Page images
PDF
EPUB

some reason the locusts would not touch the other poisoned there were 143 candidates in the mechanical division, 132 baits.

in the physical division, and 132 in the chemical division, The concluding part (v.) reviews the systematic position Physical geography and geology were offered by forty of the Bombay locust, and gives a useful list of other candidates, and biology by 183. The total number of species found with it. These locusts are figured in the candidates for lower certificates was 1046, and the number plates.

of candidates offering the several subjects mentioned was Half this report consists of four appendices. The first as follows :-Latin, 608; Greek, 393; French, 013. deals with the action taken against locusts in the Bombay mechanics and physics, 74 ; physics and chemistry, 275 Presidency. Summing up the campaign against the locust chemistry and mechanics, 23; and botany, 62. The candiin 1904, it is made quite evident that a very determined dates in this examination are almost entirely from public effort was made to cope with this pest, and that the excel- schools, and the numbers given are interesting, since they lent organisation that extended to every village in the indicate the relative importance attached to linguistic and Presidency was effectual in producing a very general action scientific studies in these schools. on the part of the people. This is all the more remark

AMONG calendars which have been received recently, that able when we consider the natural apathy of the ryot and

of the East London College, in the Mile End Road, is of his strong objection to take life of any kind. Yet we are told in the report that "

special interest, showing as it does the admirable provision 4152 maunds of adults, equivalent

now made in East London for higher education. The to 66,432,000 individuals, were destroyed, or two-tenths object of the college is to provide such instruction in the of a per cent. of the estimated number." One hundred

various branches of a liberal education as will qualifs maunds of eggs were destroyed, representing 400,000,000

students to take degrees at the University of London and individuals, and 13,252 maunds of "hoppers," which re

other universities of the United Kingdom ; to give such presented some 530,000,000. That is, 930 millions of young instruction in science and technology as will be servicrable were destroyed !

to students who intend to pursue a profession or trade in In all some 1500 millions were probably accounted for,

which a knowledge of science in its practical applications including adults, eggs, and hoppers ; of these 66 millions

is required : and generally to promote higher education is were adults, which would have been responsible for another

East London. The engineering department and other 3000 million " hoppers " had they lived. To accomplish

portions of the college premises have been enlarged recenii. this the Bombay Government spent a little more than two

at the expense of the Drapers' Company, which has made lakhs in rewards. Anyone knowing what“ locust swarms a further grant of 5000l. for this purpose. This compani mean to the cultivator will acknowledge that this sum was

is again awarding valuable scholarships tenable at the well spent. In the same appendix are notes on the latest

college. The staff, too, has been strengthened, and their invasion of the Portuguese territory of Goa, where the

is every prospect of a highly successful session's work. damage in 1904 was also very great. Fears were entertained that the locusts might make their way to the sea

The London County Council has organised fur the session board and destroy the magnificent paying cocoanut trees,

1906-7 courses of instruction for teachers. These course one of the chief sources of revenue to the country.

are open without fee to teachers in London schools, and arp The second appendix is by Mr. B. P. Standen. In it

intended to offer to teachers in the various types of schools are mentioned various methods used to cope with the

opportunities for developing their knowledge of different locusts, such as the American “ hopper dozer, the Russian

subjects and of coming into contact with those who havn

The wheeled revolving brush, bags, poison bait, bonfires, &c.

made a special study of the subjects in question. But in the end of all this Mr. Standen tells us (p. 92)

Council is of opinion that few things can be of greztek that “the efforts were aided in a remarkable fashion by

assistance to teachers than personal contact with some juari birds (the Rosy Pastor), which arrived in large flocks

experienced teacher who has devoted special attention to s earlier than usual and devoured the locusts greedily.".

particular subject, or has made a study of the best method. “ It is quite possible that the preservation of the crops was

of presenting the subject to others. The courses include due as much to these birds as to the effects of human

partly lectures and demonstrations in special subjects, such agency." Yet a few lines further back we

as manual training, general elementary science, physics,

are told in his report that the Deputy Commissioner of Wardha con

chemistry, botany, and also courses conducted under the sidered that a third of the total number of hoppers were

auspices of the County Council at the schools of the uni. destroyed by the measures adopted, whilst others estimated

versity, namely, University College, King's College, Bed that half at least were destroyed.

ford College, and the London School of Economics and

Political Science. Besides the plates of various species and structural

Full particulars with regard to the peculiarities, there is also a map showing the infested

courses may be obtained from the executive officer, Edur. area in 1903-4.

FRED. V. THEOBALD.

tion Offices, London County Council, Victoria Embank. ment, W.C.

UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL
INTELLIGENCE.

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.

LONDON. Cambridge.—The second Frank Smart studentship in botany, tenable at Gonville and Caius College, has been

Royal Society, May 24 -Croonian Lecture. 1906. –" (in awarded to Mr. F. T. Brooks, late scholar of Emmanuel

Nerve Endings and on Special Excitable Substances is College, the understanding being that the student shall

Cells.” By Prof. J. N. Langley, F.R.S. prosecute research in some special branch of scientific

The author stated in his general conclusions that the forestry.

paper had shown there was reason to believe that in canh of the three great types of connection of the peripheral

end of an efferent nerve with a cell, it is some constituent MR. SYDNEY PENNINGTON has been appointed an instructor of the cell substance which is stimulated or paralysed by in veterinary science in the School of Agriculture, Ghizeh, poison ordinarily taken as stimulating or paralysing nervr Egypt.

endings. Reasons, though less complete, have been given MR. J. BLAKEMAN, Trinity College, Cambridge, has been

for supposing that these poisons have no special action

on nerve endings, and that physiologically the nerve ending appointed mathematical master at the Municipal Technical

is not essentially different from the nerve fibre. In the School, Leicester.

case, not only the function of reacting to numerous chemical The results of the annual examination held last July | bodies, but probably also the special liability of both afieren! by the Oxford and Cambridge Schools Examination Board and efferent nerves to fatigue must be transferred from tbe have now been issued. The total number of candidates nerve endings to the same constituent of the cell. for higher certificates was 2054, of whom 462 were girls This theory adds to the complexity of the cell

. offering letters only. of these candidates' 1084 offered | necessitates the presence in it of one or more substances Latin, 882 Greek, and 1369 French. In natural philosophy (receptive substances) which are capable of receiving and

tumours

[ocr errors]

to

a

very

transmitting stimuli, and capable of isolated paralysis, and plexity, so that growth may be proceeding rapidly at one also of a substance or substances concerned with the main part while dying out at another. function of the cell (contraction or secretion, or in the case Spontaneous absorption of well-established of nerve cells of discharging nerve impulses). So far as occurred at the same time as the rapid fall in percentage this is concerned, it does but accentuate a view which has

of success,

failure of the cells to establish themselves in often been put forward, and which, indeed, in some form new animals coinciding with cessation of growth and of other is inseparable from the idea of protoplasm.

extinction in animals in which they had been able to grow The author had spoken of different “ substances " in the for a time. Without prejudice to other factors, it may be cell with the intent to use as vague a term as possible. presumed that the greater frequency of spontaneous The " substances," he took it, are radicles of the proto- absorption in transplanted tumours may be due to their plasmic molecule; at present, however, he did not think greater homogeneity, resulting from the repeated interit advisable to speculate further, either on this question or calation of what is virtually a unicellular stage. un certain other questions raised by the conclusions arrived The extinction of certain strains of Jensen's tumour is al in the paper. There are a number of obvious experi- alluded to and compared with the results of transplanting ments still to be made, and these, it may be hoped, will two other spontaneous mouse carcinomata, which after vettle some of the problems, the solution of which is now successful transference normal animals gave probut guesswork.

gressively lower percentages of success until negative results June 14.-" The Experimental Analysis of the Growth

were obtained. of Cancer." By E. F. Bashford, J. A. Murray, and

The results indicate the necessity for caution in interpretW. H. Bowen.

ing experiments designed to modify the growth of proThe proliferation of Jensen's tumour when propagated pagated tumours, and for accurate records of their previous in large numbers of mice is not uniformly progressive, but

history as necessary accompaniment to therapeutical presents fluctuations which can be referred, with confi- experiments

. dence, to the tumour cells themselves. The experimental

June 21.--" On the Electric Inductive Capacities of Dry conditions which introduce irregularities are shown to be Paper and of Solid Cellulose.” By Albert Campbell. (1) differences in race of the mice used, e.g. tame or wild ; June 28.—“ Sex-determination in Hydatina, with some (2) differences in age of mice even of the same kind

Remarks on Parthenogenesis." By R. C. Punnett. voung animals are measurably more suitable than adult animals ; (3) the site of implantation of the cellular graft- Saponification." By James Walker.

July 12.—“A Method for determining Velocities of the subcutaneous tissue of the back was found to be more suitable than, for example, the peritoneal cavity ; (4) the

The author takes advantage of the change in electrical size of the graft as found to be of importance, but mainly conductivity for following the progress of the action of a

caustic alkali on an ester. as modifying the apparent rate of growth; large grafts of

The conductivity of the original more than 0.1 gram, however, were less successful than

solution falls off to about one-third as the saponification smaller ones of from oor gram to 0.02 gram, as previously proceeds, and the relation between change of conductivity shown by Jensen; (5) the mode of introduction influences

and proportion transformed is nearly linear. А the success of the experiments, transplantation of small

device is described for simplifying the calculation of the fragments of unaltered tumour giving better results than velocity constant by appropriate selection of the resistance the injection of a suspension of tumour cells in physio- in the rheostat. Readings can easily be taken every logical salt solution.

minute, and the method is much less troublesome than the Artificial propagation was carried out on a large scale

titration method usually employed, whilst yielding equally for a long period by transplantation of grafts of from

accurate results,

EDINBURGH. 0-01 gram to 0.02 gram of unaltered tumour into the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of young tame mice from five Royal Society, July 16.—The Hon. Lord M'Laren, viceto seven weeks old. Each tumour was transplanted into president, in the chair.-Limnographic apparatus and forty or more mice, and the results compared by estimating

measurements on Loch Earn : Prof. Chrystal. The paper the percentage of success on the number of animals remain- gave a detailed account of the various modifications and ing alive after ten days. The method adopted results in simplifications which experience had suggested during the the separation in a large number of animals of the de- recording of seiches on the Scottish lochs. The effects of scendants of cells previously living in one animal, so that

friction had been reduced to a minimum, so that it was after two or three successive transplantations the whole of possible to obtain records of short period motions such as he tumour in one animal represents the offspring of a wind and other meteorological causes produce. The effect very small part of a preceding tumour, and in the limit of access tubes connecting the well of the limnograph the progeny of a single cell in a tumour more or less re- with the free water of the loch had been studied with mote. The percentage of success obtained with any tumour great care. By use of a proper sized access tube the is used as an indication of the frequency in it of cells shorter disturbances could be cut off and the seiche recapable of continuing growth, and the results at different corded in all its purity. A new and very simple method times and with a number of propagated tumours are com- of reduction of limnograms so as to separate the various pared by means of graphic records. The dates of trans- orders of seiches was described. This method of “residuplantation are measured as abscisse and the percentages

ation consisted simply in superposing the seiche record of suecess as ordinates. Several such graphic records upon itself displaced half the uninodal period forward. illustrate the paper, and show that the percentage of success This eliminated the uninodal seiche and left the binodal does not vary irregularly, but that, commencing with a and trinodal, if such were present. A second application tumour giving a low percentage, successive transplant- of the same method eliminated the binodal, and in this ations may be more and more successful until a maximum way the principal nodalities could be separated with great is reached, it may be at 60 per cent., at 70 per cent., or

ease and accuracy. It was impossible to apply harmonic at 100 per cent. The subsequent transplantations are not analysis to seiches simply because there was no harmonic so successful. The percentage of success falls rapidly either relation among the periods of the various nodalities.- Preat the first essay or in two or more steps until a minimum liminary limnographic observations on Loch Earn: Mr. is reached, after which the process is repeated. It is con- James Murray. This paper supplemented the previous cluded that the tumour cells present a cyclical activity, and paper, and described the difficulties encountered in measursuggested that the period of lower percentage of success ing the seiches by the forms of apparatus devised by Prof. represents a failure of the proliferative powers from which Chrystal. For eve observations the portable seismoscope recovery occurs when the transplantations show again a had been found very serviceable. It could be installed and progressively higher percentage of

A graphic taken down again in a few minutes, and packed into a record of the behaviour of a large number of separate compass small enough to go into one's pocket.-A note on atrains shows a continuously high maximum of success the polarimeter : J. R.

Two appliances were between 70 per cent. and go per cent.

due to the suc- described. The first, which consists of a thin plate of ressive development of maxima in separate strains, and it glass placed obliquely across half the beam of light passis suggested that sporadic tumours possess a similar com- ing through the instrument, gives the slight rotation of

Success.

Milne.

can

[ocr errors]

the plane of polarisation which is necessary to give the Eucalyptus from eastern Australia : R. T. Baker. Euca. “half-shade effect. It takes the place of the half wave- lyptus carnea, sp.nov., and E. thozetiana, F.v.M., the length plate used by Laurent and of the subsidiary Nicol species diagnosed in this paper, are found respectively in used by Lippich. The principle, it was subsequently dis- the coast district and dry interior of the continent. The covered, had been used by Poynting, but the particular former is a typical forest stringybark, with a pinkish or form here described had certain advantages over its pre- Resh-coloured, hard, durable timber. The mature fruits decessor. The second appliance provides a means for in- differ very little in shape and size from those of creasing the brightness of the very faint field of view given E, acmenioides, Schau., but otherwise these two species by all half-shade polarimeters, and depends on the fact be differentiated by their leaves, timber, and oil. that when two equally bright fields of view polarised at This latter constituent is of some chemical and industrial right angles to each other are received through a double importance, as it contains, besides a dextrorotatory pinene image prism, the brightness of the single field seen by the and eucalyptol, an acetic acid ester. Only a small quantity eye is twice that of each of the component fields. To of free acetic acid was found in the crude oil, but the obtain this effect in the polarimeter, the ordinary half- ester split off acid on distilling the oil under atmospheric shade field is divided into two identical portions, the light pressure. Systematically the species should be placed with of one passed through a quartz plate with a 90° rotation, the stringybarks, and in sequence with E. nigra, R.T.B., and then both are superposed by a double image prism, and E. acmenioides, Sch. E. thosetiana, F.v.M., ined., which also takes the place of the ordinary analysing Nicol. has only been known previously to systematists from -Spectroscopic observations of the rotation of the sun imperfect material, and both Baron con Mueller and (further communicatio 1): Dr. J. Halm. In addition to J. H. Maiden refer to it in their writings on the genus. distinct evidence of changes in the rotation of the sun as The material upon which the complete description is now shown by the displacements of the Fraunhofer lines at based was obtained by Mr. N. C. Champion from his the limbs, the observations made between 1901 and 1906 station of Tandawanna, Gooniwindi, Queensland. have also revealed the fact of a new displacement of the attains a height of about 60 feet, has a tesselated bark at solar lines which affects both limbs in the same direction. the base, and is smooth above to the ultimate branches. During the interval 1901–6 the Fraunhofer lines have The wood is very hard and very heavy, dark coloured, gradually shifted towards the red by an amount slightly close grained, and interlocked and very durable. It is the more than 0.02 tenth-metre. The solar lines also show hardest yet recorded from any Eucalyptus tree, and very greater wave-lengths at the limb than near the centre much resembles the South American " ' lignum vita," when compared with the same telluric standards. The Guaiacum officinale, Linn., and is specially suitable for relative shift in the case of two iron lines employed by cog-wheel teeth, mallets, girders, bridge-work, &c. Dunér and by the author is 0.012 tenth-metre. While at Systematically it might be placed with E. tesselaris, least six other “ low-level " lines show the same behaviour, F.v.M. As both the species described in this paper yield the high-level lines appear to occupy essentially the same excellent timber, they are recommended for forest cultivapositions at centre and limb. This remarkable phenomenon tion.—The formation of slime or gum by Rhisobium may be explained on the assumption that the radiation leguminosarum : Dr. R. Greig-Smith. The structure of from the solar gases is affected by pressure. If this explan- Rhizobium leguminosarum : Dr. R. Greig-Smith. ation be correct, the gradual shift towards the red during the interval 1901-6 would indicate that the solar gases to which the Fraunhofer lines are due are under higher

CONTENTS.

PAGE pressure at times of maximum than at times of minimum sun-spot frequency.-A monograph on the general morph- Nile Studies. By J. W. J. ...

461 ology of the myxinoid fishes based on a study of Myxine; | The History of Determinants. By G. B. M.

462 part ii., the anatomy of the muscles : F. J. Cole.

European Vertebrates. By F, E. B.

463 Paris.

Treatment of Water for Steam Boilers and ManuAcademy of Sciences, August 27.-M. A. Chauveau in factures the chair.—The earthquake at Valparaiso, August 16, 1906,

Our Book Shelf :registered at Paris : G. Bigourdan. A reproduction of the curves registered by the seismograph recently set up at

“Studies in Anatomy from the Anatomical Departthe Observatory of Paris on the night of August 16-17.

ment of the University of Manchester "

464 -The two specific heats of a slightly deformed elastic

de Ball: “ Refraktionstafeln ”

465 medium : some extensions of Reech's formula : P. Duhem.

South: “The Butterflies of the British Isles."--The origin of the carbon monoxide contained in normal

W. F. K. blood, and especially in the blood of persons suffering from

Letter to the Editor:anæmia : R. Lépine and M. Boulud. The injection into The Latest Critic of Biometry.-Prof. Karl the veins of a dog of sodium oxalate or tartrate causes an

Pearson, F.R.S.

465 increase in the amount of carbon monoxide present. A Royal Society Addresses. (Illustrated.) solution of glucose or levulose has the same result.— The

An American Contribution to Archäology. By laws of music : Maurice Gandillot.—The copper-steel

H. R. Hall alloys : Pierre Breuil. Alloys containing proportions of copper varying from 0.0 per cent. to 10.0 per cent. of copper

The Immigration of Summer Birds . were prepared, and determinations made of the strength of

Notes.

470 notched specimens submitted to shock, torsional strength, Our Astronomical Column:and resistance to corrosion. Micrographical examination Return of Holmes's Comet (1906/ ) gave results confirming those previously published by Stead. Comet 19061 (Kopf) -The mechanism of the influence of acids, bases, and salts A Newly-discovered Planetary Nebula on the liquefaction of potato starch: A. Fernbach and

Plea for an International Southern Telescope . J. Wolff.-A disease of the potato produced by Bacillus phytophthorus: Georgas Delacroix.-The hæmopoietic

The Progress of Agricultural Science. By E, H. G. 474 activity of serum during the regeneration of the blood :

Russian Geographical Works. (Illustralia.) Paul Carnot and Mlle. Cl. Deflandre.

The Matteucci Medal

477 New South Wales.

Practical Meteorology Linnean Society, June 27.- Mr. Thos. Steel, president, Geography at the British Association in the chair.- Studies in Australian entomology, part xv., Physiology at the British Association, By Joseph revision of the Cicindelidæ of Australia : Thomas G. Barcroft. Sloane, The paper includes descriptions of two Local Societies at the British Association species, synoptic lists of the tribes (2), genera (5), and species (47) of the family Cicindelidæ found in the con

The Bombay Locust. By Fred. V. Theobald tinent of Australia ; also notes on taxonomy, phytogeny,

University and Educational Intelligence geographical distribution, &c.-Two undescribed species of

Societies and Academies ...

4614

[ocr errors]

466

468

470

new

479 451 181 483

[graphic][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][graphic][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][graphic][merged small][merged small]

to

:

been given to Prof. Chittenden and his colleagues by the useful and true so long as occupation does not amount to American Government, and they have studied, not only fatigue, but its utility ends at this point. When the system themselves, but athletes in training and squads of soldiers, becomes fatigued, and this is especially true of the brain, and have constantly found that by gradually accustom- the toxic bodies produced affect unused as well as used ing these men a carbohydrate diet condition of cells. It is futile to throw these cells, already prejudiced. physical efficiency and nitrogenous equilibrium can be into activity. Such action simply adds to the amount vi obtained, though with some loss of weight. As the result poisonous or toxic bodies in the circulation. This point of this gradual process the proteid might be reduced until was worked out with great c!earness by Dr. Bryan Letis. only about 7 grams or 8 grams of nitrogen were excreted whose introductory address was on very ditlerent lines from daily.

that of Dr. Acland. Dr. Lewis treated the subject from Actual figures of nitrogenous output were given by Dr. a neurological, not a statistical, standpoint, he cprned J. M. Hamill and Mr. E. P. Poulton; the former with with a defence of the neuron theory, now assailed from Dr. Schryver has investigated the nitrogenous output of so many quarters, and on this theory worked out a con the workers in the physiological laboratory of University ception of the neurologiral basis of rest and of fatigur College, London; the latter has experimented upon an The practical outcome of his argument, as well as of Dr Oxford student, aet. twenty-two, while he was going Acland's, was that physical exercise was no suhoutuir les through the ordinary routine of university life at Oxford. sleep, but that active physical exertion added to severi There was great disparity amongst their figures. The mental strain demanded a double meed oí slumber. In workers at University College varied from 8 grams to illustration of this point Dr. Acland recounted how that 16 grams of nitrogen daily, whilst Mr. Poulton's figure Mr. C. B. Fry, at once a scholar and an athlete, fry's was a high one.

quently slept till midday or even late in the afternung The low nitrogen values indicated above are of great during his school vacations, and in doing so gralitet scientific interest, but from the practical point of view they nothing more than the healthy demand of his fram were shown to be of rather academic value by Dr. Hopkins. physical and mental-for rest. He made it quite clear that the observers who had obtained (3) This discussion made clear the individual differences these values for the daily nitrogen output had done so on in the depth and time of slumber; thus day workers alta diets which were many times more expensive than those to the maximum soundness of sleep early in the nighi, whi? which the working classes had access. He showed, in fact, night workers begin their slumber by sleeping someuh.: that such food as a working man could buy must have a lightly and !rep more soundly as morning approaches. nitrogen value and a calorie value which was of the order Neurotic subjects, on the other hand, have ito maxima on indicated by Voit. The point at issue, then, between Dr. their sleep curve, one in the early part of the night, another Hopkins and Mr. Rowntree was whether the moderate in the morning : between these there is a period of shallow diet indicated by Voit or the more considerable one in- sleep. If any occurrence happens which causes a general dicated by Atwater was to be taken as the basis of a reduction in depth of slumber, the period of shallow deep proper daily allowance for the working classes. Now in the middle of the night is replaced by a period of wikrthough there is a considerable difference between these two fulness. diets it is clear that there are lines along which a solution (4) Prof. Gotch, who showed the utmost skill in weaving may be forthcoming. Three such directions were indicated the separate items of this discussion into a continuum, by Dr. Hopkins : –

dwelt upon the nature of dreams as an index of the sound(1) More searching analyses must be made into the ness of sleep. If a dream was a connerted series of pvents nature of foodstuffs (and this point was developed by Prof. and was recollected as such after waking, it was clear that Armstrong). Maize, for instance, is particularly unsuit- the mental rest was impaired. The more coherent and the able as a staple dietary, not because it is of insufficient more realistic the dream, and the more directly it was connitrogen value or even of insufficient calorie value, but cerned with events in the recent past, the less restful was because a particular kind of proteid, which is necessary to the sleep in which it occurred. The quality as will as growth, is conspicuously absent from maize.

the quantity of the sleep was all-important, (2) The relative values oi the various tissues as energy The sitting of Friday morning, August 3, was devoteut transformers must be attested. This work is being carried

a paper on public health. Dr. George Rrid, ih. on by a committee of the British Association, and its annual medical officer of health for Staffordshire, put forwani ! reports for the past three years have been very instructive, number of telling arguments, the result of experiments but only the fringe of this large subject has been touched. which he had performed, in favour of changing ihe forn

(3) Conditions of age and sex have not been thoroughly of many sewage filters. It appears that the chemi! investigated. It seems clear that a developing individual- changes which take place in a filter o fine particles as say of twenty years-requires a richer diet than a completed relatively near the surface. Dr. Reid adala of twice that age.

the use of one-eighth inch particles, and of filters only about Dr. Hopkins readily conceded that even the trained feet deep. Such filters would be much less expensi? athlete or the soldier might transform much less energy than those now in use. A detailed account of his investi. than was entailed in the daily toil of a bricklaver or gations was recently published by the Royal Society, rivetter, and in view of this uncertainty we have some Dr. Hime, of Bradford, brought forward a strong indir. sympathy with Mr. Rowntree's contention that the calorie ment of the present system of reporting and isolating in. value demanded by Atwater, if acquired in the form of fectious diseases. His data were collected from twentobad food eaten amid unappetising surroundings, was none five large towns in the United Kingdom, and dealt with 100 much for a heavy day's work.

diphtheria, scarlatina, and typhoid, which taken ingether Another discussion of great interest, entitled

formed 95 per cent. of the cases reported. His generii Physiological Value of Rest," was introduced by Dr.

argument was that the epidemies of these diseases had Theodore Duke Acland and Dr. Bevan Lewis. The former increased in virulence and number within recent year 199 dealt chiefly with the hours of rest prescribed in the large / spite of the present system. The most trulling riguros public schools of this country.

His views are

so well which he adduced were from cases where the heal.... known that it is not necessary to give them at length. had been closed to one or other of these complaints any The discussion was useful from several points of view, the cases sent back to their homes. On one such OINA which may be briefly summarised :

more than ninety cases of scarlatina were sent back to the (1) The necessity of obtaining scientific data concerning poor neighbourhoods of a town. No epidemie tollonu fatigue phenomena. This matter was dealt with by several in fact, the epidemic which was preralent ceased ** Cote of the pioneers in that branch of physiology, namely: The discussion which followed Dr. Hime's papas lirne! psschophysics, which is rapidly springing up, and which

rather upon a

matter of principle. Granted that aprI bids fair to yield far-reaching results. Dr. Rivers, Prof. were in doubt concerning the present system of sometik McDougall, and Dr. Myers indicated how the question and isolating cases, was it wise to inuke the t'i ON might be approached on strictly scientific lines.

of publie dineussion? Some medical offices hold that sur le (2) The necessity for limiting the prevalent idea that debate weakened the trust in the public uthitits, # “recreation is a change of occupation." This dictum is introduced an element of personal options,

to

man

4

a

" The

1

to y hart

« PreviousContinue »