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The native speech centre is a special hindrance, and the for the investigation of structure, showed that examination translation habit, although the path of least discomfort, is by the unaided eye gave valuable information as to the really a bar to progress. The rate of progress depends upon character of quenched high-carbon steel. Prof. N. the intensity of the learner's absorption during the early Belelubsky (St. Petersburg) reported on the unification of stage. Inquiry into cases of aphasia among bilingual methods of testing, and submitted a series of proposals. people may be expected to throw some light upon the Prof. H. M. Howe and Mr. A. Sauveur submitted pronature of brain centres for foreign speech. The attempt posals for the uniform nomenclature of iron and steel. Dr. 10 establish two foreign languages at the same time should R. Moldenke (New York) reported on the establishment of not be made ; each tends to inhibit the other. Latin, how- standard methods of testing cast-iron and finished castever, taken on a translation method does not appreciably ings. He noted that the American and German specifiinteriere. Progress is hindered by the incapacity of some cations differ but slightly, and could easily be made scholars to perceive new sounds.

identical. The discussion on the Examination and Inspection oj Mr. E. Sauvage (Paris) submitted a report on impact Schools was started by Prof. Armstrong, who asserted the tests on notched bars, and there was an animated disneed for freedom to develop individuality. The ideal cussion as to the value of this method of testing, opinions system would be for the schools to examine themselves being equally divided as to the desirability or not of with the aid occasionally of competent assessors. Mr. recommending it in specifications. The Brinell hardness W. M. Heller spoke on the constructive work of an in- test, which was reported on by Mr. J. A. Brinell and spector of schools. The transition from payment by results Mr. G. Dillner (Stockholm), was also keenly discussed, to inspection was accompanied for some years by a diminu- the general opinion being that, with the view of placing tion in the proficiency of pupils. An inspector should information on record, tensile tests of metals should, when possess successful teaching experience in both primary and possible, be supplemented by tests by the Brinell method. secondary schools, if possible with the wider outlook of a Mr. W. Ast (Vienna) submitted a report on international headmaster. It takes time to know a large number of researches in the macroscopic examination of iron. The schools and teachers, and first impressions are sometimes etching test is recommended for preliminary examination. wrong; hence an inspector should be left for several years Lastly, Mr. F. Osmond and Mr. G. Cartaud (Paris) subin the same district. An inspector has a magnificent' field mitted an interesting report on the progress of metallofor scientific research; he can watch, foster, and institute graphy since the Budapest congress of 1901. educational experiments of all kinds. The Rev. E. C. The second section, dealing with cements, was under Owen doubted whether the inferior teacher well inspected the presidency of Mr. Levie (Charleroi). The subjects diswas an improvement on the good teacher uninspected.cussed included the determination of the adhesive force of Training would never eliminate mediocrity. If practical | hydraulic cement, the determination of the weight of a experience in teaching were made a sine qua non for litre of cement, and the behaviour of cement in sea-water. administrative posts, this would attract good men It was decided to appoint a committee to inquire into reeducational work.

inforced concrete. A joint meeting was held with Sections A and G to The third section, under the presidency of Mr. E. discuss the Teaching of Mechanics by Experiment. Mr. Roussel (Malines), devoted attention to tests of paints, C. E. Ashford spoke of the results obtained at Dartmouth linseed oil, wood, bitumen, asphalt, and india-rubber. The by the cooperation of schoolmaster and engineer, and the congress concluded with a lecture by Prof. H. Le Chatelier use of real machinery instead of scientific toys. The science (Paris) on the practical applications of metallography. An master who plays with laboratory toys is apt to be too interesting feature of the congress was a small laboratory academic, and the technical schools are too rule-of-thumb, installed to illustrate modern methods of testing, under lacking the rigorous mathematician and trained educa- the direction of Prof. Le Chatelier, Mr. Guillet (Paris), tionist; but the finest of laboratory toys were the delightful and Prince Gagarine (St. Petersburg). It was decided that trolleys and vibrating springs shown by the lecturer and the next congress should be held in 1909 in Copenhagen used by his pupils for measuring velocity, acceleration, and under the presidency of Mr. A. Foss, president of the momentum.

Society of Danish Engineers. Those who attended Section L greatly enjoyed Prof. Sadler's chairmanship, " serious and sunny.” His summing up at the close of each day's discussion pointed through THE ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS CAMPAIGN. primitive chaos to the spirit of search, the growing desire THE Hague, preparing to receive the great Peace Cane

gress of 1907, which is to discuss questions of peace Hugh RICHARDSON.

and disarmament, recently entertained delegates from the chief European and American States to the fifth Inter

national Conference on Tuberculosis. At this conference INTERNATIONAL TESTING CONGRESS.

questions of increased armaments were discussed, with the IN NATURE of September 6 (p. 471) brief reference was

view of waging a more effective war against this great made to the opening of the international Testing | evil. The great interest taken all over the world in the Congress at Brussels on September 3. The work of the proceedings of the conference testifies to the awakening of sections began on September 4, and was continued on mankind to the necessity of making further and greater September 5 and 6. The amount of work to be dealt efforts in order to reduce the ravages of tubercular infecwith was so considerable that three sections were formed, tion to a minimum. I dealing with metals, B with building stone and cement, At the present time the campaign against tuberculosis and C with other materials. Altogether there were twenty- is being carried on with greater energy than at any seven reports of committees and forty-five original papers, previous period in medical history. Since Koch's disthe greater portion of which were submitted to the section covery of the tubercle bacillus in 1882, and the publiin metals. Mr. J. Magery (Namur) presided over this cation of his exhaustive researches arising therefrom, it Section, and he was supported by honorary presidents re- has been known to medical men that tuberculosis is as presenting the various nationalities present, and including much a preventable disease as plague or cholera. NeverMessrs. Wedding (Berlin). Brough (London), Saladin theless, the public in England have remained until very (France), Hackstroh (Holland), Chernoff (Russia), Brinell recently apathetic and apparently indifferent to the fact (Sweden), Popper (Austria), and Tonello (Spain). The that untold misery and sixty thousand actual deaths occur following

are brief notes on the various reports presented :- annually from a disease which can and ought to be Mr. A. Rieppel (Nuremberg) reported on the introduc- eradicated. At last we are waking from our lethargy. tion of standard specifications in various countries; Mr. This change has been gradually induced by the insistent W. Ast (Vienna) reported on methods for inspecting and pressure of medical opinion, aided largely by the King's testing in order to ensure uniformity in iron and steel ; active sympathy and interest. More lately Prof. Wright's Mr. R. Krohn (Danzig) reported that it was not feasible great work on opsonins has given fresh hope and to establish standard welding tests, Prof. E. Heynenergy to many who were becoming jaded in an apparently (Berlin), reporting on the value of etching malleable iron hopeless conflict.

Citr 0

Since 1851 statistics show a steady decline in the mortality cases of advanced tuberculosis. Such cases under hospital of tuberculosis, and for this the principles of general treatment remain stationary or get worse, and merely sanitation have been chiefly responsible. We may expect occupy beds which may be more usefully employed in the in the future that this improvement will be maintained by treatment and cure of patients less extensively infected. the continued prevention of overcrowding, the enforcement Advanced cases, then, added to the many who for various of good ventilation, improvement of insanitary areas, more reasons prefer to remain at home, are under no control, and effective draina better cleansing of streets, and the more constitute a constant and very real inenace to the health stringent supervision of meat, cowsheds, dairies, &c.; but of the general public. How to reach these patients and more rapid progress may be made and eventual extinc- bring them under proper medical supervision is in most tion of the disease attained if more direct measures are localities a great difficulty, yet until it is dealt with all employed in an intelligent and comprehensive manner. hope of eradicating tuberculosis may be abandoned.

Of more direct measures, hospitals for consumption have London there appears to be no organisation as yet which no doubt played a part in the decline of phthisis, but any- will undertake this necessary work. The difficulty has one acquainted with the conditions of life obtaining in our been met in Scotland by the founding of " dispensaries for great centres of population must admit that their sphere | tuberculosis," and this example has been followed in France of usefulness is but limited. The reasons for this are not and Belgium. In Germany, too, similar institutions far to seek :-firstly, hospital treatment is practically use- (Wohlfahrtstellen für Lungenkranke) have been foundel. less for cases of advanced tuberculosis, and most hospitals | The functions of a dispensary are briefly these :refuse admission to patients suffering from a widespread (1) Medical examination of patients. infection ; secondly, patients well fed and passing a restful (2) Inquiry by a medical man or nurse into the distors existence in hospital under the best hygienic conditions of the illness, the home conditions, the economic condition rapidly break down on again returning to their homes, of the family, the suitability of the accommodation for where such favourable conditions are impossible. The home treatment. recognition of this latter fact has led to the erection of (3) Arrangements for providing medical treatment and sanatoria in various parts of the country, where patients nursing of patients that could be treated at home without may continue for a time to build up their powers of resist- risk of infection. ance after leaving hospital, and where they may by (4) Dispensing of medicines and disinfectants. graduated exercise under proper medical supervision steadily (5) Selection of cases suitable for hospital treatment. fit themselves for the more arduous work of ordinary life. The type of dispensary which might well be copied by

At the present time the number of sanatoria is limited, other cities is the Royal Victoria Dispensary, founded and hopelessly inadequate for the work. Efforts are, how- eighteen years ago by Dr. R. W. Philip in Edinburgh. ever, being made all over the country to increase their The excellent work done by this pioneer institution his number, but the cost of building and the cost of maintain- been of incalculable benefit to the community. ing an efficient sanatorium is a practical difficulty with By these means the campaign is carried into the vers which we are faced at the outset. The King's Sanatorium homes of the patients, and an attempt is made to limit at Midhurst, perhaps the most perfect of its kind in the at its source the constant stream of more or less advanced world, cost approximately 1000l. per bed. Having regard cases of tuberculosis which appear daily in the out-patieni to the number of beds required all over the country, a cost departments of our hospitals. anything approaching these figures is prohibitive. The The cost of such dispensaries is not great; Dr. Philip Open-air League, however, has directed its attention to estimates it at 500l. to 1000l. per annum for this point, and has as one of its principal objects the 300,000 inhabitants. It might be paid out of the rates, erection of sanatoria at a cost estimated at not more than and the dispensaries, for administrative purposes, should be 100l. per bed, including complete equipment and the free- under the control of the medical officer of health, hold of the ground. At Woodilee and Gartloch Asylums Pulmonary tuberculosis has been recognised in Scotland (Scotland) wood and iron sanatoria have been erected at a by the Local Government Board as an infectious dista cost of gol. per bed. If satisfactory headway is to be made within the meaning of the Public Health Act (Soutlandı, we must have more sanatoria, and from the nature of the 1897; consequently the obligations of the local authority case they must be erected as cheaply as possible.

with regard to infectious disease are estended to phthisis. Another philanthropic body, under the presidency of and much more efficient control is established. H.R.H. Princess Christian, called The National Com- Under the Infectious Diseases Act (1889) the Lural mittee for the Establishment of Sanatoria for Workers Government Board can invest local authorities with similar Suffering from Tuberculosis, having similar objects in powers. In Sheffield these powers have been obtained in view, recently purchased 250 acres of land in Kent, and a modified form, and in Manchester and some other localiis about to build a sanatorium for poor patients; the com- ties notification of tuberculosis has been tried with sucrpis, mittee expects that the institution will be self-supporting, Surely the time has now arrived when the puurta without endowment from local rates or private charitable possible under the Infectious Diseases Act should by more subscriptions. These organisations are working along the generally employed. A system of voluntary notitication li right line and doing splendid work, but so great is the been inaugurated in Manchester; this was at first limizde number of tuberculous patients (80,000 in London alone) to public institutions, but in 1900 medical men were invird that they are only able to touch the fringe of this to notify the cases occurring in their private practica The tremendous problem.

system has worked well, and has been of immense benefit Hitherto sanatorium treatment has mainly consisted of in affording opportunities for visiting the home of the fresh air, rest in bed, full diet, and graduated exercise patients and instructing them in the principles of disinfeti under constant medical supervision. Such a life is not a tion, ventilation, and the proper disposal of sputa. &c. it very healthy moral existence; it produces the sanatorium

cannot be doubted that some system of notification solunhabit, which renders one who has acquired it morally tary or compulsory) is imperative if efficient control - 10 unfit, as he is already physically, for the more strenuous be obtained. It is not contended that notification bi itself life to which he must sooner or later return. In order to has any administrative value, but if efficiently followed 6 counteract the emasculating influence of sanatorium life as by adequate preventive measures it would alter the whole hitherto pursued, to reduce the cost of maintenance, and aspect of affairs; on the other hand, application in order to provide work for patients who would otherwise provisions of the Public Health Act to tuberculosis is lead an indolent and purposeless life, various schemes have impossible unless some system of notification is emploway been proposed.

Many new cases of infection arise from ignorano The Open-air League intends to found farm colonies in

infectivity of tuberculosis, and from an absence al 31 connection with its sanatoria where patients cured, but knowledge as to how best to live without spreading irtive as yet unfit to return home, may occupy themselves in tion. To combat this local authorities have distribue and farming, in the cultivation of vegetables, and other similar leaflets conveying simple instructions for the men das lite light occupations. An intermediate stage is thus created of tuberculous persons, and various philanthropia multa during which the patient is braced up physically and morally, (e.g. the Open-air League) have this education of its de and his tendency to relapse reduced

minimum. as one of their chief objects. Hospitals and sanatoria, however, under their rules exclude Brighton, however, under the able leadership in

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a little pre

Vewsholme, has struck out a new line. The vacant wards if confirmed so suggestive, that an extension of the observof the hospital are utilised for the education of consump- ations over a much longer period is desirable. Until that lives. Patients living at home are admitted to the hospital is done, one cannot feel sure that the results are fairly for short periods (four 10 six weeks), during which time representative, even of the particular season of the year they are instructed as to how they should live and in all when they were observed. Among the electrograms rethe precautions and preventive measures they should produced is one showing the effects of a sirocco from the practise on returning to their homes. In this way a con- desert. The large and sudden changes of potential, the stant stream of enlightened information is continually curves going off the sheet both in the positive and negative disseminated among the most ignorant. Some other towns directions, are similar to those met with in England during are following this excellent example.

thunder or heavy rain. Other curves of interest are those Although it has been shown that much time, money, and showing the changes of the potential and of the positive energy are being expended by various public and private ionisation of the air at Philippeville during the total eclipse bodies in the effort to throw a net over the whole tubercu- of the sun on August 30, 1905. Between the times of the bous population, yet it must be confessed there remain first and last contacts the potential was slightly above its many gaps which must be filled up if success is to be mean for the time of the day, and the ionisation fell attained in our war against consumption. Proper organisa- decidedly as totality approached.

The maximum in the tion and coordination of effort are needed. A well-thought- one curve and the minimum in the other occurred fortyout scheme must be put in action throughout the country five minutes after totality. and controlled by some central authority. This duty falls In his criticisms of theories by Elster and Geitel and naturally to the Local Government Board, and is it too Ebert the author points out that at Philippeville the much to expect that a “ tuberculosis committee” of that potential was below, not above, its mean when the wind board may be appointed the chief duty of which should be blew off the land, and that the barometric pressure showed the control and direction of the isolated efforts now being made in various parts of the country?

the ordinary double period. In discussing some theoretical

By this means views of his own, he refers to a difficulty in that greater efficiency and better results would accrue at a pro- passant de l'été à l'hiver la diminution du rayonnement portionately smaller cost.

R. FIELDING-OULD.

solaire s'accompagne d'un abaissement du champ,

passant du jour à la nuit elle coincide, au contraire, avec ATMOSPHERIC ELECTRICITY IN ALGERIA. une augmentation." This is rather puzzling in view of IN the Revue générale des Sciences of May 30, M. Ch.

the author's perfectly correct statement, p. 446, that the Nordmann gives an account of the phenomena of atmo

potential is highest in winter.

C. CHREE. spheric electricity, and of one or two of the latest theories on the subject, and also describes some recent observations UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL made by himself in Algeria. Atmospheric electricity is

INTELLIGENCE. now so large a subject that the essay naturally covers only a part of the ground, and does not go into many details.

The University of Greifswald has received a legacy of It shows, however, the clearness and lightness of touch

60,000 marks under the will of the late Dr. Milschewsky, one expects from our neighbours across the Channel. In

who died recently in Loburg. a few points perhaps its conclusions are

Prof. Morris TRAVERS, F.R.S., professor of chemistry cipitate, but it contains some shrewd criticisms of other at the l'niversity College, Bristol, has been appointed people's theories. The paper contains copies of some director of the Indian Institute of Science which is to be interesting electrograms, mostly obtained by the author in established in Bangalore. August and September, 1905, at Philippeville, on the

ACCORDING to the Chemiker Zeitung, the authorities of southern coast of the Mediterranean.

the Zürich University have decided to increase considerably M. Nordmann first points out that the normal potential

the University lecture and laboratory fees chargeable to gradient in the atmosphere may arise from a negative foreigners, with the idea of lessening to some extent the charge on the earth, or a positive charge in the air, or from the two combined. He regards the presence of an

present high percentage of foreigners who attend. excess of positive electrification in the air as proved by the

In the columns of the Chemiker Zeitung for last week fall in the potential gradient with increasing height

we read that the Grecian Government recently received observed in balloon ascents. He refers to Elster and from St. Petersburg a legacy of about eight million roubles, Geitel as having discovered that any charged body, how

or i} millions sterling, which was left in the beginning ever well insulated, loses its charge in ordinary atmo

of the last century by a rich Grecian merchant, of the spheric air. Historically this is hardly complete, as Elster

name of Dombolis, with the condition that after the and Geitel merely confirmed what Linss had discovered lapse of a definite time a second Grecian university should many years before. Elster and Geitel have, of course, be built in Corfu out of the capital and interest, and be added enormously to our knowledge of the subject, and

called the Kapodistrias University. they gave it much greater precision, besides bringing it The fees for the examinations of the German technical into line with recent laboratory research.

high schools have been fixed on the following scale :--for Passing to the diurnal variation in the potential gradient, the preliminary diploma examination, marks for P. 445. M. Nordmann refers to the double period with naturalised Germans, 120 marks for foreigners; for the maxima about 8 a.m. and 8 p.m. as having been regarded diploma examination, 120 marks for Germans and 240 until recently as universal. He next refers to observations marks for foreigners; for the doctor of engineering exon mountains, especially those on the Sonnblick, as show

amination, 240 marks, of which the first half is to be paid ing that at high levels the afternoon minimum disappears, when the examination thesis is handed in, and the rethe diurnal variation becoming simple, and mentions mainder before the oral examination is taken. Chauveau as having established the existence of the same phenomenon on the Eiffel Tower. In both cases the

The university buildings of Groningen were almost comobservations show rather a reduced prominence in the

pletely destroyed by fire on August 30. The fire is supafternoon minimum than its total absence, and on p. 447

posed to have been caused by careless use of benzine or Vordmann somewhat qualifies his earlier remarks. His

methylated spirits on the part of workmen. The natural own observations at Philippeville supply a very interesting history museum and the chemical and pharmaceutical laborexample of a simple period. Observing on an eminence

atories were entirely destroyed, while the hygienic and

saved. The university 100 metres high, 'immediately adjacent to the sea, he physiological laboratories obtained as the mean from the quietest days of his stay

buildings, which, strangely enough, were not insured, were (the number of which is not stated) a diurnal variation

erected in 1846-1852. An emergency committee has made with a minimum from 4 a.m. to 5 a.m., and a maximum

arrangements for the lectures and classes of the coming about 5 p.m. The value was above the mean from 11 a.m.

session to be begun as usual. The University has approxito 10p.m., and below from 1 p.m. to 10 a.m. During

mately five hundred students. the day the wind blew straight from the sea, and during Tue prospectus of the Borough Polytechnic Institute for the night from the land. The results are so unusual, and the session 1906–7 contains abundant proof that the educa

60

were

tional needs of the young men and women of South London Thus, for example, comparing Norwegian 163 and Italian are well provided for. The object of the classes is to ballistites, while in the former the carbon monoxide com. provide sound instruction and to promote industrial skill mences at the density 0.05, with a percentage volume of and general knowledge. It is interesting to note that the 38.5, falling at a density of 0.45 to 22 per cent., the carbon trade classes are intended especially and only for those dioxide commences with 13.3 per cent., rising rapidly to who are engaged in the several trades. Among such

31 per cent.

In the latter explosive the CO commences classes may be mentioned as typical those for motor at 20.5 per cent., and falls slowly to 15 per cent., while drivers and repairers, motor engineers and designers, the CO, commences a little above 26 per cent., rising sanitary inspectors, men engaged in electrical and building also comparatively slowly to nearly 34 per cent. industries, and bakers and confectioners. Special attention But there are, in these two explosives, other remarkable is paid also to the technical education of women, for whom differences. Thus, in the Italian ballistite, at a density a variety of trade classes has been arranged. Women are of 0.05, the volume of methane CH, is a mere trace, about trained for home duties in a special department, and 0.02 per cent., and it remains very much lower than is the prominence is given to the scientific principles upon which case with any other explosive, being only 1.9 per cent. at successful domestic practices depend. The arrangements the density of 0.45. With the Norwegian, on the other made for the coming winter are of a very complete hand, the CH,, although the volume at commencement is character.

only 0.04 per cent., is, at 0.45 density, 11 per cent. In the opening pages of the new calendar of the Uni- Again, as might be expected, from the large quantity of versity College Hospital Medical School is an explanatory CH, found in the case of the Norwegian ballistite, the statement of the new arrangements for medical education volume of hydrogen falls from more than 20 per cent. to consequent upon the formation by the University of London about 9 per cent. ; in the Italian the H rises from about of university centres for instruction, Under these arrange

8 per cent. to about 10 per cent., falling slightly at higher ments a student will enter one of the university centres

densities. for the preliminary and intermediate medical studies, and In both explosives the N is practically constant at about will then complete his career at the Hospital Medical 12 and 16 per cent. respectively, but there is a very great School, the whole of the energies and resources of which difference as regards the H,0. In the Norwegian the H.O will be devoted to a development of the medical studies

is constant at 14 per cent., there being no greater differproper. The calendar contains an engraving of the new ence than might be expected froin errors of observation, buildings of University College Hospital, provided by the

while, in the Italian, the H,O, which commences at generosity of the late Sir Blundell Maple, which will be density 0.05, with a volume of 29 per cent., falls at a opened formally by H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught on density of 0.45 to about 24 per cent. No other explosive November 6. Another engraving shows an elevation of approaches the Italian ballistite in respect to the large the new medical school buildings erected through the

volume of aqueous vapour formed, especially at low munificence of Sir Donald Currie. These buildings are

densities. being specially constructed with laboratories and research In the tables are given the volumes in cubic centimetres rooms for medicine, surgery, pathology, and other depart- per gram of the permanent and total gases, and curves inents.

have been drawn representing for the six explosives the A COMPREHENSIVE resolution referring to education was

observations of these volumes. In the case of five of the adopted last week at the Trade Union Congress at Liverpool.

explosives there is, with increasing density, a very considerAmong the points accepted by the congress as essential to

able decrease in volume, but with the Italian ballistite, a sound educational system are the following :-(1) scien- throughout the range of the experiments, there is hardly tific physical education with medical inspection and records

any change. Curves representing these volumes are conof the physical development of all children attending State

cave to the axis of abscissæ. schools, and skilled medical attendance for any child re

In the tables are shown the units of heat, both for quiring same; (2) a national system of education under full

water fluid and water gaseous. Curves have also been popular control, free and secular, from the primary school

drawn for the units of heat (water gaseous); the curves in to the university ; (3) secondary and technical education

this instance are all convex to the axis of abscissæ, and 1 to be an essential part of every child's education, and to

may be noted that, where the volume of gas per gram ** be secured by such an extension of the scholarship system

large, the units of heat are low, and that, where the as will place a maintenance scholarship within the reach

volumes of gas are rapidly decreasing, the curves represen:of every child, and thus make it possible for all children

ing the amount of heat developed show a rapid increase. to be full-time day pupils up to the age of sixteen ; (4) the

The next point to be considered is, the data being 28 best intellectual and technical training to be provided for

is shown in the tables, what temperature are we to assign the teachers of the children ; (5) the cost of education to

to that generated by the explosion ? With the view be met by grants from the Imperial Exchequer, and by studying the question, the author resorted the restoration of misappropriated educational endow

methods :-(1) Knowing with very considerable accuracy the units of heat (water gaseous) generated by the explosion

and having determined approximately the specific heat of SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.

the gases, the temperature of explosion should be given be

the equation LONDON.

gram units of heat Royal Society, June 28.-“ Researches on Explosives." Part iv. By Sir A. Noble, Bart., K.C.B., F.R.S.

specific heat In part iii. of his ** Researches on Explosives ” the

(2) Knowing also with considerable accuracy the pressure author gave the results of a very extensive series of experi

at any given density, and knowing the pressure $ *en. ments on certain explosives, which were, first, the cordite

the volume of gas generated is reduced to the temperature of the Service, known as Mark I. ; second, the modified cordite, known as M.D.; and third, the nitrocellulose,

of o° C., and a pressure of 760 mm. of mercury, *}," known as Rottweil R.R. The experiments made extended,

temperature is given by the equation for all the above explosives, from densities of 0.05 to 0.45 or

papa 0.50, and pressures of from 2.75 tons per square inch

o'c0367 (419 atmospheres) to pressures of 60 tons per square inch (9145 atmospheres).

With reference to equation (1), the specific heat of CO), In the present paper full details are given of three other is a very important factor in this determination, and the explosives, and comparisons are made between them and recent researches of Messrs. Holborn and Austin up to the explosives which have been so much experimented with specific heat of gases at constant pressure at high terrieta in this country. If reference be made to the tables, which tures having apparently shown that the specific beats 5* cannot be given in this abstract, it will be seen how wide by Mallard and Le Chatelier for temperatures above son* (" are the differences between the explosives, not only in the : are considerably too high, the author has taken the tours absolute volumes of the several gases, but in the variations given by the former physicists, which, it mar be remarkmi, with reference to the densities at which they were fired. up to temperatures of 800° C., are confirmed by Lan,

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The specific heats given are, as has been said, those for re-combination must, however, be very gradual, as no disconstant pressure, and to obtain those at constant volume continuity is observed in the cooling curves. it is necessary to divide by the constant k, connecting the It is then pointed out that a certain amount of confirmspecific heals of gases and vapours at constant pressure and ation is given to the view taken by the fact that if the constant volume.

explosives be arranged according to the amount of heat The author gives the values he has used, (1) of the generated, derived from equation (1), regard being also had specific heats at constant pressure; these are taken either to the amount of Co, found, it will be found tha the from Holborn and Austin's paper, from Landolt, differences between the two formulæ decrease approximately " Physikalisch Chemische Tabellen, 1905; (2) of the

as the factors to which the author has referred decrease, constant k; these are all taken from Landolt, pp. 407-8; and a table is given showing these differences. (3) of the specific heats at constant volume.

“On the Julianiaceæ, a New Natural Order of Plants."

By W. Botting Hemsley, F.R.S.
Specific beat,

Specific heat,
Gases, &c.

The Julianiaceæ comprise two genera and five species. volume

They are pressure

resiniferous, tortuously branched, deciduous, diæecious shrubs or small trees, having alternate, exstipu

late, imparipinnate leaves, from about one to three deciCO, 0-2986 I'282

0'232

metres long, clustered at the tips of the flowering branches CO 0-2425 1'401

0173

and scattered along the short barren shoots. The flowers H 34100 1'408

2'422

are small, green or yellow-green, quite inconspicuous, and CH, O'5922 1'316

O'450

the males are very different from the females. The male N O‘2497 1410

0-177

inflorescence is a more or less densely branched axillary H,0 0-4210 1'330

0*361

panicle or compound catkin, from 2} cm. to 15 cm. long, with weak, thread-like, hairy branches and pedicels. The

male flowers are numerous, 3 mm. to 5 mm. in diameter, The specific heats calculated from the above data, of the and consist of a simple, very thin perianth, divided nearly gases generated by the explosion of the six propellants, are

to the base into four to nine narrow, equal segments, and given in the tables embodying the results of the whole of an equal number of stamens alternating with the segments. the experiments for each propellant, and in the tables are In structure and appearance they are almost exactly like also given the temperatures of explosion deduced from those of the common oak. The female inflorescence is equations (1) and (2), and here again it must be remem- similar in structure to that of the sweet chestnut, consistbered that the temperatures with which artillerists are ing of an almost closed, usually five-toothed involucre, chiefly concerned are those due to densities varying approxi- borne on a flattened pedicel and containing three or four mately between 0.17 and 0-23.

collateral flowers, of which the two outside ones are, The Italian ballistite, which from equation (1) shows the perhaps, always abortive. highest temperature, commences at the density of 0.05 with At the powering stage, the female inflorescences, in4943° C., this temperature hardly varying at all until the cluding the narrow flattened pedicel and the exserted styles, density of 0.25 is reached, when it slowly but regularly are about 2 cm. long, and, as they are seated close in the increases to about 5000° C. at d=0-45. Cordite Mark I., axils of the crowded leaves and of the same colour, they commencing at 4742° C., with a very slight fall, is prac- are easily overlooked. The female flowers are destitute of tically constant up to d=0-30, after which it rises somewhat a perianth, and consist of a flattened, one-celled ovary, rapidly to a temperature of 4921° C. at d=0.45, and to terminated by a trifid style and containing a solitary ovule. 5065o C. at d=0-50.

The ovule in both genera is a very peculiar structure. When, however, the temperatures given by equation (2) That of Juliania, in the flowering stage, is a thin, flat, are reached some very remarkable differences are met with. obliquely horseshoe-shaped or unequally two-lobed body,

It is found that at the higher densities and pressures about 2 mm. in its greatest diameter, attached to the base there is generally a very tolerable accordance in the of the cell. At a little later stage, in consequence of untemperatures obtained from the two formulæ, but as the equal growth, it is horizontally oblong, nearly as large as density and pressure diminish the divergence becomes in the mature seed, that is, 6 mm. to 8 mm. long, and almost all cases considerable, but very greatly more with the symmetrically two-lobed at the top. A vascular bundle or explosives which develop very high temperatures, and strand runs from the point of attachment to the placenta which give rise to large percentages of carbonic anhydride. upwards near the margin into one of the lobes. In this The only construction the author is able to put upon lobe the embryo is tardily developed, and at this stage it is the close approximation of temperature given by the two more or less enclosed in the opposite lobe, the relations of formulæ at high densities and pressures, and the wide the two being as nozzle and socket to each other. It is riflerences which exist in some of the explosives at low assumed that the whole of this body, with the exception of densities, is that at high densities dissociation of the the lobe in which the embryo is formed, is a funicle with carbonic anhydride is prevented by the very high pressure, a unilaterally developed appendage, which breaks up and and that the great difference between, for instance, Italian is absorbed during the development of the ovule into seed. ballistite and nitrocellulose R.R. at, say, the density of 0.1, The ovule of Orthopterygium is very imperfectly known, is due, firstly, to the difference of the temperature at but the attachment appears to be lateral and the funicular which the nascent gases are generated, and, secondly, to the appendage cup-shaped at the basal end, bilamellate upproportion of Co, which is subject to dissociation.

wards, and more or less enclosing the embryoniferous lobe. The theory submitted is as follows :-

The compound fruits of Juliania are samaroid in form, The nascent gases are generated at temperatures approxi- the wing being the flattened pedicel, at the base of which mately as given by equation (1).

it disarticulates from the undifferentiated part of the pedicel. Under the low densities and pressures at the very high They vary from 4 cm. to 7 cm. in length by 1 cm. to temperatures with which we are concerned, the Co, and 2} cm. in width. Externally they strongly resemble the possibly some H,0 are partially dissociated, giving rise samaroid pods of certain genera of Leguminosæ, notably to the fall in temperature exhibited by the results obtained those of Platypodium and Myroxylon. The involucre from equation (2) at low densities. At high densities, as itself, of the largest fruits seen, is only about i cm. deep already pointed out, the two equations give in some cases by 2 cm. wide. It is composed of very hard tissues, and accordant results, in all cases tolerable agreement; it there is quite indehiscent. Only quite young fruit of Orthofore appears to the author to be reasonable to suppose that pterygium is known. In this the flattened pedicel is the facts he has recorded are due to partial dissociation at narrow, straight, and equilateral, from 6 cm. to 7 cm. low densities and pressures, which dissociation is prevented long and about 1 cm. wide. boy the very high pressures ruling at densities of 0:40, 0-45, The nuts of Juliania are almost orbicular, biconvex,

hairy on the outside, and have a very hard endocarp. The As no free oxygen is ever found in the analyses in cool- solitary exalbuminous seed is circular or oblong, 6 mm. to ing down, any free oxygen due to dissociation must have re- 10 mm. long, compressed, with a smooth, thin testa. The combined, and the heat lost by dissociation regained. The embryo is horizontal, with thin, plano-convex, more or less

and 0.go.

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