, so difficult, can be expiained in a manner different but it does not add anything material to our knowfrom that adopted by Mr. Seager? At Phaistos the ledge; indeed, several years' observations will be older palace (Middle Minoan or Kamúres period) was necessary before conclusions of permanent valur, partly razed, and the remains filled up and covered though possibly not advancing what is already with a layer of hard beton or cement, as hard as that known, can be expected. By premature publication of Vasiliki, on which the Late Minoan palace was much harın may be done, and it is to be feared that built. I would suggest that the plaster of Vasiliki writers will arise and tell us, on the strength of this may be in reality a cement filling-up, on which later report, that, among other things, whinchats, red. houses were built. There are certainly two or three starts, whitethroats, reed warblers, cuckoos, and other distinct superimposed “ towns" at Vasiliki. Mr. species do not arrive on the western section of the Seager is now proceeding with the work at Vasiliki south coast, when further investigations by the comalone, as Mrs. Hawes (Miss Boyd) has not visited mittee will prove that they do. It is certainly surCrete this rear.

prising to find the new committee instituting a comThus Miss Boyd's Mycenæan Pompeii still continues parison between the weather conditions prevailing in to be interesting, and we hope that she will be enabled the English Channel and the arrival of birds on its to go on with her work in Crete. Miss Boyd's is the shores (of course with abortive results), for it was most important archæological work connected with hoped that it had been clearly proved by exhaustive the University of Pennsylvania, and we hope that the investigations that the meteorological conditions inauthorities of that institution adequately recognise fluencing such movements must be sought in the area this fact.

H. R. HALL. whence the migrants took their departure.

In conclusion, one is tempted to suggest that it

would be well if the members of the committee of the THE IMMIGRATION OF SUMMER BIRDS. British Ornithologists' Club, before proceeding further

with their arduous labours, took stock of the situation. THO

HOUGH great advance in our knowledge has been made during recent years concerning the advantageously directed to more useful and productive

and asked themselves if their energies might not be migration of birds as observed in our islands, yet much remains to be learned, and any inquiry' that branches of the subject they have at heart. will add to what is already known must be hailed with satisfaction. In what direction and by what methods such advancement is to be sought are ques

NOTES. tions requiring not only careful consideration, but

Prof. I. P. PAVLOFF, professor of physiology in the Unia full knowledge of what has already been accom

versity of St. Petersburg, will deliver the luxley lecture plished. In electing to investigate the immigration of

at the Charing Cross Hospital Medical School on Monday,

October 1. summer birds, the committee appointed by the British Ornithologists' Club has selected the best known of

Prof. Emil Fischer, professor of chemistry in the all the phases in the phenomenon. It is true that a

University of Berlin, has been elected a foreign member of special feature has been added in the endeavour to trace the movements of the migrants through the

the Royal Society of New South Wales. country after their arrival on our shores, but it is

AN Irish International Exhibition will be opened in much to be doubted whether the results will contribute

Dublin in May next. It will be the first exhibition of its anything of material importance or at all commensurate with the labour involved. On the other hand,

kind to be held in Ireland for nearly forty years. our knowledge of the autumnal departure movements, The Italian Electrotechnical Association will meet in both from their inland nesting haunts and from our shores, of these same birds is far from complete.

Milan on September 30, when visits will be paid to various The new committee labours under a misapprehension factories in the neighbourhood and the hydro-electrical inin supposing that the south was entirely stallations which have been recently constructed. omitted from the scope of the British Association committee's inquiry, for part of both the eastern and

The Right Hon. Sir John Eldon Gorst has been appointed western sections were scheduled annually. Moreover, special commissioner to represent His Majesty's Governthe migratory movements on the whole of that coast,

at the New Zealand International Exhibition, the for both spring and autumn, were afterwards fully opening of which is to take place on November i next. investigated for three years, and the results incor

We regret to have to record the death of Proi. W. B porated in the later reports submitted to the Association. .

Dwight, who occupied the chair of natural history in Then as to methods. It may be well, perhaps,

Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N.Y. Prof. Dwight was in to remind the committee of the opinions, original member of the Geological Society of America, and based

on
long experience, expressed by Prof.

interested himself for many years in the Palæozoic remise Newton and his colleagues in their final report to

of Wappinger Valley and others in the neighbourhond!" the Southport meeting of the British Association Poughkeepsie. They say, " the last thing your com

The programme of the prize subjects of the Industr al 1 "Report on the Immigrations of Summer Residents in the Spring of 1905." By the Committee appointed by the British Ornithologists' Club.

Society of Mulhouse for the competition closing in 1007 huis (London : Witherby and Co., 1906 )

I just been issued. Little change has been made in the prin

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in 1903

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gramme of 1906, a résumé of which was given in NATURE by Mr. A. Thompson; practical problems of machine (vol. lxxiii., p. 164). The competition is open

to all

mining, by Mr. S. Mavor ; the strength of brazed joints in nationalities.

steel wires, by Prof. H. Louis; by-product coke and Reuter telegram received at Copenhagen from Nome,

Huessener by-product coke ovens, by Dr. J. A. Roelofsen ;

considerations on deep mining, by Mr. George Farmer ; the Alaska, on September 3, announces that the Gjoa, the

education of mining engineers, by Prof. J. W. Gregory; vessel of the Norwegian Polar Expedition, has arrived there, having completed the navigation of the North-West

the capacity current and its effect on leakage indications Passage in a westerly direction. The expedition sailed in

on three-phase electrical power service, by Mr. S. F. May, 1903, in charge of Captain Amundsen, and letters

Walker ; petroleum occurrences in the Orange River Colony, recording observations made in the neighbourhood of the

by Mr. A. R. Sawyer ; and development of placer gold north magnetic pole were summarised in VATURE of

mining in the Klondike district, Canada, by Mr. J. B.

Tyrrell. November 16, 1905 (vol. lxxiii., p. 59).

ACCORDING to a recent report of the United States Consul During the past few days the following earthquake at Brussels, a laboratory museum of electricity in that shocks have been recorded in the daily papers :- town will be opened to the public in October nest. The August 29.—A violent earthquake was felt at Tacna and museum has been built and equipped by Mr. R. GoldArica, and followed by sixteen further shocks. schmidt, of Brussels, whose object in presenting the August 30.--Bodö, Norway. A violent earthquake shock museum is the development and extension of the use and was felt at midnight. August 31.—An earthquake shock application of electricity in Belgium by practical experilusting two seconds was felt at San Juan at 9.45 a.m. mental instruction. The institution will contain all kinds September 2.- Valparaiso. Slight earthquake shocks were of electrical models and appliances, which may be freely again felt.

handled for study and experiment. Models and apparatus.

will be conveniently placed at the disposal of the public HERR O. WENTZKI, of Frankfurt a. M., has been

upon separate tables, and may be connected with the electric awarded the 300-marks prize of the Berufsgenossenschaft supply at will. The museum is divided into four large der chemischen Industrie for the discovery of the best

rooms, one of which will be devoted to machines serving means of purifying hydrogen which contains arsenic.

to produce phenomena due to magnetism and to electricity According to Wentzki's method, the impure gas is led up

and chemical reaction ; another room will be given up to into a cylinder containing two parts of dry calcium chloride

the demonstration of electrical laws. A circular gallery to one part of moist sand or other similarly indifferent round the room is designated as the second hall; here will substance, the bottom end of the cylinder being made of

be found machines of all sorts, lamps, bells, agricultural wire gauze of fine mesh ; the capacity of the cylinder should

and dairy implements, conveniently exhibited, which may be about one-third that of the hydrogen generator.

be worked by simply adjusting the electric appliances supThe opening session of the International Congress on

plied to each table. There will also be free telegraph, Methods of Testing was held in the Palais des Académies,

wireless telegraph and telephone offices. The third hall Brussels, on September 3, under the presidency of Mr.

is subdivided into reading-rooms, where the latest scientific F. Berger (Vienna). Five hundred members were present publications will be displayed. In the fourth hall will be froin righteen different countries. Addresses of welcome

found all kinds of large motors, dynamos, &c., with which w're delivered by Count de Smet de Naeyer, the Belgian

the public are at liberty to study and experiment. Prime Minister, and by Mr. H. Raemarckers, Secretary Tue ancient town of Nuremberg appears to be one of of the Department of Railways. In address was then the most popular places for the annual meetings of many given by Prof. F. Schüle (Zurich) in memory of the de- ' German scientific and technical societies; for example, Iparid president, Ludwig von Tetmejer. A report on the mention may be made of the twenty-ninth Hauptversammwork of the executive council since the last congress was lung des Vereins Wahrung der Interessen der Lorpsented by Mr. Berger, and interesting papers on the chemischen Industrie Deutschlands, September 20-22 ; the iron and steel industry of Belgium and on the Belgian third Hauptversammlung of the Verband konditionierender erment industry were read by Baron E. de Laveleve and Ipotheker für das deutsche Reich, September 1 and 2 ; the Vr. E. Camerman. The mornings of September 4, 5, and Verband deutscher Gewerbevereine, September 9-12; the b) were devoted to the work of the sections and the after

seventeenth deutsche Mechanikertag, Jugust 17 and 18. to excursions. Excursions to the works of the

Ouier meeting places and times fixed for this year's meetCuckerill Company at Seraing and to Ostend have been

ings of foreign societies, &c., include :- - the international Arranged for September 7, 8, and 9. The congress is held

congress for cork manufacturers at Eisenach, September 1; under the patronage of the King of the Belgians, who on

the conference of pharmaceutical faculties (founded in 1900 September 2 received the members of council.

for the furthering of pharmaceutical instruction in America) Tur agenda programme of the seventeenth annual general at Indianapolis, September 5; the eighth general meeting preting of the Institution of Mining Engineers has just of the Internationaler Verein der Lederindustrie-chemiker heen issued. The meeting will take place at Hanley from in Frankfurt a. M., September 17-20; the International September 12-14, and the following papers will be read Tuberculosis Conference, Amsterdam, September (-8; the of taken as read :--The Courrières explosion, by Messrs. Orzagos Iparegyesület (a national industrial society), W. N. Atkinson and A. M. Henshaw; gypsum, with special | Budapest, October 20-22 (a congress to consider questions reference to the deposits of the Dove Valley, by Mr. T. connected with the acetylene industry); the fifth HauptverI rafford Wynne. The following papers will be open for sammlung des deutschen Medizinalbeamtenvereins, Stuttdiscussion : - Commercial possibilities of electric winding for gart, September 13; the Hauptversammlung des Verbandes main shafts and auxiliary work, by Nr. 11. C. Mountain ; selbständiger öffentlicher chemiker in Dessau, September electrically driven air-compressors combined with the work- 23-25; and the fourth delegates' meeting for the Inter. ing of Ingersoll-Sergeant heading machines, and the sub- national Union for the Protection of Workmen's Interests, saquent working of the Busty Seam at Ouston Colliery, Geneva, September 26–29.

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