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THURSDAY, MAY 17, 1906.

· His careful and critical examination of the opinions of previous philosophers makes us regret all the more that his search for the causes of pheno

mena was often a mere search among words. This THE MECHANISM OF THE UNIVERSE. tendency, which to us is his great defect, appealed History of the Planetary Systems from Thales to strongly to the medieval mind and helped to retard Kepier. By Dr. J. L. E. Dreyer. Pp. xii + 432.

the development of science in the days of Copernicus

and Galileo.” (Cambridge: University Press, 1906.) Price 1os. 6d.

The attempts of finding the physically true system net. BY Y the publication of this masterly account of the of the world terminated with Herakleides, who taught

development of cosmogonic ideas and the history the rotation of the earth, and Aristarchus, who proof planetary systems from the early dawn of Greek posed, as a way of “ saving the phenomena;' philosophy to the final establishment of the Copernican But the rapid rise of practical astronomy in the

the earth performed an annual motion round the sun. system, Dr. Dreyer has rendered a great service to those who take an interest in the fascinating history knowledge of the complexities of the planetary

Alexandrian school had so enormously increased the of astronomical science. Throughout the work we

motions, which none of the proposed systems could hare reason to admire his lucid exposition, based on profound historical studies, of the manifold views explain, that henceforth the idea of grasping the formed by the thinking minds of antiquity and of the physical truth was altogether abandoned, and atten

tion became concentrated upon a purely geometrical middle ages on the mechanism of the universe, his definite conclusions on many controversial points, and, interpretation of the celestial phenomena.

The subsequent exposition of the theory of the above all, his endeavour to trace out, as much as

cpicycles and their utilisation in the Ptolemaic system pussible, the influences of the philosophic and re

naturally forms an important part of Dr. Dreyer's ligious tendencies of the time on the cosmological work. We cannot enter here upon his valuable accoaceptions under view.

count of the work of Apollonius, Hipparchus, EratosThe opening chapters describe the development of

thenes, and Ptolemy; nor can we dwell upon his astronomical ideas among the Greeks. After a brief fascinating picture of the advances in astronomical review of the cosmogony of the early atomistic school we are introduced to the more distinct teachings of they do, the discovery of the precession by Hipparchus,

knowledge during the Alexandrian era, including, as the Pythagoreans. To their conception of the revo

the mensuration of the earth by Eratosthenes, and lution of the earth round the central fire, notwith

general conclusions to the dimensions of the standing its crudeness, distinct merit must be attri- universe. The chapter closes with a graphic account buted, if judged by the favourable influence which

of the rapid decline of Hellenic culture after the the teaching of Philolaus exerted on the propagation destruction of the Alexandrian library, when “the of the Copernican system among those“ who could

curtain went down for ever on the great stage where only admire philosophers of classical antiquity." | Greek science had played its part so well and so Complicated and erroneous as the Pythagorean idea

long." was, it nevertheless paved the way for the true con

The return to archaic cosmology in Europe under ception of the earth's rotation, but not, as was often patristic influence and the supreme sway of Aristobelieved, for the heliocentric system. The chapter telian metaphysics in scholasticism, mark an epoch on the primitive geocentric cosmology of Plato may, of scientific decadence in gloomy contrast to the at first sight, appear somewhat too prominent. Con- flourishing period of Hellenic culture. But the same sidering, however, the various controversies to which epoch is distinguished by the intense cultivation of Plato's astronomical system has given rise, a clear Greek astronomy among the Arabs, whose labours, statement of his natural philosophy on the basis of devoted to the further development of the Ptolemaic an exhaustive analysis of the Dialogues is of import system, are expounded in chapter xi. Although no ance, even apart from the author's apology that

direct advance in cosmic ideas accrued from their " there is a charm in the poetical conception of the work, they influenced the subsequent advancement of • soul of the world' which makes the study of the European astronomy in a most important manner by Tunaeus peculiarly attractive."

their invention of the trigonometric calculus. with Eudoxus and Kalippus astronomy has started The description of the revival of astronomy in on its career as a science. Eudoxus is the first to go Europe brings us face to face with some interesting bevond mere speculative reasoning; he distinctly bases philosophers of the pre-Copernican period. The vague his system of the homocentric spheres on the demand and often mystic speculation of Cusa is contrasted of satisfying the observed motions. The possibilities with the practical merits of Peurbach and Regioof this mathematically elegant system, recently montanus, who successfully endeavoured to utilise the pointed out by Ideler and Schiaparelli, were, however, Ptolemaic system for the purposes of astronomical not much appreciated by the ancients, although calculation, while we also find an interesting account Aristotle had accepted it in the improved version of of the hopelessly complicated attempts made by Kalippus.

Fracastoro and Amici to revive the theory of solid Dr. Dreyer's criticism of Aristotelian metaphysics spheres, and thereby to prove the physical truth of is severe.

the Alexandrian system.



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The three closing chapters dealing with Copernicus, plied with sufficient technical information to secure Tycho, and Kepler are naturally those which command his acquaintance with the principal geometry of the our special interest. They contain far more than cosmic systems under discussion. This latter advanmere statements of the works of these great heroes tage is important in the case of a work which is of astronomical science. They define clearly the clearly not written for a limited circulation among the specific rôle played by each of these actors in the small section of astronomical experts, but may justly revolution of scientific thought. In following the claim to appeal to all who are interested in the history author through his analysis of “De revolutionibus," of the general development of scientific culture. we realise not only the great mental power but also the heroism of the “ quiet student at the shore of the

PROF. EHLERS'S FESTSCHRIFT." Baltic," and we feel the importance of the moment

Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Zoologie. Vols. when his work is ushered into the world with

lxxxii. and lxxxiii. Osiander's apologetic introduction. We must agree

Festschrift zur Feier seines with the author's endeavour to show how little Coper

siebzigsten Geburtstages am 11. Nov. 1905, Herrn

Geheimen Regierungsrat Prof. Ernst Ehlers. nicus could have been influenced by Philolaus and the

Band i., pp. iv +692; Band ii., pp. 741; and plates. vague ideas of Aristarchus, whose anticipations de

(Leipzig : Engelmann, 1905-) 2 vols., price 51. tract nothing from the originality of his own thoughts.

whose honour On the other hand, the exposition of the defects of THE distinguished zoologist in the system is so lucid that it requires no intimate

these volumes are issued is widely known as technical knowledge of astronomy to recognise the

an indefatigable worker and one of the most genial necessity of modification, which so immediately urged of men. Together with the late von Kölliker, Prof. Tycho to the invention of his ingenious compromise

Ehlers has for many years edited the journal which between the geocentric and heliocentric conception.

now celebrates his seventieth birthday. As a testi. How far Tycho's all-important work as an observer

mony of the inspiring character of his teaching and

of the regard in which he is held this “ Festschrift" has paved the way for the final recognition of the true system by Kepler is admirably shown in the last gives abundant witness. With no less clearness it

indicates the diverse activities of modern zoologists chapter, where the author opens before us the succes

and the particular problems upon which they are sive paths along which, through a labyrinth of errors

engaged. and failures, the never tiring genius of Kepler was

With such a varied content, the volumes are finally led to the “ golden portal of truth.” The long difficult to review. The systematic work, admirable and weary road he had to go before he finally broke

as it is, and coordinating or expanding as it does away from the time-sacred idea of circular motion and

our knowledge of annelids, starfish, and flat-worms, the Ptolemaic punctum aequans, and proved con

can only be mentioned; nor can we do more than clusively the elliptic character of the Martian orbit, is

indicate the purport of a few of the many anatomical brought before us by an exhaustive analysis of his

and physiological papers. works, the study of which is so highly instructive, not

The place of honour is appropriately given to only from the scientific, but also from the psycho

von Kölliker's paper on the histogenesis of the verte logical point of view. The reproach, often levelled

brate nervous system, the last contribution of the against the author of the “Mysterium Cosmo

master of histology, whose amazing vitality al graphicum," of having filled his books with all sorts eighty-seven years enabled him to conduct research of mystic fancies, is, in Dr. Dreyer's opinion, founded and to discuss difficulties of fact and interpretation on a misconception of Kepler's object in making his with unabated zeal.

with unabated zeal. The month in which this latest investigations. “ There is the most intimate connec- defence of the neuron-theory was published brought tion between his speculations and his great achieve

the tidings that von Kölliker had ceased from work. ments; without the former we should never have had

A long and exquisitely illustrated memoir by the latter."

Vejdowsky gives a minute account of the structure We cannot attempt to enter upon the author's

and mode of origin of the annelidan vascular system. review of the opinions of science and church on the The nature of this system in the lower animals has Copernican system during the time between Kepler been of late the goal of much research. Under the and Newton, with which, on the whole, the student influence of the trophocæl theory, as stated by Lang of history is familiar, though it is particularly inter- on the basis of Bergh's work upon annelids, the esting to hear on this matter the verdict of an vascular system has come to be regarded generally historian who has derived his knowledge so directly as a mesodermic structure, its cavities as a schizoccel, and completely from an exhaustive study of the and not, as had often been suggested, a blastocælic original prints and manuscripts.

structure. The results of Vejdowsky's work have led It is difficult to emphasise sufficiently the specific him to a very different conclusion. First he proves, merits of a work of this kind in a brief review. what had often been denied, that annelids possess a Doubtless not the least of its many meritorious vascular endothelium. He finds that this “ vasofeatures is the lucidity and conciseness of exposition. thelium " arises in the following way. Blood vessels In its endeavour to grasp the essence of the cosmo- are intimately associated with the gut. Their cavigonic ideas the mind is nowhere impeded by an ties are at first simply a space between the outer unnecessary accumulation of cumbersome detail. At ends of the gut-cells and their basal membrane. the same time the non-mathematical reader is sup- Into this space cells are budded off from the endo


derm. Some of these become differentiated into is to be hoped that these important results may be epithelio-muscle elements that constitute the vaso- rendered more available to the student of evolution thelium, and others into blood-cells. Thus the study than they now are by a new mode of presentation, of annelids leads Vejdowsky to conclude that their graphic, tabular, or other than textual description. hæmocæl is a hypoblastic structure sui generis, not Lastly, the memoir of the Baroness von Linden on comparable to that of arthropods or of molluscs, the influence of heat, cold, and gases upon the colorbut rather to the cardiac vasothelium in vertebrates. ation of Vanessid butterflies constitutes a further Such a result emphasises that relation of vascular instalment of the author's prolonged investigation. system to the alimentary tract which topography has | The general conclusion drawn from these experiments insisted upon.

is that whatever lowers the rate of pupal metabolism In his article on the morphology of the cestode increases amount of black imaginal pigment and body. Prof. Spengel stoutly supports the monozoic diminishes the extent of red colour in the butterfly. theory. He regards the Bothriocephalidæ as the most

F. W. GAMBLE. primitive tapeworms, and considers that in the highly modified Tæniidae we have simply a coincidence of

Incisomatic and gonidial segmentation areas.

THE BIRDS OF TUNISIA. dentally he suggests the comparison of the scolex The Birds of Tunisia. Being a history of the birds with the hinder end of segmented worm, and

found in the Regency of Tunis. By J. 1. S. fmphasises the singular nature of the cestodes by

Whitaker. vols. Royal 8vo. Pp. xxxii+294 pointing out their entire lack of true regenerative

and xviii +410. Plates and maps. (London : R. H. power.

Porter, 1905.) Price £3 3s. net. The remaining anatomical papers deal with the THE

"HE two handsome and beautifully illustrated modifications of clasping organs


volumes containing the history of the birds of mammals, with the head of collembolous and culicid the Regency of Tunis form a fitting crown to the insects, the nervous system of leeches, and certain years of work in the field, the museum, and the abnormal gasteropods.

library which their author has devoted to the ornithoof the embryological memoirs, the accurate and logy of this until recently little known country. They laborious research of Wierzejski on the cell-lineage form too a valuable contribution to the avifauna of of Physa will be welcomed as a topographical paper the western Mediterranean region; for although the of the first rank. Prof. McIntosh contributes a well present work purports to be merely a history of the illustrated account of the life-history of the shanny, birds noticed in Tunisia, and of their lives as observed and then follow memoirs on the early development in that country, the author has thought it advisable, of the blind-worm, on the breeding habits of Rhino- when possible, to allude to the occurrence of the derma and of the salamanders.

various species also in Algeria and Morocco, as likeThe physiological papers are of more general | wise, in some cases, in Tripoli, and in the Mediterinterest. Prof. Häcker continues his illuminating ranean basin generally. utk un the skeleton of the Radiolaria by treating the The articles on various warblers (especially the Tripstaria from the same ecological standpoint which interesting remarks on their life-history), and other ha adopted in his paper of last year. Häcker is the birds which are met with most commonly in that most active of a band of workers who are putting region, will be most welcome, even to those whose new life and new significance into the merely geome- interests are restricted to the birds which figure on the tnc descriptions of earlier students of these skeletal British list. Tunisia, a long and somewhat narrow products. Dr. Rhumbler gives a further instalment country, stretching from the Mediterranean back in of his work on the mechanics of streaming movement the vagueness of the great desert, presents a great in Imbæ, and shows some interesting stream variety of natural features and climate; and the configures produced by dropping chloroform water upon trast between the well-watered, wooded and mounshellac. He fully recognises the inward and auto- tainous region north of the Atlas Mountains and the venivus control that dominates those displays in rainless, sandy and rocky desert country is very great. organisms that we cannot parallel in not-living To these circumstances, and to the fact, pointed out matter, but he holds that in Amæba the phenomena by the author, that few countries are geographically of movement and feeding are capable of mechanical so favourably situated as the Regency for the observExplanation in terms of the aggregation theory which ation of the migration of birds, the wealth of the he has formulated elsewhere.

Tunisian avifauna is due. No less than 365 species Dr. Jordan contributes an essay on the origin of and subspecies of birds are included in this work ; species in Lepidoptera. His main thesis is to the and only about thirty-five of these have to be relegated *t* 1 that geographical subspecies, and no other to the roll of occasional and accidental visitors. Two variations, are the material out of which new species beautiful photogravures give an excellent and most have been evolved. Much of the paper is summarised truthful idea of the character of the scenery and the irom his earlier work, and represents a line of re- ! traveller's mode of life in the south of the country; arzá to a hich several naturalists are applying them. I while other plates introduce the reader to some of sple. The work of Petersen on the Fritillaries in those wonderful Roman ruins, so marvellously prebunicular pursues the method employed by Dr. served in that dry, clear air, which so startle the in-x. Jordan, but in a more comprehensive manner, and it perienced wanderer in the central parts of Tunisia.



As a

Each species is fully described, and a careful account spicuous than a uniform light coloured one would be. of its distribution in Tunis, with some observations on The ravens also remain as black as ever, but they, its range in the neighbouring Mediterranean countries, too, frequent cliffs and rocks for the most part, and is followed by an interesting and graphic account of their case seems analogous to that of the rock-launtits nesting habits, song, and life-history generally. ing chats. Two good maps enable the reader un

The four natural divisions into which the Regency acquainted with the country to follow the author's may be divided appear to have each certain species remarks on its topography.

O. V. Aplix. peculiar to it, or more abundant in it than in the other regions. Besides this, in the case of some resident species, such the crested larks, for instance,

AMEBÆ AND THEIR ALLIES. different forms of the same species are to be found in British Fresh-water Rhizopoda. Vol. i. By James the different regions, the variation of these forms Cash, assisted by John Hopkinson. Pp. x+148+ being in some cases considerable, and not always


plates. (Ray Society, 1905.) Price 125. 6d. limited to the coloration of the plumage alone, but net. occasionally extending to the structural parts of the

'HE important discoveries that have recently been birds. The crested larks, says the author, afford a striking example of the extent to which local varia

revived the interest in British fresh-water amabæ tion may be carried by natural causes, and no country and their allies, and a monograph on the subject has probably affords a better opportunity of observing and

been regarded for some time as a special need of the studying this subject than Tunisia. The author is

zoologist. naturally in favour of recognising subspecies, and the

Mr. James Cash has been known for some years use of trinomials for them; and his remarks hereon

as an ardent microscopist with a special knowledge and upon what constitutes a species and a subspecies of the forms and habits of the species of fresh-water may be read with great advantage.

rhizopoda in the north of England, and he has given Many noteworthy and peculiar birds may be studied

us in this volume the benefit of his experience in in Tunisia, but probably the families of larks and

this line of work, illustrated by many beautiful chats are better represented than any other; of the original drawings of the living organisms. former twenty-one and of the latter eleven species work of reference for the names of species, and in and subspecies are treated, and the fifteen beautifully

so far as it suggests to the young amateur naturalist executed coloured plates which adorn these sumptuous exercises for his amusement and instruction, it will volumes are largely devoted to illustrating these two

be useful; but as references to important details of families. Tunis is indeed especially rich in larks; and

structure and reproduction are in general meagre, years of study, a long series of specimens collected

often misleading, and in many instances omitted by himself, and an examination of the various types altogether, it will not supply the need that is felt. in museums and the literature of the subject, added

The description of the cell (p. 3) as “physiologically, moreover to his having had the advantage of observ

a minute vesicle, or closed sac, the enveloping meming the birds in life, have enabled the author to clear brane or cell-wall enclosing the protoplasmic subup many puzzling points respecting the specific and

stance in which the functional phenomena reside," subspecific value of the numerous forms of larks. We

appears to us singularly unfortunate in an introduchave here a very clear and lucid exposition of the

tion to the study of the Protozoa. larks of the western Mediterranean basin; and

The description of the nucleus is very short, but especially of the crested larks (the most puzzling of long enough to contain considerable extracts from the them all), of which the author considers that there

work of Calkins, whose views the author adopts, two distinct groups, viz., one including the but there is no reference to the chromidial network common crested lark of Europe, the other the small

which the recent papers of Hertwig, Schaudinn, and billed crested lark of Southern Spain, each with its others have shown plays such an important part in allies.

reproductive phenomena of many rhizopoda. It is The necessity for protective colouring is


disappointing to find no reference, either in the introdoubtedly great in a country like Southern Tunisia, duction or in the systematic part, to the evidence of where the scanty vegetation affords but little shelter

a developmental cycle in the life-history of Amcba. to its feathered denizens. Hence it is that the plumage based on the researches of Scheel and Calkins. of most of the species resident in the desert and semi

In the very brief account of the reproduction of desert region harmonises with the sandy color- Arcella, again, although Hertwig's important paper ation of the soil. This is especially remarkable in published in Kupffer's Festschrift is included in the the larks. But the author points out that although at list of references, the statements made are incomplete first sight it may appear curious that the chats, and misleading. Many other criticisms similar to except in a few instances, are

or less con- these could be made, but the critic is disarmed by the spicuously coloured, it will, however, be found that confession in the preface that the author has not the conspicuously attired chats frequent, as a rule,“ investigated very closely the physiological problems rocky and broken ground full of dark clefts and fissures, associated with the life-history of these organisms." where the rocks are sometimes black and in other With this confession before them, it seems difficult cases of a glittering white, and in such situations a to account for the action of the council of the Ray strongly marked plumage is really far less con- Society in undertaking the publication of this mono

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graph without previously enlisting the services of similarity of Dr. James Ward's “ activity” and a trained morphologist, with special knowledge of the Martineau's “ free will ” as philosophic explanations, group, to correct and revise the introduction and the and takes occasion, too, as in many other recent morphological details in the description of the genera. Pragmatists.

utterances, to have one or two clever Alings at the A monograph written by Mr. Cash, with the cooperation of a good morphologist, might have been

The Romance of the South Seas. By Clement L. one of really first-rate importance. As it now appears, Wragge. Pp. XV +312, with 84 illustrations. however, useful as it may be in some respects and (London : Chatto and Windus, 1906.) Price 75. 60. valuable in others, it is not complete, and does not constitute a serious advance of knowledge.

In connection with Mr. Wragge's work as Government Meteorologist of Queensland, he paid a visit to

New Caledonia, with the view of establishing a OUR BOOK SHELF.

weather-observing station there. In this book he gives Physikalisch-chemisches Centralblatt. Band i. and

an account of his visit to the island, and also to Rarozi. (in parts). (Berlin : Borntraeger, 1903-1903.)

tonga and Tahiti. We wish there were more inform

ation in the book about the meteorological results of We have received the first two volumes of the above his journey. The volume contains instead simply a xrial, the first number of which was issued on

chatty account of the islands; and the most interest. December 15, 1903, twenty-four parts and authors' ing matter is the author's visit to the convict prisons and subject indexes appearing annually. Besides in New Caledonia. At Tahiti he paid a pilgrimage the German title, the cover bears the titles " Physico- to Point Venus, where Cook on June 3, 1769, observed Chemical Review” and “ Revue physico-chimique, the transit of Venus. The author is enthusiastic over and the abstracts of French and English papers are the scenery in both islands, and the only thing that given in the respective languages, all others being in justifies the mention of “ romance” in the title is the German.

spell of their scenery. The author's style is very disThe periodical is edited by Dr. Max Rudolphi, of cursive, and the book is full of smoke-room gossip Darmstadt, with the collaboration of chemists and and snatches of sailors' songs. It is illustrated by physicists in various parts of the world, London being some good photographs, and in an appendix is a list prpresented by Sir W. Ramsay. Most, if not all, of of some shells and corals which the author collected the papers abstracted would doubtless be found to be in the Society Islands. poticed in other publications, and although the multiplication of such serials is not to be commended, this The Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic one may appeal to physical chemists who prefer Gardens, Kew. Kew Bulletin of Miscellaneous tu find abstracts on their own subjects separated from Information, additional series v. Pp. vii + 223. those of general physics and of inorganic and organic Edited by Sir William Thiselton-Dyer. (London: chemistry. In order that the serial should be useful H.M. Stationery Office, 1906.) Price 25. I workers, it is necessary that the abstracts should be girea as soon as possible after the publication of This volume is the combined work of a number of the original papers from which they are taken. It

well-known zoologists and botanists, each of whom has would not be just to criticise a serial in its infancy, gation; it ought, therefore, to be exhaustive and trust

made a special section the subject of his own investibut some oi the abstracts mght have appeared earlier;

worthy, as indeed it appears to be. The chief interest possibly their publication has been unavoidably deLared, and as time progresses the cause of this attaching to a catalogue of this nature is in relation reproach will be removed. The periodical is well

to the important evidence it will afford in the future

as printed and contains many tabulated results.

to how a country fauna and flora become

gradually modified as their surroundings become The Philosophy of Martineau in Relation to the altered with the incoming of suburban conditions.

Idealism of the Present Day. By Prof. Henry Many such changes have already taken place in the Jones. Pp. 37:

(London: Macmillan and Co., animal and vegetable products of Kew; and many Lid., 1903.) Price is. net.

more are likely to take place in the near future. One This thoughtful and eloquent address, originally de- of the most remarkable instances of adaptation to new livered at the celebration of the Martineau centenary,

conditions in the London parks and gardens generally contains much more about absolute idealism than is afforded by the wood-pigeon, which in the country about the philosophic system of the great Unitarian is one of the wildest and shiest of all birds. A conprescher. Prof. Jones, after pointing out the close servative spirit-possibly in the case of the mammals

obtains agreement between Martineau and the Idealists in a little too conservative-we are glad to see,

R. L. several respects, finds his text in the division made in the matter of nomenclature. at the beginning of “ Types of Ethical Theory between systems that start with nature or God, and Physical Chemistry, and its Applications in Medical think that start with the spirit of man. Absolute

and Biological Science. By Dr. Alex. Findlay. idealism, of course, ranks under the former head, and

Pp. 68. (London: Longmans, Green and Co., ine idiopsychological ethics of Martineau under the

1905.) 25. net. latter. So in the remainder of the paper the doctrines This little book makes its appearance at an opportune ví absolute idealism are re-stated in a form such as moment, for no one engaged in biological work can might rob Martineau's chief objections of their force, i now neglect the teachings of physical chemistry, and the objections, in particular, that ethical interests are the great influence which this branch is exercising on not conserved, and that a refusal to sever man from the development of the biological sciences. It is just nature and God means that man is merged into them the sort of work the physiologist, pathologist, bacand lost within them. Whether the reader will think 'teriologist, and scientific medical practitioner needthis re-statement absolutely convincing or not will brief and at the same time dealing in a simple manner probably depend on his previous sympathies. Prof. with fundamental facts. The author thus reviews Jones takes occasion, in passing, to notice the diffusion, osmosis, cryoscopic methods, and the study

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