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C. C. Babington, F.R.S., as professor of botany in PROF. H. MARSHALL I'ARD, F.R.S.

the University of Cambridge, becoming at the same 11 T is long since the cause of British botany has time professorial fellow of Sidney Sussex ('oll. ge.

sustained so severe a loss as that from which it In this larger and most congenial sphere he found is now suffering by the deaths, within a few days of full scope for the play of his activities in every direceach other, of Charles Baron Clarke and of Harry tion. Supported by a highly competent staff, , and Marshall Ward. Though differing, widely in most with such colleagues as Mr. F. Darwin, F.R.S., respects, in age, in pursuits, in circumstances, yet reader in botany, Dr. Gardiner, F.R.S., and Mr. this they had in common, high distinction in their Seward, F.R.S., university lecturers, Ward respective lines of work and a long record of devoted succeeded, by his infectious enthusiasm, in giving a and unremitting toil. It is not for me to attempt an fresh impulse to the progress of his science at appreciation of Clarke—that will be done by more Cambridge. He himself always took charge of the competent hands-but I cannot forbear this slight large elementary class, and won therefrom many tribute of esteem and regard. Nor is it possible for recruits for the ranks of botany by the attractiveness m', within the limits of space and time at my dis

of his lectures; he gave besides one or more coururung posal, to give an at all adequate account of Ward's on advanced subjects during the year, generally, as life and work. I can only aim at recalling some of might be expected, on some groups of fungi. His the memories of a personal association at one time weak point as a teacher is eminently characteristic-most intimate, at no time entirely severed, and at it was that he generally attempted to cover a great merely indicating the scope and the value of his deal more ground, to convey a great dal more inachievements.

formation in his lectures, than was possible either My acquaintance with Ward dates from the year physically or mentally: He educated many who have 1875. In the spring of that year I was assisting Sir since done excellent botanical work, for he not only William Thiselton-Dyer at the Royal College of taught his pupils what was known, but also inspir d Science, South Kensington, in the conduct of a course

them to attack the unknown. Under him the of instruction in botany, one of the earliest courses of botanical school attained such importance that the practical study, in the modern sense, ever given in University allotted a large portion of the benefaction this country. We were both struck by the singular fund to the erection of a new botanical institute, one intelligence and enthusiasm of one of our pupils, who, of the best in the country, which, together with other We felt, ought to be secured for the service of botany. university buildings, was formally opened by His That pupil was Ward. At our suggestion he became

Majesty the King in March, 1904. a candidate, in the spring of 1876, for an open So far I have spoken of Ward only as student cholarship in natural science at Christ's College, and as teacher; I have yet to speak of him as inCambridge, where I was a lecturer, and, having vestigator, his most important role. The bent obtained the scholarship, he came into residence in towards original research was strong within him October of that year. His undergraduate career was

from the very first. His earliest papers date back to marked by a further development of those character- 1879 (Journ. Linn. Soc., vol. xvii.; Quart. Journ. istics that had so impressed Sir William Thiselton- Micr. Sci., vol. xx.), and relate to the embryo-sac, a Dver and myself at South Kensington. Under con- subject that, owing to the brilliant discoveries of Prof. siderable difficulties, the practical teaching of botany Strasburger and others, was at the time especially was being established in the University; but what- engaging the attention of botanists; but it was not ever the shortcomings of the instruction, they were until his visit to Ceylon that he entered upon what amply compensated by the earnestness of the students, was to be his life-work, the investigation of the fungi who, bosides Ward, included Prof. Bower, F.R.S., of and bacteria. The first fruits of his work there was Glasgow; Dr. Hill, Master of Downing College; a series of three elaborate reports on the coffee-leaf Prof. Hilhouse, of Birmingham; Dr. Walter disease to the Colonial Secretary (1880-1), and a Gardiner, F.R.S., and others. However, Ward did scientific paper on the fungus producing it (Hemeleia not confine himself to the study of botany, but availed vastatrix), read before the Linnean Society on June himself to the full of the excellent opportunities for I, 1882 (Journ., vol. xix.); moreover, his experiacquiring a_sound knowledge of physiology under ence in this case led him to form views on the Sir Michael Foster, and of comparative anatomy under physiology of parasitism that influenced all his the late Prof. F. M. Balfour. A first-class in the subsequent work. However, when in Cevlon his natural sciences tripos of 1879 was a fitting close to attention was not so wholly absorbed by the coffee his undergraduate days at Cambridge.

disease as to prevent him from making other observa After taking his degree Ward went abroad for ations, the results of which are embodied in a paper purposes of study, and worked for some time under on the perithecium of Meliola, published in the Phil. the late Prof. Sachs at Würzburg; but the respite Trans. of the Royal Society, 1883, and in another on from botanical duty was not long. In 1880 he was a curious epiphyllous Lichen, Strigula complanata, called upon, as cryptogamic botanist to the Govern- that appeared in the Trans. Linn. Soc., vol. ii., 188+. mint of Ceylon, to go out and investigate the coffee- After these, and two other papers on the Saprolegnize loaf disease then ravaging the island, a difficult task and on Pvthium in the Quart. Journ. Mier. Sci., vol. that he accomplished with considerable success. On xxiii., 1883. there was for a time, owing to his his return, in 1882. he was elected Berkeley fellow transfer to Coopers Hill, a lull in the activity of publi

Owens College, Manchester, and became assistant cation, brokon by the appearance in 1857 of tiro

the late Prof. Williamson, F.R.S. Here he papers in the Phil. Trans., the one on Envloma 1 bavured for three years, and did much to promote Ranunculi, the other on the tubercular swellings on the growth of the botanical school, leaving Man- the roots of licia Faba, of which the latter is of hester in 1885 to become professor of botany in the special interest. At this time the causation of these furostry department of the Roval Indian Engineering swellings and their relation to the nitrogenous nutriCollege, Coopers Hill. In the meantime (1883) hetion of the plants bearing them was one of the leadhiid ben elected a fellow of his old college at (am- ! ing problems of plant physiology. To the solution bridge. For ten years he remained at Coopers Hill, l of this problem Ward's paper contributed the throwing himself with his habitual energy into the life important facts that (1) the tubercles are undoubtedly of the place, until in 1875 he succeedid the late Prof. of parasitic origin, and (2) thay the parasite guins

66

admission by the root-hairs, though he thought the ject was read before the Cambridge Philosophical parasite was a myceloid fungus, whereas it has since Society in January, 1902 (Proc., vol. xi.); treating been proved to be a bacterium. The whole subject of the physiological races of these fungi, with special was admirably resumed by him in an article con- reference to the Brown Rust of the Brome-grasses. tained in vol. i. of the Annals of Botany (1887-8), of Having shown that certain species of Bromes can which periodical he was one of the founders. The only be attacked successfully by certain forms or same volume opens with a paper by him and Mr. T. breeds of the Rust, he arrived at the striking conDunlop on the histology and physiology of the fruits clusion that “ the capacity for infection, or for resist and seeds of Rhamnus, perhaps one of the best of his ance to infection, is independent of the anatomical researches, in which it is shown that the yellow pig- structure of the leaf (of the Grass), and must depend ment (rhamnin), obtained from the fruits for dyeing upon some other internal factor or factors in the purposes, is formed by the decomposition of the plant." Two papers published later on in the year glucoside (xanthorhamnin) contained in the pericarp (Proc. Roy. Soc., vols. Ixix. and Ixxi.) discuss the by a ferment existing principally in the testa of the question, with an answer in the negative, as to seed. In the second volume of the Annals (1888-9) whether or not susceptibility to infection depends there is an elaborate paper, “A Lily-disease," the upon the nutritive conditions offered by the host to chief point of interest being the discovery that the the parasite, the foregoing conclusion being refungus (Botrytis) penetrates the cell-walls of the host asserted thus :-“ All the evidence points to the existby means of a ferment (since termed cytase) secreted ence, in the cells of the fungus, of enzymes or toxins, at the tips of the hyphæ. Ward's views on parasitism or both, and in the cells of the host-plant of antiwere further developed in his paper On some Re- toxins or similar substances, as the decisive factors lations between Host and Parasite in certain Epidemic in infection or immunity, although I have as yet failed Diseases of Plants” (Proc. Roy. Soc., vol. xlvii., to isolate any such bodies.” In the meantime vet 1890), which gained the honour of selection as the another paper had appeared in the Annals of Botany Croonian Lecture for that year. Passing over with (vol. xvi., June, 1902) confirming his previously ex: mere mention the papers on Craterostigma (Trans. pressed conviction that differences in details of Linn. Soc., 1890) and on the Ginger-beer Plant (Phil. anatomical structure do not afford any explanation of Trans., 1892), I come to his most laborious achieve- the relations between the Bromes and their Rusts. ment, a series of reports on the bacteriology of the His last paper on this subject is that dealing with Thames, presented, in conjunction with Prof. Percy the adaptive parasitism of the Brown Rust (Annales Frankland, F.R.S., to the Water Research Committee Mycologici, vol. i., 1903), in which he developed the of the Royal Society in the years 1893-6. It is diffi- interesting idea of the existence of what he termed cult to form any adequate conception of the unfailing bridging species.” The idea is briefly this, that assiduity necessary to the working out, as Ward did, although it is generally true that the adapted raceof the life-histories of the no less than eighty different of the parasitic fungus are restricted to groups of bacterial organisms that he found in the river, nor is closely allied host-species, there do occur host-specir it possible here to give an account of these voluminous which serve as intermediaries in the passage of the documents, a résumé of which, so far as his share parasite from members of one section of the hostof the work is concerned, was given by him in the genus to those of another section. fifth report (Proc. Roy. Soc., vol. Ixi., 1897). He had Incidentally, a controversy arose between Ward and proved his fitness for this difficult task by his paper Prof. Eriksson, of Stockholm, with reference to the

On the Characters or Marks employed for Classify- mycoplasm-theory” of the latter. In order to ing the Schizomycetes” in the Annals of Botany, account for the occurrence of sudden and widespread vol. vi., 1892, and the accomplishing of it gave rise to epidemics of Rust, Eriksson had assumed the persistsuch interesting parerga as the papers “ On the Action ence in a dormant state, within the tissues of the of Light on Bacteria (Phil. Trans., 1895), “ A Violet host-plants, of a combination of the protoplasm of the Bacillus from the Thames, and “Some Thames fungal hyphæ with that of the host, which he had Bacteria " (Ann. Bot., xii., 1898). The first of these described and figured and had called “ mycoplasm." papers is of considerable importance in that the As stated in his paper on the question (Histology of bactericidal effect of light, whether of the sun or of Uredo dispersa, &c., Phil. Trans., Ser. B, vol. cxcvi., the electric arc, is conclusively demonstrated, and is 1903), Ward was unable to confirm Eriksson's obserashown to be confined to the more highly refrangible ations, and regarded his assumption as unnecessary. rays of the spectrum.

One of the most interesting discussions in Section K Ward was a regular attendant at the meetings of during the Cambridge meeting of the British Associ: the British Association for the Advancement of ation, 1904, was that in which the pros and cons of Science, and was president of the botanical section this theory were urged by the two protagonists. at the meeting in Toronto in 1897. His address on Their views were subsequently published, side bi that occasion dealt with a subject that was always in side, in the Annals of Botaný (vol. xix., January, his mind, the economic significance of the fungi, of 1905). which he gave a characteristically exhaustive account. At this point the record of his work as an inIn fact, all his subsequent work was the expression vestigator abruptly ends, when great things mit of this idea. Thus in 1898 (Phil. Trans.) he published still have been anticipated, and it might well be an investigation of Stereum hirsutum, the fungus deemed sufficient to have occupied all the time and that attacks the wood of the oak, having succeeded, energy at his disposal. However, this is far from by means of pure cultures, in tracing its life-history being the case. Besides writing all these paper from the spore to the fructification, and he did the many of them illustrated by elaborate drawings- of same for Onvgena equina, the horn-destroying Ward was an excellent draughtsman-as well fungus (Phil. Trans., 1899). He then entered upon others necessarily omitted here, he produced sever! what was destined to be his last line of research, the books :

translation of Sachs's “ Physiology of investigation of the l'redines or Rusts, with an energy Plants," 1884; “ Timber and some of its Disem that was remarkable even for him; but it was not 1880; The Oak,” 1892; an edition of Laslet's until 1902 that the publication of the results began, Timber and Timber-trees," 1894; “ Diseases of so long and so numerous were the experiments from Plants," 1889; “Grasses,' 1901; ** Disease ir which they were drawn. The first paper on the sub- Plants," 1901; “ Trees,” a considerable work, ut

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which several parts have appeared, and I understand results, but, on reverting to his own department, that some MSS. remain to be published.

Clarke, while as ardent a collector as ever, found It is pleasant to reflect that so much good work time to commence the issue of his valuable contribuwas not allowed to pass unrecognised. In addition tions to Eastern botany. His monographs of the 10 the distinctions already mentioned, many others Indian Cyrtandraceæ and Commelynaceæ were issued were conferred upon him. Ward became a Fellow of in 1874; that of the Indian Compositæ appeared in the Linnean Society in 1886, and was elected a Fellow 1876. In the former year also, Clarke, at his own of the Royal Society in 1888, receiving a Royal medal risk and cost, issued a new and cheap edition of in 1893; he served on the council of the Linnean Roxburgh's “ Flora Indica," which had become Society, 1887-9, and on that of the Royal Society, almost unprocurable. 1895-6. He elected an honorary fellow of

The extent and value of the field work done by Christ's College, Cambridge, in 1897, and in 1902 Clarke during the first ten years of his Indian service received the degree of D.Sc. honoris causa from his may be best measured by the character of the collecfirst. Alma Mater, the Victoria University, having tion presented by him to Kew in 1877. This included previously taken the same degree at Cambridge. He 25,000 numbers, representing some 5000 species. The was president of the British Mycological Society, fulness of the notes, often accompanied by useful 1900-2, and had received the honorary fellowship of analyses; the precise indication of localities and altithe Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society tudes; the excellence of the specimens themselves, and of other societies.

combine to render this contribution one of the most Beginning in 1854 at Hereford, his life is a story of munificent additions ever made to the Indian material unremitting and successful effort until its close at Tor- at Kew. It represents journeys in the Bengal plain, quay on Sunday, August 26, 1906. I remember Ward

on the Chutia Nagpur plateau, in Chittagong, in the as a genial companion, a man of varied interests, de- Khasia Hills, in Sikkim from the Terai to the lighting especially in music; but the dominant

snows, in the Punjab Himalaya, in Kashmir and impression is that of his whole-hearted devotion to

thence to the Karakoram, in the Nilgiri Hills. No his science; all else counted with him as nothing in botanist since Griffith had seen more of India; none comparison with that. No doubt this led him to

since Hooker had more fully examined the areas impose too severe a strain upon a constitution never

visited. very robust : but such as he was, it could not have been otherwise. He was laid to rest in the Hunting- England, and for four years was engaged at Kew

Early in 1879 Clarke was placed on special duty in don Road Cemetery, Cambridge, on September 3, assisting Sir Joseph Hooker in the preparation of the attended by many friends and colleagues, amid tokens

“Flora of British India"; for the second, third, and of regret from near and far.

S. H. VINES.

fourth volumes of this work he prepared the accounts

of many important natural families. While in CHARLES BARON CLARKE, F.R.S.

England Clarke also published, in 1880, a review of THE HE death of Mr. Charles Baron Clarke on the “ Ferns of Northe.n India." He returned to

August 25, in his seventy-fourth year, deprives India early in 1883, and towards the close of 1884 he the botanical world of an able worker, and takes from was appointed to act as Director of Public Instruca wider circle still a friend endeared for his breadth tion, Bengal. In 1885 his services were transferred of sympathy and charm of manner.

from Bengal to Assam, a change of province which Born at Andover in 1832, Clarke was educated at admitted of his further exploration of the Surma and King's College School, London, and at Trinity and Brahmaputra valleys and of the Khasia and Jaintia Queens' Colleges, Cambridge. He graduated in 1856, Hills, and enabled him to make a botanical journey being bracketed third wrangler. Elected a fellow of in the Naga Hills and Manipur, new ground even for Queens' in 1857, he was in 1858 called to the Bar him, the results of which were published in the at Lincoln's Inn, and appointed mathematical lecturer Journal of the Linnean Society. of his college. This position he held until 1865, when In 1887 Clarke retired from the Indian Service and he joined the Bengal Educational Department.

settled at Kew, so as to be near the herbarium While at Cambridge Clarke was one of a brilliant there, in which he worked for nineteen years as a group holding advanced economic views, which in- volunteer. Early in his Indian career he appears to cluded Henry Fawcett, Leslie Stephen, and John have been particularly attracted to the study of the Rigby. His interest in political economy continued Cyperaceæ, and one of the objects of his life was throughout his life, and found expression in occasional | the completion of a general monograph of this difficult pamphlets on economic subjects, which he treated in family, with regard to which Clarke became the a manner pleasing for its lucidity and freedom from recognised authority to whom botanists in every political bias.

country sent their collections for identification and deBefore he left England, Clarke, as a recreation, scription. His devotion to this group, accounts of was interested in field botany. On reaching India he which he prepared for the “ Flora of British India," printed at Calcutta, in 1866, a list of the plants of the “ Flora Capensis," and the “ Flora of Tropical Andover, his birthplace. Clarke began his Indian Africa," was not, however, exclusive, for he elabor

teacher in the Presidency College, ated several important families for both the African Calcutta, but soon became an inspector of schools.“ Floras " and for the “ Flora of the Malay PeninHis work as inspector involved touring within the sula," and communicated numerous botanical papers circle allotted to him, and gave him facilities for to the Linnean and Royal Societies. botanical field work. Of these he made the utmost Clarke joined the Linnean Society in 1867, when use, and supplemented them by vacation visits to his active botanical work in India first began. In districts outside his circle and provinces beyond the society's fortunes he took the keenest interest, Bengal. He made extensive collections, and at the being, while on special duty in England and again same time found material for contributions to since his retirement, one of the most trusted counthnology and geography. From 1869 until 1871 cillors of the society, over which he presided from Clarke was in charge of the Royal Botanic Garden 1894 until 1896. He was elected a Fellow of the it Calcutta, with the

of a well-equipped | Roval Society in 1882, and served on the council in barbarium at his command. The administrative work

He was also a Fellow of the Geological and of these two years left little time for publication of of the Geographical Societies.

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The Berlin municipal laboratories for the analysis of The jubilee of the cual-tar industry will be celebrated in

foodstuffs will be ready shortly. On the first floor will be America next month, and Sir William Perkin, F.R.S., the

the chemical and microscopical sections, in a hall on the discoverer of “ mauve,” will leave England on September 22

ground floor there will be a collection room for tests and for New York to receive a public tribute from Americans samples, while above the chemical and microscopii al for the services he has rendered to chemical industry and

sections there will be rooms for bacteriology, electrolyir science. At a public meeting held last May, the com

work, the hydrology bureau, and the library, with reaca mittee submitted the following programme :-1) To invite

A special outbuilding will be used for anirr.al Sir (then Dr.) W. H. Perkin to be present at the American

examinations. celebration as the guest of the Americans, the date of the

Prof. Wilhelm HITTORF will shortly celebrate his guldes event to be October 6 (subject to the approval of Sir William * Universitäts-Jubiläum " in Münster. In 1848 he was a Perkin), and to consist of a banquet and symposium on privatdocent at the then Münster Akademie ; from 1852-), the coal-tar industry ; (2) the presentation to Sir William extraordinary professor of physics and chemistry; and from Perkin of a personal token ; (3) the foundation of a Perkin

1856–1875, ordinary professor of both subjects, but since medal, to be awarded annually to an American chemist

the latter date he has only retained the professorship of for distinguished work in applied chemistry ; (4) the estab

physics. His professorial colleagues are presenting hin lishment of a nu us of a fund at the Chemists' Club in

with a marble bust of himself, by Herr Rüller, of Münstri. New York City for a reference and circulating library Prof. Hittorf has presented 25,000 marks to the science covering the entire field of theoretical and applied chem

faculty for the purpose of furthering scientific work. istry, which is to be in charge of a salaried librarian, and to contain duplicate sets, one of them to be used for As international congress for the study of the Polar circulation among American chemists. A sum of at least regions was opened on September 7 at the Palais des 50,000 dollars was estimated as necessary to place the Académies, Brussels, under the presidency of M. Beernaeri, library on a permanent basis. It is also expected that a Ministre d'État. The Times correspondent states that substantial contribution will be made to the international among those present were Dr. Nordenskjöld, M. Arctonsk', fund in London. The American committee includes the M. de Gerlache, Captain Scott, and Prince Buonaparte names of about 150 of the leading scientific and public men

Baron de Favereau, the Belgian Minister for Forriga in the United States.

Affairs, welcomed the delegates. A draft scheme for the We notice with deep regret the announcement that Prof.

formation of international Polar commission was Ludwig Boltzmann, professor of theoretical physics in the adopted on Tuesday. The primary aims of the commission University of Vienna, died by his own hand at Duino a

are to bring about closer relations among Polar explorers few days ago.

to coordinate scientific observations, and to assist Polar

enterprise, without, however, organising expeditions on its On October 1 Sir George Watt, C.I.E., reporter on own account. It was resolved to submit this scheme to economic products to the Indian Government, will deliver

the approval of the respective Governments. At the final the opening address of the session at the School of Phar- meeting M. Charcot announced his intention of organising macy of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, and

a fresh expedition to the South Pole, and Dr. Nordenskjold the president of the society will present the Pereira medal. expressed a hope that Belgians would cooperate with the

A Reuter message from Tiflis reports that the township French in this undertaking. of Kwareli, covering an area of five kilometres in the dis

The committee of the Quekett Microscopical Club has trict of Telaff (Caucasus), has been almost entirely arranged for a series of demonstrations at 20 Hanuves destroyed by an avalanche of mud, sand, and stones from

Square, W., on The Practical Use of the Microscope and the neighbouring mountain-side. Disasters of this nature

its Accessories,” to be given from 7 p.m. to 8 p.m. on the are of frequent occurrence in the Caucasian valleys.

third Friday in each month during the ensuing sessica A MEETING of the German Astronomical Society opened | The first will be on November 16, when Mr. H. F. Angus yesterday morning at Jena, and will continue in session

will deal with axial substage illumination, including the until Saturday. In addition to scientific business, visits use of the plane and concave mirrors, substage 000will be paid to the optical works of Zeiss and to Schott's densers, and methods of centring the illuminant and of glassworks. The meeting of the German Association of obtaining critical illumination. At other demonstrations, Naturalists and Physicians will open at Stuttgart on

the order of which is not yet finally settled, the folk song September 16, so that members of the Astronomical Society subjects, among others, will be considered :--substage onwho propose to attend it will be able to leave Jena in axial illumination, including oblique and dark ground time to do so.

illumination; the use of the micropolariscope; various The Government of Cape Colony has placed a sum upon comparison of objectives; and the employment of m:te

methods of illuminating opaque objects; the testing and the Supplementary Estimates toward the expenses incurred

meters and finders. These demonstrations will be in aidos in carrying out investigations upon defects in ostrich

tion to the Gossip meetings of the club, which are feathers, under the direction of Prof. J. E. Duerden, of

held on the first Friday, and to the ordinary meetings, beli Rhodes University College, Grahamstown. A letter upon

also on the third Friday of the month at 8 p.m. Further the subject appeared in NATURE of May 17 (p. 55).

particulars may be obtained from the hon. sec., Mr. A The famous engineering firm of Friedrich Krupp, Ltd., Earland, 31 Denmark Street, Watford, Herts. of Essen, is contemplating the erection of a technico

It is well known that during the last few years to physical laboratory at a probable cost of 2,500,000 marks.

study of protozoa has made remarkable advances. It has PROF. Max Toepler, the inventor of the mercury pump been shown that numerous protozoa play an importan: 1. bearing his name, and professor of physics at the Technical in human and animal diseases, and the unravelling of this High School, Dresden, celebrated his seventieth birthday life-histories has been attempted by many worner: *t on September 7.

enthusiasm and success. Among these workers in 198

even

has done more than Fritz Schaudinn, whose premature R. T. Pearsall. A number of star-fishes from the Pacific death this summer has been lamented by the whole world coast of North America are described as new by Mr. W. K. of biologists. He not only made many discoveries of Fisher in vol. viii., pp. 111-139, of the Proceedings of importance, he opened up new lines of investigation which the Washington Academy of Sciences. A detailed monoare full of promise. His work has made it safe to pro- graph, with illustrations, is promised later. phest that protozoology will surely develop into a depart

The contents of the September number of the Entomment not less important than bacteriology. Doubtless in- ologists' Monthly Magazine include a continuation of the fluenced by his master, F. E. Schulze, Fritz Schaudinn

nomenclature of the Microlepidoptera by Lord Walsingbegan about ten years ago to study protozoa, and he soon

ham and Mr. J. H. Durrant, a further instalment of Dr. attained the rank of a discoverer. His researches on

J. H. Wood's synopsis of the British flies of the genus multiple nuclear division, the central corpuscle of heliozoa, and the dimorphism of foraminifera (at the same time eluci

Phora, and a paper by Mr. N. H. Joy on beetles infesting

the nests of birds and mammals. Having taken the beetle dated by Mr. J. J. Lister) were of much interest, but it

Cholera colonoides, as well as other supposed rare species, was his working out (along with Siedlecki) of the life

in birds' nests last year, the author of the paper just history of Coccidia (1897) that first indicated his character

mentioned came to the conclusion that if such“ stations istic ability. During the last few years he published

were carefully searched the rarity of the beetles in question memoir after memoir on the life-histories of parasitic would prove a myth. Put to the test of experiment, the protozoa, such as Trypanosoma and Spirochæte, and made

theory has turned out to be true, while the nests of the excursions into the field of bacteriology, e.g. in the dis

smaller mammals have proved an more productive covery of the spirillum of syphilis. He founded the Archiv

source of interesting Coleoptera. für Protistenkunde, now in its seventh volume, and he had time to indulge in some purely zoological work, e.g.

The fourth part of vol. xxxv. of Gegenbaur's Morphthe study of Tardigrada. He was cut off in June last in ologisches Jahrbuch opens with a eulogy of the founder the midst of his labours, at the early age of thirty-five- delivered by Prof. C. Seffner at the unveiling at Heidelan irreparable loss to science. Nor does the sadness end berg on May 12 of a bust of the great anatomist. A here, for Schaudinn has left a widow and young family photograph of the bust accompanies this brief résumé of very inadequately provided for. As he has left the world Carl Gegenbaur's life and work. A large part of the rest his debtor, it is to be hoped that success will attend a of the issue is occupied by a long and elaborate descripproposed international memorial, in which many prominent

tion and discussion, by Mr. H. Braus, of Heidelberg, on biologists and physicians in this country have already

the fore-limb and operculum of the larva of the frog interested themselves. Subscriptions should be sent to the

Bombinator. Attention is directed to a certain correlation treasurer, Mr. Adam Sedgwick, F.R.S., New Museums, between the fore-limb and the operculum, more especially Cambridge.

with regard to the perforation in the latter. Dr. Charlotte

Müller discusses the development of the human thoracic The May issue of the Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia contains a paper by Mr.

cavity, while Messrs. G. Kolossoff and E. Paukul formu

late a mathematical theory to explain the papillary ridges J. A. G. Rehn on non-saltatorial orthopterous insects

and grooves on the palm and sole of the human hand and (inclusive of Mantidze and Phasmidie) from British Guiana,

foot. in which several new species are named and described, and a second, by the same author, on five new species of

DURING last year's visit of the British Association to Orthoptera from Tonkin.

South Africa, Mr. C. F. Rousselet occupied himself, so

far as circumstances would permit, with collecting the The whole of the second part of vol. lxxxiv. of the rotiferous animalcules of the country. Despite very unZeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Zoologie is taken up by favourable conditions for collecting, the result of his labours a paper of 155 pages on the terminal nerve apparatus in has been enormously to increase the South African list, the mouth-parts of birds, and the general mode of nerve especially if Natal (where more work on the group had termination in vertebrates as a whole. The author, Dr. E. been done than elsewhere) be excluded. Mr. Rousselet's Botezat, concludes that the terminations of peripheral paper on this fauna is published, with illustrations, in the nerves conform to a common fundamental plan, and have August number of the Journal of the Royal Microscopical a definite structure of their own, which is unlike that of Society. At the conclusion of his paper the author comthe nerve terminations of the higher sensory organs. ments on the extraordinarily wide geographical distribution THE habits and reactions of the American pond-snail

of many of these minute organisms. “ The best explanLymnaeus elodes (probably only a local phase of the

ation is that the Rotifera, in addition to thin-shelled summer European L. palustris) form the subject of No. 6 of Cold

eggs which hatch at once, produce resting eggs with thick Spring Harbour Monographs, the author in this instance tough shells capable of withstanding any amount of desic

1 being Mr. H. E. Walter. Although the creature ordinarily cation, and which may be wafted up with the dust of breathes by coming at intervals to the surface and filling dried-up pools, and carried very long distances by the wind its lung-chamber with air, in exceptional circumstances it

and air-currents, and thus scattered over the whole surface is able to breathe without rising to the surface at all, the

of the earth, and then come to life and produce their

kind.” lung-chamber being then filled with water. This secondary adaptation is, however, at once relinquished when the AN

in Naturwissenschaftliche Wochenschrift inducing circumstances disappear.

(July 8) of the Sigillarieæ, by Dr. W. Koehne, indicates SCIENCE Bulletin No. 8 (vol. i.) of the Brooklyn Insti

how the impressions or casts, known as incrustations, of tute of Arts and Sciences contains notes on birds from

these fossil Lycopods are produced, and contrasts them Trinidad, by Mr. G. K. Cherrie ; descriptions of various

with petrifactions in which cell structure is preserved. Sorth American moths and their larvæ, by Mr. H. G. For several years the application of electricity to agriDyar; and a list of geometrid moths from Utah, Texas, culture has been increasing in Germany, where the owners and Arizona, with descriptions of new species, by Mr. of large farms have been brought to see the advantagen

account

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