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funds are forthcoming due growth and development in the The after-increase consequent upon inhibition may be scientific departments are impossible. There certainly conveniently termed “ successive spinal induction, the apprars to be an absence of extravagance. The average

as that term directs attention to the likeness annual income of the forty-four professors is not more than between the spinal process and certain visual phenomena 150., and the average income of university teachers, other commonly designated “ induction.” than professors, is only 2501. a year. The needs of the Again, it is easy to evoke reflex extension of the hind University, as detailed in the article, are indeed numerous, limb by stimulation of the skin of the opposite hind limb. and the means of satisfying them are at present ludicrously With the spinal dog laid on its side (e.g. left) and a thread inadequate. As has been done with wearisome iteration attaching the knee of the slightly fexed right limb to a in these columns, the article refers to American and German recording lever, the delivery of a stimulus at a skin-point munificence on behalf of higher education, and points out of the left foot evokes reflex extension at right hip and the tempting chance of sensible generosity the needs of knee. If this stimulus, at moderate and unchanged in(amlıidge offer to our men of wealth. The generous pro- tensity, be given at regular intervals, a series of extension vision made for university education in Germany and the reflexes of regular height and duration is obtained. If in Lnied States, the part played by such education in the the course of such a series the right limb is, during one of progress of a modern State, and the need that exists to the intervals, thrown into strong reflex flexion, the next strengthen our intellectual defences if we are to take a extension-reflex following on the intercurrent fexion differs leading position in the struggle toward efficiency, were from those prior to it in being more ample and more prodescribed by Sir Norman Lockyer in his presidential address longed. Its after-discharge is greatly increased and its to the British Association at Southport in 1903. The latency is sometimes diminished. If the test stimulus for warning uttered on that occasion, and the position taken the extension-reflex be adjusted at just subliminal value, is to the significance of higher education to national pro- the intercurrent flexion-reflex will make it supraliminal. press, have been the means of directing attention to our The exaltation of the extension-reflex may remain perratucational deficiencies, and a beginning has been made ceptible for five minutes. to remedy them by increased grants to university colleges. Successive spinal induction seems to be

process A capital sum of a million and a half sterling would solve qualified to play a part in linking together simpler reflexes all difficulties at Cambridge, but wealthy benefactors tarry,

to form from them reflex cycles of action. It probably because the State has not in the past shown its appears especially fitted to combine the successive opposite belief in the value of university education ; meanwhile the phases of such cyclic reflexes as have been termed wurk of a great university languishes.

alternating,” and shown to be particularly characteristic of the locomotor activity of the mammalian spinal

cord. If a reflex, A, not only temporarily inhibits SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.

the action of an antagonistic reflex, B, but also as LONDON.

immediately subsequent result induces in arc of B a phase Royal Society, February 15:-"Reciprocal Innervation of of superactivity, the central organ is in that way preAnugonistic Muscles. Ninth Note. Successive Induction." disposed for a second reflex opposite to A to occur in By Prut. C. S. Sherrington, F.R.S.

immediate succession to A itself. Such an effect seems In various reflex reactions inhibition is succeeded by proved by the observations in this and a preceding commashed esaltation of activity in the arcs inhibited. This munication. aftreflect may be figured as a rebound from inhibition. “On the Existence of Cell Communications between

An example is the following. When a dog in which the Blastomeres.' By C. Shearer Communicated by Adam spinal cord has been transected in the thoracic region is, Sedgwick, F.R.S. the period of shock having passed, supported so that its In cutting sections of a number of segmentation stages spine is vertical and its hind limbs hang freely, these of Eupomatus and Polygordius eggs, delicate protoplasmic latter begin to perform a rhythmic stepping movement. strands were frequently observed connecting the blastoSuppose this reflex is in regular progress and is being

Experiments with different fixing reagents demonTerorded from one knee, e.g. right, by a thread passing strated that they were not of the nature of coagulation thence to a pulley and light lever, if then the other thigh artifacts, or the result of disintegration of the protoplasm, lieti, be gently supported from behind the knee the record

for in many of the sections in which they were to be seen spows that the stepping reflex at once ceases in the right all the finer details of histological structure were well limbs. The reflex, on recommencing after this pause, con- preserved. Under favourable conditions they could be tours as it ceases, that is, its tempo and amplitude are observed during the living state, and were similar in all practirully the same as before the interruption.

respects to the filose strands described by Andrews in a I his result contrasts with the following. The reflex can number of Metazoan eggs. They possibly afford a means be cut short by a strong squeeze of the tail.

of coordinating the various cell activities. I'he application of this stimulus to the tail does not in any war interfere mechanically with the stepping move

PARIS. ment. Suppose the reflex to be in regular progress and Academy of Sciences, April 23. — M. H. Poincaré in the ricorded as before, if then the tail stimulus be applied the chair.—The president announced the accidental death of slepping reflex is almost immediately arrested, and in both M. Curie, and gave a short account of his work.–The linds. The reflex remains in abeyance while the tail eruption of Vesuvius, and in particular, remarks on the stimulus is continued. On the cessation of the latter the explosive phenomena : A. Lacroix. A general account of rellex returns, and on its return soon shows indubitable the recent eruption, with particulars of the lava outflows inirease in activity as compared with its activity before and the nature of the explosions.-A method allowing of the inhibitory arrest. The increase is chiefly seen in the the study of the solar corona at other times than during druplitude of the movement, but there is also often marked eclipses : G. Millochau and M. Stefanik. It is proposed quickening of the tempo of the rhythm. The author has to photograph the regions near the sun's edge by means ern the rhythm on some occasions quickened by 30 per of the spectroheliograph, isolating the line 1 4303 in the

The after-increase of the reflex may persist in second slit, and eliminating the light from other radiations evidence for many seconds. Its decline is gradual.

by means of an appropriate green screen. Preliminary The arrest of the stepping reflex by tail inhibition cannot attempts have been made at Meudon with encouraging in prolonged indefinitely. The reflex tends to return in results, and the authors hope to be able to complete the spile of the inhibitory stimulation when the latter is long work at the summit of Mt. Blanc.-Algebraic curves of persisted in. It is different when the stepping reflex is constant torsion : Eugène Fabry.-Reducible groups of arrested by lifting one knee; the reflex does not then tend linear and homogeneous transformations : Henry Taber.io break through the arrest, however long the latter be The equation of Laplace with two variables : Georges Lery. continued. In this form the arrest seems referable simply – The use of an electrical tuning-fork as a generator of 10 cessation of the stimulus which excites the reflex. In alternating currents : M. Devaux-Charbonnel. Some tail inhibition the arrest seems referable to a central in- anomalous results obtained with the currents generated in Nibition, the peripheral stimulus excitatory of the reflex the electromagnet of an electrical tuning-fork were exremaining in action all the time.

amined with a Duddell oscillograph. The effects produced

meres.

Cent.

be 159.2.

appear to be due to the electrostatic capacity, and cause ditticulty when tuning-forks are used in multiplex telegraphy.--Diffusion of solutions and molecular weights : Michel Yégounow.--The atomic weight and spark spectrum of terbium : G. Urbain. The atomic weight was determined by estimating the amount of water in the carefully purified sulphate Tb (SO )3,8H,O, and was found to

The spark spectrum of terbium is rich in lines, the wave-lengths of some thirty-seven of the most characteristic being given.--The estimation of cadmium in a volatile or organic salt : H. Baubigny. Cadmium sulphide precipitated in the presence of hydrochloric or hydrobromic acids obstinately retains some of the haloid salt, and this, on ignition, owing to the volatility of the chloride and bromide, gives rise to serious losses. The author proposes to convert the impure sulphide into sulphate, and weigh in this form with certain necessary precautions.-Distemper in dogs : H. Carré. Dogs which had been kept isolated from birth remained free from distemper, but were always sensitive to inoculation with the disease, whatever mode of inoculation was used. The blood of the animal, collected when the fever is at its height, is sterile, but communicates the disease. The Tertiary strata Turritelles and Congeries, Panama : E. Joukowsky.—The phenomena of slipping in Sicily : Maurice Lugeon and Emile Argand.

WEDNESDAY, MAY 16. Society of Arts, at 8.-The Development of Watermarking in Hand

made and Machine.made Paper: Clayton Beadle. ROYAL MICROSCOPICAL Society, at 8.--Exhibition of Pond Life. ROYAL METEOROLOGICAL Society, at 4:30.– An Instrument for Testing and Adjusting the Campbell-Stokes Sunshine Recorder : Dr. W. X. Shaw, F.R.S., and G. C. Simpson.-The Development and Progress at the Thunder Squall of February 8, 1996: R. G. K. Lempfert.

THURSDAY, MAY 17. Royal Society, at 4.30.- Probable Papers: Determinations of Wave

Length from Spectra obtained at the Total Solar Eclipses of 1900, 1731 and 1905: Prof. F. W. Dyson, F.R.S.-Some Stars with Peculiar Spectra : Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., F.R.S., and F. E. Baxandall.An Apparent Periodicity in the Yield of Wheat for Eastern England, 1885-1905: Dr. W. N. Shaw, F.R.S.-Some Physical Constants of Ammonia, a Study of the Effect of Change or Temperature and Pressure

on an Easily Condensible Gas: Dr. E. P. Perman and J. H. Davies. CHEMICAL SOCIETY, at 8.30.-The Relation between Absorption Spectra

and Chemical Constitution, part vi., The Phenyl Hydrazones of Simple Aldehydes and Ketones: E. C. C. Baly and W. B. Tuck.-Aromatis Compounds obtained from the Hydroaromatic Series, part il., The Action of Phosphor Pentachloride on Trimethyldihydroresorcin: A. W. Crossley and J. S. Hills. --Studies of Dynamic Isomerism, part .. Iscmeric Sulphonic-derivatives of Camphor: T. M. Lowry and E. H Magson.-Studies on Basic Carbonates, part i, Magnesium Carbonates :

W. A. Davis. ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 5.-The Influence of Ptolemaic Egypt on Græco

Roman Civilisation : Rev. J. P. Mabaffy. INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.-- Notes on Overbea Equipment of Tramways: R. N. Tweedy and H. Dudgeon.

FRIDAY, May 18. Royal INSTITUTION, at 9.-International Science: Pror. A. Schuster F.R.S.

SATURDAY, MAY 19. ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 3.–The Old and New Chemistry: Sir James

Dewar, F.R.S.

at

DIARY OF SOCIETIES.

26

THURSDAY, MAY 10. Royal Society, at 4.30.--On Adsorption and Occlusion: the Law of

Distribution in the Case in which one of the Phases possesses Rigidity: Prof. M. W. Travers, F.R.S.-Cyanogenesis in Plants, part iv., The Occurrence of Phaseolunatin in Common Flax (Linum usitatissimum). part v., The Occurrence of Phaseolunatin in Cassava (Manihot Aipiand Manihot Utilissima): Prof. W. R. Dunstan, F.R.S., Dr. T. A. Henry, and Dr. S. J. M. Auld. -A Variety of Thorianite from Galle, Ceylon : Prof. W. R. Dunstan, F.R.S., and B. Mouat Jones.-The Mechanism of Carbon Assimilation in Green Plants; the Photolytic Decomposition of Carbon Dioxide in vitro: F. L. Usher and J. H. Priestley.-The Action of Anästhetics on Living Tissues, part ii., The Frog's Skin : Dr. N. H.

Alcock. INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.-Long Flame Arc Lamps :

L. Andrews (Adjourned Discussion). MATHEMATICAL Society, at 5.30.-On the Substitutional Theory of

Classes and Relations : Hon. B. Russell.-On Linear Diff:ential Equations of Rank Unity : E, Cunningham -On the Motior. of a Swarm of Particles whose Centre of Gravity describes an Elliptic Orbit of Small Eccentricity about the Sun: Dr. E. J Routh. - The Theory of Integral Equations : H. Bateman.-Singularities of Power Series in Two Variables: G. H. Hardy

FRIDAY, MAY II. ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 9.-Some Astronomical Consequences of the

Pressure of Light: Prof. J. H. Poynting, F.R.S. PHYSICAL SOCIETY, at 8.-The Dead Points of a Galvanometer Needle for Transient Currents: A. Russell.-Exhibition of Lippmann Capillary Dynamo and Electromotor: Prof. H. A. Wilson.-Exhibition of an Apparatus for demonstrating the Movements of the Diaphragms of Telephonic Transmitters and Receivers and the Current flowing into

and out of the Cable during Speech : W. Duddell. ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, at 5.-Observations of Uranus at

Windsor, New South Wales : John Tebbutt.-Observations of Comet c 1905: Natal Observatory.-Note on the Parallax!and Proper Motion of the Central Star in the Annular Nebula in Lyra : B. L. Newkirk.--On the Ratios of the Triangles in the Determination of the Elliptic Orbit from Three Observations: S. Hirayama. -Some Considerations regarding the Number of the Stars : Miss W. Gibson.-On the Ancient Eclipses of the Sun: E. Nevill.--Elements of Five Long-Period Variable Stars : A. Stanley Williams.-On the Orbit and Mass of 85 Pegasi : W. Bowyer and H. Furner.-Some Points arising out of a Discussion of the Double Stars in Struve's Mensuræ Micrometricæ : T. Lewis. -Exhibition of Stereoscopic Star Charts North of 20° N. Decl., and South, is near the

Milky Way: T. E. Heath. MALACOLOGICAL Society, at 8.-Notes on the Subgenus Malluvium:

E. A. Smith, I.S.O.-Notes on some Species of the Genus Mitra, with the Description of M. Brettinghami, n.sp.: E. A. Smith, I.S.O.-On some Land- and Fresh-water Mollusca from Sumatra, part ii. : Rev. R. Ashington Bullen.-Notes on a Collection of Nudibranchs from the Cape Verde Islands: C. Crossland and Sir Charles Eliot, K.C.M.G.-Notes on Indian and Ceylonese Species of Glessula : Col. R. H. Beddome.

TUESDAY, MAY 15. ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 5.-Glands and their Products : Prof. William

Stirling. UNIVERSITY OF LONDON, at 5.-The Atmospheric Circulation and its

Relation to Weather: Dr. W. N. Shaw, F.R.S. ZOOLOGICAL Society, at 8.30. FARADAY SOCIETY, at 8.- The Electrolysis of Fused Zinc Chloride in Cells

Healed Externally: Julius L. F. Vogel.-Sensitiveness of the Platinum Electrode : H. D. Law.

CONTENTS.

PAGE The Cell in Modern Biology. By Prof. J. B. Farmer, F.R.S.

25 Appreciations of Haeckel .. Practical Geography By Geo. G. Chisholm

27 Folklore and Medicine of the Zulu-Kafir. By Sir H. H. Johnston, K.C.M.G...

23 Our Book Shelf:Sociological Pa bers.”—F. W H.

29 Watson : “The Heart of a Garden"

29 Flatters : “Methods in Microscopical ResearchVegetable Histology.”—Prof. R. T. Hewlett

29 Letters to the Editor:

The San Francisco Earthquake of April 18.-Dr.
T. J. J. See

30 Interpretation of Meteorological Records. —Dr. John Aitken, F.R.S. .

jo Recent Publications of the Bureau of American

Ethnology. (Illustrated.) By Dr. A. C. Haddon,
F.R.S.

30 The Education and Training of the Engineer. By A. T. S.

33 Balloons and Kites in the Service of Meteorology. By W. H. Dines, F.R.S..

35 The Bicentenary Celebration of the Birth of

Benjamin Franklin. By Sir G. H. Darwin, K.C.B.,
F.R.S.

36 Notes 1.

37 Our Astronomical Column :

The Expected Return of Holmes's Comet
The Luminosity of the Brighter Stars .
The Variable Radial Velocity of e Auriga.
Early Observations of Eros
Observations of Satellites in 1904 and 1905

New Variable Stars in Orion
Recent Advances in Seismology. (illustrated.). By

Prof. John Milne, F.R.S.
German Congress of Experimental Psychology. By
Dr. C. Spearman.

45
The Milan International Exhibition.
University and Educational Intelligence.
Societies and Academies

47 Diary of Societies

48

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