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The society regrets that owing to unavoidable hindrances by which he initiated his scientific career. But we cannot many undertakings had to be abandoned. About six pages omit to point out the work which he carried out from are devoted to the exploration conducted by Mr. d. V. 1878 to 1890, for the most part in conjunction with Prof. Zhuravsky of the Bolshezemelsky tundra, starting from the G. D. Liveing, of Cambridge, which work undoubtedly forms Petshora, and including the river Adzva, the lashutkin part of the finest that has yet been produced in the field lakes, and the Adak ridge. Samoyed natives assisted as of spectrometry. This work is set out in about fifty short guides. As a result, some important local points were notices free from all preconceived ideas and admirable in made clear, collections of flora and water fauna, molluscs, their experimental genius, enriched with data meriting the and spiders were made, besides a herbarium, map of the highest attention and universally accepted, and fertile in lakes and rivers, photographs, meteorological report, and their theoretic bearing and scope. Dewar and Liveing statistics of the native population—which is in danger of were the first to investigate the phenomena of inversion in dying out--were collected. In the Proceedings of the many elements; afterwards they studied the influence of society, vol. xli., part jii., 1905, Mr. A. Rudneff contributes temperature on the spectra of the same elements, and the a preliminary report of this expedition, with illustrations. way in which these spectra were modified by the presence This region has only been traversed twice previously, by of other elements. Extremely interesting are their reMr. William Gourdon, of Hull (1614-1615), who left a searches regarding the various spectra of carbon and its diary, and by Herr A. Schrenk (1837), author of an account compounds, and in relation to the phenomena of synthesis of travel in north-eastern European Russia. Mr. A. V. manifested in the electric arc. They, moreover, furnished Zhuravsky's letter to the secretary, in which he relates his the first exact determinations of the ultra-violet spectral activities and mentions the establishment of a zoological region, assigning with the utmost care the wave-lengths station at Ustzilma, appears in vol. xli., part iv.
for a fair number of elements. Mr. A. A. Makarenko made an ethnographical expedition Various other problems made evident Dewar's extrato the Yenesei government, and collected songs and in ordinary experimental ability, and his world-wide fame formation on local medicine. Other important explorations was secured by the problem, more than any other, of in Turkestan and the southern steppes are reported. Con- obtaining extremely low temperatures, to which he has censed reports of the ethnographical and other sections, indefatigably and courageously devoted himself for more financial statements, publications issued and received, and than twenty years, with the satisfaction of seeing his miscellaneous notes complete the volume.
labours crowned by the liquefaction and solidification of
hydrogen, which allowed him to study the chemical and The Russians have accumulated vast
of physical properties of gases formerly held to be irreducible, material with regard to the customs and literature of the when they have changed their state of aggregation. Turks and Tartars, the results of researches in fields prac- Having ingeniously contrived means for rendering intically inaccessible to Western scholars.
considerable the losses by evaporation of these new and The Story of Yedigei and Toktamysh,” edited by Prof. highly volatile liquids, and thus for preserving them for P. M. Melioransky, consists of a preface, glossary, and
a length of time in large quantities, he turned this to able Tearly forty pages of Kirghiz text (in Arabic characters) account in order to investigate the very varied phenomena of an old tradition concerning some of the leading members
which took place at their boiling temperatures, low in of the famous Golden Horde, temp. later fourteenth and themselves, and still further lowered by expansion. earlier fifteenth century. Khan Toktamysh, after the defeat
Most extensive is the field covered by Dewar in his of the Khan Mamai at Kulikovo-polie by the Grand Duke
studies of this kind : variations of density and cohesion, Dmitri Donskoi, in the following year attacked and burned chemical and photographic actions, phosphorescence and Moscow. Yedigei was a specially distinguished emir under radio-activity, optical properties, thermoelectricity, electric Toktamysh, and, according to the story, was the son of
conductivity and inductivity, and magnetic susceptibility. a holy man, Hodzha Amet, and a mysterious, aqueous
It would take too long to enumerate here the important hring with a goat's feet and a transparent body, upon whom
and partly unexpected results obtained by him, and indeed her husband does not gaze when she removes a garment
it is superfluous, as they are present in the minds of all. for fear she should wish to leave him. Timour or Tamer
Let rather restrict ourselves to accompanying the line, styled in the story Sa' Temiru, revered the memory
Matteucci medal, which we award him, by the wish that of the Hodzha and protected his son. From being a
from the 13', which he has already reached, he may descend follower of Toktamysh, Yedigei induces Timour to make
still further downwards towards absolute zero, and succeed war on him, and is credited with a similar judgment to that
in liquefying even helium. of Solomon in a parallel case of maternal controversy.
The tradition exists among the Nogai, Kirghiz, and Siberian Tartars in varied form. We are not in a position
PRACTICAL METEOROLOGY. to criticise the text of the poem, and the learned editor THE Meteorological Committee has issued its first report,
vast wealth of Tartar tradition still to be for the year ended March 31, 1906. In compliance collected and arranged for publication.
with the desire expressed by H.M. Treasury, the work of the office proceeds generally on the lines hitherto followed,
and the committee record " their appreciation of the THE LATTEICCI VEDAL.
services rendered in the administration of the office by THE Italian Society of Sciences known as the Society
Sir R. Strachey, the chairman of the council for twentyof the Forty has awarded the Matteucci medal for
two years,” and by other members. An important addition 1400 to Sir James Dewar in recognition of his scientific has been made by participation in the investigation of the work. In presenting the report upon the award, the com
upper air by means of kites. It is also proposed, if pracpuittee of the society, consisting of Profs. P. Blaserna,
ticable, to make use of unmanned balloons, and to render 4. Righi, and A. Roiti, referred to Sir James Dewar's the service more effective by cooperating with the repre"searches in the following terms :
sentatives of other bodies concerned in the work. Among
some of the useful researches initiated or completed during James Dewar, born in 1842 at Kincardine-on-Forth in the past year may be mentioned (1) the study of the
sland, completed his studies and took the first steps trajectories of air in travelling storms, embodied in an in his professorial career in the University of Edinburgh; official publication entitled “ The Life-history of Surface 11873 he was appointed professor of natural philo- Air Currents”; (2) re-determination of the velocity equiwphy at Cambridge, from which post he was promoted valents of the Beaufort scale of wind force; (3) connection Irrian professor in the Royal İnstitution in London, between the yield of wheat in eastern England and the **tu-pe he is likewise director of the laboratory founded in rainfall of the previous autumn; and (4) possible relation+ story of Davy and Faraday.
ship between exceptional strength of the south-east trade We shall not pause to enumerate all the contributions wind at St. Helena and exceptional rainfall in England. shih he rendered to the knowledge of aromatic com- Reference to these investigations has already been made mands, nor the other important investigations in chemistry in our columns. We note that the payment hitherto made Su, it is explained, is a form of the word Tsar (Cxar).
to Dr. Buchan, as inspector of stations in Scotland, is to
be continued for the time being in consideration of his scientific treatment of the subject and the spread of the important work in connection with the discussion of the geographical spirit among the people at large. The results obtained at the Ben Nevis observatories. The com- address was therefore unusually valuable from the point of plete or partial success of the weather predictions was very view of all who are interested in the present position and satisfactory during the year in question, e.g. harvest fore- future of the subject, both as an item in the educational casts, 89 per cent.; forecasts appearing in morning news. curriculum of the country and as a study of undeniable papers, 88 per cent. ; in both cases the best results were importance to the general welfare of the nation. obtained in eastern and southern England. The number of There was a particular fitness laying stress on this storm-warning telegrams justified by subsequent gales or side of the question from the fact that, twenty-five year strong winds was 88.4 per cent. The committee points out ago, as Sir George Goldie pointed out, a true conception that the service of storm warnings, which is extremely of the functions and scope of geography was confoed te difficult on account of meteorological reasons, is aggravated a very limited circle of specialists, so that the progress 30 by the frequent impossibility of getting telegrams delivered far inade may be said to belong exclusively to the period on the day of issue when dispatched in the evening or on under review. The investigation undertaken by the Rora. Sundays, and it proposes to give this serious matter Geographical Society, which was undoubtedly the startfurther consideration in the current year. The ordinary ing point of any success since achieved, was, in fact work of the marine and land branches has been much set in motion a few years after the previous York meer: augmented by the reduction and tabulation of the observ- of the association. The report issued by the society as a ations of the National Antarctic Expedition and of auxiliary result of Dr. Keltie's inquiries showed how entirely inobservations made in connection therewith, both at sea and adequate were the methods of geographical tuition in thos on land, south of 30° S. latitude.
days, and the little importance, with one or two praise. We have been looking rather carefully at the last pub- worthy exceptions, attached to it in educational circles lished meteorological chart of the North Atlantic and The absurd prejudice " which, as then pointed out be Mediterranean for September, prepared by Commander one of the few more enlightened teachers, regarded the Campbell Hepworth, marine superintendent of the Meteor- subject as unworthy of the attention of first-rate men, hus ological Office; one cannot help being struck with the almost happily since been to a large extent overcome. crowded amount of information useful and interesting to Sir George Goldie aptly diagnosed the source of a seamen that it contains. Like its younger sister, the weakness as being, not the absence of the necessari raw monthly chart for the Indian Ocean, the face is chiefly material, for few countries possessed a literature of trant' occupied by roses, showing for areas of 5° of latitude by and exploration so wide and of so high a class as our 5° of longitude the frequency, direction, and average force but the paucity of men qualified to apply scientific mother' of the winds; by waved arrows, showing the direction of to this raw material, and the want of an institution wher
currents and the maximum and minimum set in a thorough training in geography might be obtained. H. twenty-four hours; and by routes recommended for steam was able to point to the large measure of success whic and sailing vessels respectively. The regions where fog is has attended the efforts of the Royal Geographical Soch most prevalent are also shown, and the icebergs most and its coadjutors to remedy these deiecis, as evidence recently observed along the Transatlantic steamer routes. in the present position of geography at Oxford and CanThe most southerly berg reported up to the early part of bridge and other of our universities. As a main cause w August was roughly in 45o N. 47° W., and the most a spread of interest in the subject among the people al easterly in 47° N. 40° W. On the back of the chart are large he assigned the marked re-awakening of the spir, given, inter alia, charts of tidal currents round the British of colonial expansion, from 1884 onwards, and held that Isles at the successive hours before and after high-water empire-building is an even greater factor than was in at Dover, and a co-tidal chart by Dr. Berghaus, with a advancing and popularising geographical knowledge." useful explanation by Sir G. H. Darwin. As we are in As regards the future, he pointed out that though the the season of West India hurricanes, indications of their popularity of a subject is by no means a test of its plats approach are explained and directions are given as to the in the ranks of science, the democratisation of geographir al most advisable steps to be taken when the centre of such ideas is a very hopeful feature, by reason of the widening a storm has been located.
of the area from which students can be drawn and men The monthly meteorological chart of the North Atlantic of genius evolved. In conclusion, he gave a by no mears for September, published by the Deutsche Seewarte, con- contemptible list of books and papers as samples of the tains, generally speaking, similar useful information to work recently produced in this country under the stimuluthat issued by the Meteorological Committee. The scale of scientific method applied to geographical study. is somewhat larger than that of the English chart, and Among the papers, discussions, and lectures which formei the wind-stars are printed in blue, the force, according to the remaining programme of the section, one by Mr. G. U the Beaufort scale, being represented by feathers on the Hope, a young American professor from the Ohio Status shafts of the arrows; altogether they form a prominent Normal College, may be first mentioned, on account of the feature of the chart. The changes in the areas of high close bearing which it had on the subject of the presidential and low barometric pressure and other weather conditions address. In a valuable and suggestive paper Prof. Hop: shown graphically are also explained concisely in the text. urged the importance of Social Geography as a subject On the back of the chart the true and magnetic bearings study which has hitherto been too much neglected. Thor for a large number of points on the coasts when two lights paper well exemplified the wide field open to the studimit or other objects are seen in line from the deck of a vessel of the new geography, and the need that it should to afford an easy method of determining the deviation of the taken up by first-rate men if it is to lead to thr more! ship's compass. There are also small charts showing the valuable results. The speaker duelt, for instance, mean isobars, isotherms, percentage of frequency of storms wide and thorough knowledge, not merely of gengraphs 17 and calms for various localities in September, and the its narrower sense, but of allied subjects such as histori annual change in the magnetic declination. These pilot | technology, and economics, which is indispensable for charts, brought as closely as possible up to the date of fruitful study of the problems of social distribution publication, are of the greatest practical value to seamen. avowal that he had himself approached the subject langels
under the inspiration of the geographical movemeni in the
country should give much encouragement to those who b,397 GEOGRIPHY 11 THE BRITISIL ASSOCIATION.
worked so strenuously in its furtherance.
A large part of two mornings was taken up wish all In his presidential address to Section E, Sir George sustained discussions, one on coast prasion, the other fru** Goldie took the more or less obvious course of review
a proposal for improved geodetic measurements in Grape ing the progress of geography during the quarter of a Britain. The formes was opened by a paper bo Vr century that had elapsed since the association last assembled Clement Reid, F.R.S., who insisted on the non in that city; but while necessarily saving something of approaching the subject with an adrquate knoclede"." the progress of exploration during that interval, he wisely
past geological events in order to gain a comprehensi passed rapidly over this side of the subject, and addressed grasp of all the factors. The erosion of our 10351 ***** himself chiefly to the wider aspects of the growth of the be studied in conjunction with the deposition of the maire!'
eroded, and when this is done we find that the process had maintained a temporary equilibrium between two bodies has not continued regularly for an indefinite period, but of water of different densities separated by an oblique line began, as now manifested, only some 3000 or 4000 years of separation. ugu.
In Neolithic times, according to evidence supplied by Two papers dealt with the economic side of geography. buried land surfaces, the sea stood 60 feet lower relatively That by Major Beacom, of the United States Legation, to the land, and on the south and east coasts of England gave a 'most interesting account of the vast irrigation prothe rising downs were separated from the coasts by a wide jects inaugurated within the past fev years by the United plain. About 4000 years ago there set in a rapid but inter- States Government, enlarging in particular upon the mittent subsidence of the land or rise of the sea, on the Colorado River as the American Nile, and the changes in completion of which the coast erosion now in operation the Colorado desert due to irrigation. Prof. L. W. Lyde began. In course of time shingle beaches and sand dunes spoke of the wheat area in central Canada, showing how Wrire formed from the eroded material, and supply the best the climatic conditions favour the growth of that crop, protection against further inroads. Much valuable alluvial especially along a line through Brandon and Battleford. land has also been formed in sheltered estuaries, so that He expressed a high opinion of the probable output of it is an important question whether the net gain from pro- wheat from this area in the immediate future, but held iective works (if existent at all) would justify the enormous that wheat growing was here eminently the work of the outlay involved. In the discussion which followed (in small farmer. which Prof. Percy Kendall, Mr. Whitaker, Mr. E. R. At the afternoon meetings illustrated lectures appealing Matthews, and others took part) the need of taking a to a more general audience than some of the above were broad view of the whole question was again and again given. Prof. W. M. Ramsay gave an instructive account emphasised, instances being given of the detrimental results of the past and present of Asiatic Turkey as influenced by of uncoordinated protective operations. Mr. Matthews, an physical conditions, tracing the fortunes of the region engineer from Bridlington, gave some instructive details through their various vicissitudes, and forecasting a proas to recent changes on the Yorkshire coast.
sperous future from the advent of railway communication. The geodetic discussion was opened by Major E. H. Major P. M. Sykes described a tour in south-east Persia, Hills, who pointed out that though the fundamental dwelling on the many interesting historical associations triangulation of these islands was excellent work for the and speaking of the ruined cities of the Narmáshir district. time at which it was done, it is now far behind the
Mr. Yule Oldham interested a large audience with an standard of modern work of its class. This is the more
account of the visit of the association to South Africa in regrettable, inasmuch as it prevents the coordination of 1905, while, lastly, Mr. Trevor-Battye showed a striking British with Continental work, although the necessary series of views illustrative of life and nature on the observations to connect the two series have actually been Zambezi above the falls, which he ascended at the close made, and such coordination is of high importance in con- of the same visit of the association. nection with questions such as the determination of the figure of the earth. All that is absolutely necessary is to connect geodetically, by as good a set of triangles as
PHYSIOLOGY AT THE BRITISH possible, the extreme points of our islands, and, were this
ASSOCIATION. done, amplitudes of 10° and no respectively would be Added to
very important geodetic lines, viz. the SEVERAL subjects of great practical importance were meridional arc through the Greenwich meridian and the
discussed at the Physiological Section of the British longitudinal arc along 52° N., which at present extend
Association; so much was this the case that the section through 18 and 57°: Major Hills's proposals were warmly proved to be the resort of larger audiences than formerly, supported by Colonel D. A. Johnston (who presided at the
and before the end of the week the building placed at the discussion), Prof. H. H. Turner, Major Close (who men
disposal of Section I was all too small for its purpose. tioned as a less ambitious scheme the measurement the
Of the discussions, none was more appropriate to York central meridian of England running north from South
than that introduced by Dr. F. Gowland Hopkins on the ampton), Colonel Hellard, director of the Ordnance Survey,
minimum proteid value in diet. This question has two and others, the small cost of the undertaking and the aspects, the physiological and the sociological ; the former srproach to British science involved in the existing state
was the subject of extended researches some time back of things being generally insisted on. At the close of the
under the guidance of Prof. Atwater and Dr. Benedict, discussion Mr. E. A. Reeves described a new form of and more recently under the very able superintendence of range-finder invented by him, which, though at present in
Prof. Chittenden at Yale. It is, however, the sociological an experimental stage only, gives promise of proving of aspect of the question which gives it an especial interest in great use in survey work as well as, possibly, for military
York, for in that city, as is very generally known, Mr. purposes.
B. Seebohm Rowntree has made a very laborious and comSeveral of the papers described the scientific results of plete investigation of the dietetic conditions which obtain recent expeditions. Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner, besides pre- amongst the poorer classes, and has convinced himself that senting the report on the general work of the Percy Sladen about one-quarter of the whole population is insufficiently Expedition in the Indian Ocean, described the Chagos
fed. The value of his research depends essentially upon Archipelago in detail, discussing the coral formations and a correct judgment as to the minimum diet upon which touching also on the life conditions, especially of the vegeta- a labouring man can perform an efficient day's work. tion. He showed that there was evidence here, as through- The sociologist is therefore dependent upon the physioout the Indo-Pacific coral-reef region, of a relative rise in logist for his fundamental data. the land-level reaching from 5 feet to 35 feet, and probably The physiological requirements of the body are due in great part to a withdrawal of water from the equator fold-requirements of matter and requirements of energy ; be the piling up of ice in the Antarctic. The atolls seem the necessary carbon and nitrogen must be provided, and is have been formed on submerged shoals by coral and they must be provided in a form which yields the nullipore growth on the edges of the latter, and the lagoons number of calories equivalent to the energy dissipated show a progressive increase in depth and area through by the human organism as work and heat. The subject solution, horing and triturating organisms, and tides. Mr. was greatly simplified by Dr. Hopkins, for he showed that R N. Rudmose Brown described the South Orkneys and as the practical outcome of a large number of researches rither localities in which scientific collections had been the energy value of the food might be almost disregarded. made by the Scottish Antarctic Expedition ; Mr. J. Parkin-" It always worked out,” he said, “ that if the nitrogenon gave an outline of the physical structure of southern value of the food was looked after the calorie-value would Nigeria--a subject on which little has hitherto been known look after itself.” Very different views obtain as to the - from observations during a mineral survey of the region minimum nitrogen value of a daily ration, and the disparity under the auspices of the Imperial Institute ; and Mr. of view has been much increased within the last five years. Lamps Murray sketched the general scientific results of the We used to think that 100 grams of proteid food per day, Chat of the Scottish lochs, discussing in particular the giving 15 grams of nitrogen, was a somewhat restricted " internal seiche" which has been brought to light, and
diet. Prof. Atwater has raised this figure considerably, *** xplained as occurring on the cessation of a gale which whilst Prof. Chittenden has reduced it. Facilities have
been given to Prof. Chittenden and his colleagues by the useful and true so long as occupation does not amount to American Government, and they have studied, not only fatigue, but its utility ends at this point. When the system themselves, but athletes in training and squads of soldiers, becomes fatigued, and this is especially true of the brain. and have constantly found that by gradually accustom- the toxic bodies produced affect unused as well as used ing these men a carbohydrate diet a condition of cells. It is futile to throw these cells, already prejudiced physical efficiency and nitrogenous equilibrium can be into activity. Such action simply adds to the amount of obtained, though with some loss of weight. As the result poisonous or toxic bodies in the circulation. This point of this gradual process the proteid might be reduced until was worked out with great clearness by Dr. Beran Lewis, only about 7 grams or 8 grams of nitrogen were excreted whose introductory address was on very different lines from daily.
that of Dr. Acland. Dr. Lewis treated the subject from Actual figures of nitrogenous output were given by Dr. a neurological, not a statistical, standpoint; be opened J. M. Hamill and Mr. E. P. Poulton; the former with with a defence of the neuron theory," now assailed from Dr. Schryver has investigated the nitrogenous output of so many quarters, and on this theory worked out a (19the workers in the physiological laboratory of University ception of the neurological basis of rest and of fatigue College, London; the latter has experimented upon an The practical outcome of his argument, as well as of De Oxford student, aet. twenty-two, while he was going Acland's, was that physical exercise was no substitute for through the ordinary routine of university life at Oxford. sleep, but that active physical exertion added to severe There was great disparity amongst their figures. The mental strain demanded a double meed oi lumber. In workers at University College varied from 8 grams to illustration of this point Dr. Acland recounted how tha! 16 grams of nitrogen daily, whilst Mr. Poulton's figure | Mr. C. B. Fry, at once a scholar and an athlete, irre was a high one.
quently slept till midday or even late in the af: ONI The low nitrogen values indicated above are of great during his school vacations, and in doing so gratite: scientific interest, but from the practical point of view they nothing more than the healthy demand of his fram were shown to be of rather academic value by Dr. Hopkins. physical and mental-for rest. He made it quite clear that the observers who had obtained (3) This discussion made clear the individual difirpeners these values for the daily nitrogen output had done so on in the depth and time of slumber ; thus day work is a un diets which were many times more expensive than those to the maximum soundness of sleep early in the night, whilat which the working classes had access. Ile showed, in fact, night workers begin their slumber by sleeping sumewhat that such food as a working man could buy must have a lightly and sleep more soundly as morning approachen. nitrogen value and a calorie value which was of the order Veurotic subjects, on the other hand, have two maxima on indicated by Voit. The point at issue, then, between Dr. their sleep curve, one in the early part of the night, whether Hopkins and Mr. Rowntree was whether the moderate in the morning ; between these there is a period of shalloe diet indicated by Voit or the more considerable one in- sleep. If any occurrence happens which causes a general dicated by Atwater was to be taken as the basis of a reduction in depth of slumber, the period or shallow sleep proper daily allowance for the working classes. Now in the middle of the night is replaced by a period ci wkrthough there is a considerable difference between these two fulness. diets it is clear that there are lines along which a solution (4) Prof. Gotch, who showed the utmost skill in weaving may be forthcoming. Three such directions were indicated the separate items of this discussion into a continuum by Dr. Hopkins :
dwelt upon the nature of dreams as an index of the wouni's (1) More searching analyses must be made into the ness of sleep. If a dream was a connected series of events nature of foodstuffs (and this point was developed by Prof. and was recollected as such after waking, it was clear that Armstrong). Maize, for instance, is particularly unsuit- the mental rest was impaired. The more coherent and the able as a staple dietary, not because it is of insufficient more realistic the dream, and the more directly it was ronnitrogen value or even of insufficient calorie value, but cerned with events in the recent past, the less restful was because a particular kind of proteid, which is necessary to the sleep in which it occurred. The quality as well as growth, is conspicuously absent from maize.
the quantity of the sleep was all-important, (2) The relative values of the various tissues as energy The sitting of Friday morning. August 3. Wie deruled transformers must be attested. This work is being carried
paper on public health. Dr. George Rric, thr on by a committee of the British Association, and its annual medical officer of health for Statsordshire, put forward a reports for the past three years have been very instructive, number of telling arguments, the result of paperiments but only the fringe of this large subject has been touched. which he had performed, in favour of changing the for
(3) Conditions of age and sex have not been thoroughly of many sewage filters. It appears that the chemiu! investigated. It seems clear that a developing individual- changes which take place in a filter of fine partides 31 say of twenty years-requires a richer diet than a completed relatively near the surface. Dr. Reid adios of twice that age.
the use of one-eighth inch particles, and of filters only about Dr. Hopkins readily conceded that the trained 4 feet deep. Such filters would be much less expensa athlete or the soldier might transform much less energy than those now in use. A detailed account of his invest than was entailed in the daily toil oi a bricklaver or a gations was recently published by the Royal Sociris. rivetter, and in view of this uncertainty we have some Dr. Hime, of Bradford, brought forward a strong ndiersympathy with Mr. Rowntree's contention that the calorie ment of the present system of reporting and isolating invalue demanded by Atwater, if acquired in the form of fectious diseases. llis data were collected from twentybad food eaten amid unappetising surrcundings, was none five large towns in the United Kingdom, and dealt with too much for a heavy day's work.
diphtheria, scarlatina, and typhoid, which taken bugether Another discussion of great interest, entitled " The formed 95 per cent of the cases reported. His glenetu! Physiological Value of 'Rest," was introduced by Dr.
argument was that the epidemics of these disease hul Theodore Duke Acland and Dr. Bevan Lewis. The former increased in virulence and number within recent years 197 dealt chiefly with the hours of rest prescribed in the large spite of the present system. The most telling fig." public schools of this country.
His views are
which he adduced were from cases where the perspitais known that it is not necessary to give them at length. had been closed to one or other of these complaints ani' The discussion was useful from several points of view, the cases sent back to their homes. On one such asi which may be briefly summarised :
more than ninety cases of scarlatina werr sent back on the (1) The necessity of obtaining scientific data concerning poor neighbourhoods of a towni. No epidemic trlboral fatigue phenomena. This matter was dealt with by several in fact, the epidemic which was prevalrot (rased at once. of the pioneers in that branch of physiology, namely, The discussion which followed Dr. Hime's paprituras psychophysics, which is rapidly springing up, and which rather upon a matter of principle. Granted that y*** bids fair to yield far-reaching results. Dr. Rivers, Prof. were in doubt concerning the present system of reptil McDougall, and Dr. Myers indicated how the question and isolating cases, was it wise to make the mal ar an might be approached on strictly scientific lines.
of public discussion? Some medical officers held that it (2) The necessity for limiting the prevalent idea that debate weakened the trust in the public autheit, recreation is a change of occupation." This dictum is introduced an element of personal option is
it should be obeyed. The view more generally taken was to be ascertained by calculation. In the course of the disthat, since the civic control was becoming daily more vested cussion much approval was expressed of the work of those in the popular vote, it was desirable for the British committees of the British Association which dealt with Association to emphasise the responsibility which rested photography as applied to geology, anthropology, and upon the public to acquaint themselves with matters con- botany. nected with the public health, and to put the most trustworthy information before them in the most open way. Amongst the more technical communications there were
THE BOMBAY LOCUST.1 two excellent ones by Drs. Nasmith and Graham, of Toronto, on the humatology of carbon monoxide poisoning, ANOTHER new venture among Indian memoirs has and by Dr. Dawson Turner on the electrical resistance of
lately been issued, and if subsequent numbers are the tissues. Both communications were the result of much
like this first instalment they will prove of great value. Mr. laborious research; their interest lay along the more strictly Maxwell-Lefroy deals in this first issue with the Bombay medical line.
locust; we prefer to call it by its popular name, for its scientific one seems in doubt. Specimens were sent by Mr. Lefroy, and have been named at the British Museum by
Mr. Kirby as Acridium rubescens, Walker, which is LOCAL SOCIETIES AT THE BRITISH apparently quite correct; but we learn from this report 1SSOCIATION.
that Mr. de Saussure assigns the Bombay locust to
Linnæus's species Acridium succinctum. In this report THIS conference was presided over by Sir Edward
the latter name is chosen as probably being most accurate, Brabrook, C.B., who fitly represented those societies which have recently been brought into relationship with right choice. It is best, therefore, as
but it is extremely doubtful if Mr. Lefroy has made the
doctors disagree,” the British Association under the title of “ Associated Societies." These comprise such local bodies as exist for
to call this pest simply the Bombay locust. the encouragement of the study of science, but are not at
The work comprises 109 pages of letterpress and thirteen present in a position 10 undertake and publish original plates, the latter being an improvement on the majority
we see from India. The report deals with investigations investigations. The chairman, in opening the proceedings, dwelt on the useful work which these modest societies
made in 1903-4, and contains an amount of useful inform
ation concerning " locust swarms. might accomplish, and suggested various ways in which
Part i. is devoted to the subject of the formation and local societies, whether belonging to the aftiliated or
movements of locust swarms. In it the author shows and the associated class, might aid those sections of the British Association in which he was specially interested, namely, explains how a swarm arises, how from grasses in which
they were concealed they entered the crops and gradually the sections of anthropology, economics, and educational
formed into swarms and moved over the country-side.' srience. Dr. II. R. Mill delivered an address on local societies village to village. Later they were shown to
Then these definite bodies of locusts could be traced from
move in and meteorology, in which he commended the study of this science as peculiarly suitable for cultivation by the corre
definite directions, migrating at nights, when their wings sponding societies. Local climate can be determined only
were constantly and suddenly seen glistening against the by a long, continuous record of local observations; and this
moon as they flew by, and as suddenly they vanished.
These swarms settled in the forest regions at last during continuity, so difficult to maintain by private observers,
November and December, and then in March and April a can be readily secured by a local society, which by its nature is, or should be, immortal. Sunshine and rainfall are two
second or outward migration was traced. After the outplements of climate which still need much further study.
ward migration the swarms were shown to break up, and
only scattered locusts could be found. A vast area of land vast body of meteorological observations in the past
thus became infested with them, but little or no damage has been absolutely useless either because the instruments
was done, for “the locusts had apparently lost the swarmused were not trustworthy or the hours of observation
ing and migrating instinct." Reproduction then set in. irregular; whilst
the observations, otherwise of value, have lost their usefulness
The summary given is as follows :through not having been dealt with by competent authori.
Winged locusts emergerl and entered crops
Oct. 1- 20. migrated
Oct. 20-Nov. 30. tirs. In the course of a discussion, Mr. E. Kitto, the
remained in forests
Dec. 1.–March 20. superintendent of the Falmouth Observatory, referred to
March 20-May 20. the special value of the magnetic records regularly issued
May 20- 6- June 10. from his station. Dr. J. R. Ashworth, of Rochdale, pleaded
reproduced and died
June 1o-Aug. 10. for a meteorological survey of the British Islands—a work In part ii. Mr. Lefroy deals with the life-history of this in which the local societies might obviously render material locust, giving an account of the egg-laying, hatching, assistance.
development, and the description of the “hoppers after The second meeting was presided over by Mr. J. each moult. Hopkinson, vice-chairman of the conference, who in his In part iii. are related the habits of locusts and methods introductory remarks pointed out the great value of photo- employed for their destruction. The first is dealt with in graphic surveys of counties. This subject was elaborately a clear and interesting manner, and is well worth the study triated by Mr. W. Jerome Harrison, of Birmingham, in of anyone engaged in locust work. a communication on the desirability of promoting county The rewards given for collecting this pest and its eggs photographic surveys. The paper gave a history of the varied, but during cold weather winged locusts were paid uw vement, which was practically initiated by the author, for at the rate of 1 to } anna per seer (2 lb.), and this and has spread from Warwickshire, where it was started, pay was sufficient to give a fair wage to an active man. to several other counties, including Worcestershire, Essex, Later 4 annas were paid per seer, a seer containing 400 Surrey, and Kent. Mr. Harrison suggested that a com- to 450 locusts. Amongst natural enemies mentioned we mittee should be formed to coordinate the photographic ' notice monkeys, the striped squirrel and the grey-necked societies with the literary and scientific societies, so that crow, and several insects. No doubt these all do some all should join in the work of the surveys. The subject | good, but to rely on them to prevent locust swarms is was warmly taken up by the delegates, and it was deter- futile. Amongst methods of destroying these noxious mined to apply, at next year's meeting, for the appointment | insects is the employment of poisoned baits. Experiments of a county photo-survey committee. The Rev. Ashington recorded here show that a weak solution of arsenate of Bullen suggested that at every meeting of the British lead proved better than a strong solution of sodium Association there should be a photographic exhibition illus- arsenate or the well-known Natal locust mixture. More rating the archæology, ethnology, and natural history of than 80 per cent. of the locusts were killed when fodder the particular county in which the meeting was held. baits were sprayed with 1 lb. of lead arsenate, and 5 lb. of I'rof. H. H. Turner referred to the value of pairs of photo. | jaggery, to 100 gallons of water, in twelve hours. For praphs on the stereoscopic plan, inasmuch as they enabled
1 ** Memoirs of the Department of Agriculture in India" Vol. i., N the distances between various objects represented on them By H. Maxwell-Lefroy. (Calcutta, April, 1906.) Price Rs. 2.8.