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Waddell gives us the translation of a Tibetan pro- other hand, it seems a pity that Colonel Waddell phecy, copied by himself a year before our expedition scarcely does himself justice. We have some interestwas heard of, and that he adds :-“ How the astro- ing and sometimes (no doubt quite justifiably) punlogers of Tibet were able to predict this distressful gent remarks on the Lamaist system as seen from storm which was in store for their country, so long the outside—the squalor, dirt, and ignorance of the before it happened, and to specify that it should poor, the intrigues and cruelties of the Government, occur in this very year, is amazing.” This is good the backward state of trade and agriculture, the evidence, not, indeed, of any mystic power in Tibet, decline in population, and so on. We have accounts but that the astrologers there know the tricks of their of the services in the churches, of the images, of the trade as well as any Zadkiel. Thr prediction is roadside texts, of the appearance of the monasteries, beautifully vague. A Chinese or a Russian coup | and of one curious hermitage and its ghastly inmates; d'état, or a civil war, would have suited it equally but of the inner meaning of the religion, the central well, but it was apparently designed to fit some truths, or what are held as truths, which give to all internal commotion. From what Colonel Waddell these outward matters a meaning, which at one time tells us of the headstrong character of the Grand at least must have afforded strength and vitality to Lama, and of the cabals and intrigues at Lhasa, that the system,

learn little or nothing Some was a highly probable event.

passages translated from the Litany (pp. 403-4) have The volume is really a very readable and clear both poetic beauty and religious feeling. Perhaps

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account of the British invasion of Tibet.

To that, eighteen chapters out of twenty-three are devoted, the others being a popular introduction on the history of Tibet and descriptions of Gyantse and Lhasa. The account of the expedition, which thus makes up the bulk of the book, is most interesting. The expedition seems to have been excellently planned and excellently carried out; but no serious opposition was offered until too late, and the desperate bravery of the hastily raised Tibetan peasantry, badly armed and badly led, was no match for the highly trained troops of the little English army, with its superior organisation, guns, and generalship. Only on two occasions did there seem any possibility of even temporary disaster for the invaders. The description of these two anxious moments makes exciting reading, and is quite in the style of the best war correspondents. In what is told us of Lamaism in Tibet, on the

this may be partly due to Colonel Waddell's fine translation; but the absence of anything either superstitious or childish is striking. The texts on the wayside, put up for the edification of passers by (p. 210), are good, sound sense. Both of these, and they are the only passages quoted, seem at utter variance with the kind of tone and spirit described as animating the Lamas. The mystic spell, as it is called on P. 29, Om! Mani padme. Hung! is there translated * Hail! Jewel in the Lotus flower!” and reference is made to the figure of the Spirit of the Mountains on p. 23; but that figure represents the god, not as in, but as standing on the top of, a lotus, and the expression seems to us odd and forced if it really conveys that sense. Why should the Spirit of the Mountains be called the jewel in the lotus? The lotus is not a mountain flower. This at least requires explanation, and Colonel Waddell, as a Tibetan and


Buddhist scholar, might, no doubt, had he wished to gradually developed a conception lying somewhere do so, have quoted a passage from some work held between the theories of Sandberger and Posepny, in authority in Tibet giving the explanation required. with a distinct leaning towards the teachings of the

There is a charming report in one of the closing latter. The mode of formation of mineral veins is, chapters of an interview the author had with however, still very far indeed from being understood. Gahldan Cardinal, who had been appointed Regent The facts recorded by Prof. Park appear to show that by the Dalai Lama on the eve of his flight. He is the majority of ore deposits are genetically connected described as a man of striking presence, as one of with igneous intrusions which may be plutonic or the most learned and profound scholars in Tibet, and volcanic. Circulating underground waters and gases at the same time as a man of strong character and are the principal agents concerned in the dissolution, skilled in affairs. There are evidently some Lamas primary concentration, and deposition of vein matter. who read their books: and though their views and Ore deposits do not necessarily occupy pre-existing ours may be altogether different, there can be little fissures and cavities. Vein-filling was in many cases doubt but that we also, if they were only made effected by metasomatic replacement. Vein-filling accessible by good translations, should find in them waters are ascending waters, but not necessarily deepvaluable materials for the history of that Eastern seated. The mineral contents are derived from rocks culture which it is day by day becoming more and contiguous to the zone of fracture or zone of metamore important for us to understand. We morphism. The accessory agents of dissolution are gratified to hear that the able writer of this delightful book is intending to devote the whole of his time in future to these studies; and we trust that he will succeed in unravelling for us some more, and deeper, mysteries of Lhasa.




MINING GEOLOGY.1 THE literature of economic

geology is by no means inconsiderable, for since the publication in 1884 of John Arthur Phillips's classic work on ore deposits, much attention has been devoted to the study of mineral deposits, and in the United States, in particular, theories of the formation of such deposits have been propounded with bewildering frequency. Prof. Park's text-book under notice, which covers the ground that is gone over in the elementary course in the subject at the University of Dunedin, New Zealand, will, therefore, doubtedly prove useful to the mining student.

The author deals with the subject in nine chapters. The first contains a brief summary of geological principles, 'and the following chapters devoted spectively to the classification of Geyser crater at Whakarewarewa, New Zealand, showing siliceous crustification. From "A Textmineral deposits, ore veins, the

book of Mining Geology." dynamics of lodes and beds, ore deposits considered genetically, the theories of vein heat and pressure, aided by dissolved alkaline minerals. formation, ores and minerals considered economically, Precipitation from the ascending waters takes place mine sampling, and the examination and valuation in more or less orderly horizontal zones in accordance of mines. The chapter dealing with the genesis of with the laws governing solution and precipitation ore deposits is of special interest. The perplexing Lastly, secondary enrichment is, in the majority of problems by which the subject is surrounded are cases, due to the migration of mineral contents from judicially dealt with. The fascinating theory of lateral a higher to a lower level, through the agency of secretion to which great support was given by Sand- descending waters. berger's brilliant researches, although strongly opposed Some interesting observations on the action of by Prof. Stelzner, of Freiberg, and by Prof. Posepny, ascending alkaline waters in New Zealand are recorded of Przibram, found much support in America in a by the author. Around Lake Rotorua ore deposits of more or less modified form. Posepny's ascension hypo- the solfataric class can be seen still in process oi thesis has not been endorsed by succeeding investi- formation on a scale of considerable magnitude. A: gators in its integrity, and American geologists have the hot springs the sinter encrusting the walls of the

fissures and pipes from which the waters escape at I "A Text-bcok of Mining Geology." By James Park. Ppix +219, with 78 illustrations and 3 plates. (London: Charles Griffin and Co., Ltd.,

the surface is hard and chalcedonic, and arranged in 1906.) Price 65.

layers which often present a fine, ribbon-like structure.






A striking illustration showing this siliceous crusti- toward the end of October, will be at Chapel Place, tication at the geyser crater at Whakarewarewa, New Delahay Street, S.W. Zealand, is given by the author. Hand specimens of the harder sinters cannot be distinguished from much The Engineering and Machinery Exhibition, which was of the ore at the outcrop of the Martha lode at opened at Olympia on Saturday by Sir Alexander Binnie, Waihi. In places the sinters contain finely dissem- president of the Institution of Civil Engineers, is of wide inated marcasite and traces of gold and silver. scope, and contains a fine display of British machinery.

Some interesting exhibits have also been sent by American

and Continental firms. The most striking feature is an NOTES.

electric fountain and air circulator, which occupies the

centre of the hall. It is the invention of Mr. James Keith. A SHORT time ago a petition was presented to the Dean

The fountain is 33 feet in height, and it is surrounded by of Westminster asking permission to place in Westminster

a shell 15 feet in diameter. In the pedestal beneath are Abbey a memorial tablet commemorating the life and in

six large electric fans, and air is drawn in from the groundfluence of Mr. Herbert Spencer, but though the appeal was

level, washed, cooled, and re-circulated at the rate of supported by many men of science and letters it was re

22,000 cubic feet of air per minute. The illuminations jected. The reason why the Dean withheld his consent to

connected with the fountain this unobtrusive memorial of a great philosopher is not

brilliantly effective. clear; and the Daily Chronicle has recently revived interest display of machine tools is particularly good.

Numerous other interesting novelties are shown, and the

At the in the movement with the object of inducing him to re

luncheon following the opening ceremony, Sir William consider his decision, or, failing this, to secure some other national memorial of Spencer's work. From the opinions basis of the exhibition was mechanical engineering, which

White, president of the exhibition, pointed out that the of a number of distinguished men published in our con

was maid-of-all-work to all other branches of engineering. temporary, it is evident that much disappointment is felt at the failure to find a place in the Abbey for a simple could not fail to be impressed by the extraordinary variety

The exhibition was no common enterprise, and the public memorial tablet to Spencer, but there is a difference of

of machinery applied to the needs of modern life, but also opinion as to whether steps should be taken to establish a national memorial to him in some other form. Among dustries all over the world. Mr. Bennett Brough, who pro

by the keen competition going on in the mechanical inthe men of science who consider it would be a reproach to

posed the

of the visitors, and Prof. Silvanus leave Spencer's memory unhonoured are Lord Avebury, Prof. Clifford Allbutt, Dr. Bastian, Sir Michael Foster,

Thompson, who replied, also testified to the great value Mr. Francis Gallon, Sir Joseph Hooker, Prof. M'Kendrick,

of the exhibition. Special facilities are being afforded to und Prof. Poulton. There is, however, a strong feeling, popular lectures has been arranged. The exhibition will

students to visit the exhibition, and an excellent course of expressed by Sir Norman Lockyer, that while no national memorial to Darwin exists outside Westminster Abbey, it

remain open for a month. would be undesirable to attempt to raise one to Spencer by The death is announced of Dr. H. Cohn, extraordinary public subscription. Lord Kelvin goes so far as

professor of diseases of the eyes in the University of mark :-"I have never been of opinion that the philo- | Breslau, distinguished by his studies school hygiene. sophical writings of the late Mr. Herbert Spencer had the value or importance which has been attributed to them

The new Japanese pharmacopæia is to be published by many readers of high distinction. In my opinion, a

shortly. The names of all drugs and chemicals will be national memorial would be unsuitable.” Sir William

given in Japanese characters only. Foreign preparations

which have been patented under fancy names will be Huggins also hesitates to support a general movement to provide a national memorial, though he agrees that a

excluded. memorial tablet in the Abbey would appropriately com- It is reported from Hong Kong that at memoraie Spencer's work. In the absence of this form of Tuesday, September 18, a typhoon which sprang up there recognition, it would seem that the best way for admirers . caused enormous damage to shipping and great loss of of the philosopher to show their appreciation of his work life. The storm lasted for two hours. would be to establish a lectureship or scholarship in

The death is announced of Dr. Morache, professor of sociology, natural science, or principles of education, to issue, as suggested by Dr. A. R. Wallace, a cheap edition

medical jurisprudence in the Bordeaux Medical Faculty ;

and of Prof. Leon Prunier, director of the Pharmacie of his works, or in some other manner to further the

centrale des Hôpitaux civils in Paris, at the age of sixtyobjects to which he devoted his life. A movement with

five. Prunier's scientific work touched upon many branches an end of this kind in view might be made of international

of chemistry; his book “ Les Medicaments chimiques (in interest, and would doubtless receive liberal support.

two volumes) was a recognised treatise in France. The King has appointed a Royal Commission “ To

THE Association des Industriels de France contre les inquire into and report upon the practice of subjecting live

Accidents du Travail intends offering a prize of 8000 francs animals to experiments, whether by vivisection or other

for an international competition for a new galvanic battery wise; and also to inquire into the law relating to that

or accumulator which, while having a large output for its practice, and its administration; and to report whether

size and weight, must not be dangerous in use. Inquiries any, and if what changes desirable." The

should be addressed to the director of the society, rue de members of the commission are :-Viscount Selby (chair- Lutèce, Paris, who will supply further particulars, and to man), Colonel A. M. Lockwood, M.P., Sir W. S. Church, whom competitors must send their descriptions and drawBart., K.C.B., Sir W. J. Collins, M.P., Sir J. McFadyean,

ings. Mr. M. D. Chalmers, C.B., Mr. A. J. Ram, K.C., Dr. W. H. Gaskell, F.R.S., Mr. J. Tomkinson, M.P., and Dr. A COMPLETE change of weather set in during the past G. Wilson, with Captain C. Bigham, C.M.G. (secretary). week, and the drought which continued with such perThe offices of the commission, which will not sit until sistence during the closing week of August and the first



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fortnight of September was at length thoroughly broken. of a severe character have been felt :--September 12, Rain fell on several days over the entire country, and Santiago de Chile. Between

and 5 p.m. the rainfall in the aggregate now almost equals the numerous earthquake shocks felt in the region average for the

month in many parts of England. situated between the provinces of Santiago and Maule. Temperatures are again in agreement with the normal, and The shocks are attributed to the Chillan volcano, which in the past week the exposed thermometer at Greenwich is in full activity. Near the mouth of the Bio-Bio River fell below the freezing point on two consecutive nights. an upheaval has been produced, leaving part of the bed of

the river dry. September 13, Sicily.-At 10.43 a.m. a The fifth biennial meeting of the International Com- slight shock of earthquake was felt at Palermo, and was mission for Scientific Aëronautics will be held this year

succeeded by other shocks later. The inhabitants at at Milan, from September 30 to October 7.

Termini and in the neighbouring district are in an ingramme for continuing the meteorological exploration of

describable state of panic. All the houses in 'Trabia are the atmosphere will be adopted (says Science), and it is cracked, and many have collapsed. Slight shocks were felt expected that the president of the commission, Prof.

at Rioja, Chilecito, and Santiago del Estero. A more Hergesell, will state the results of soundings of the atmo- violent shock occurred at Tinogasta, followed by loud sphere, which he has just executed near Spitsbergen from

rumbling. September 17, Shemakha, Transcaucasia.the Prince of Monaco's yacht, and that Messrs. Teisserenc

An earthquake, lasting ten seconds, was felt at 3 p.m. The de Bort and Rotch will give an account of the second

disturbance appeared to move in a direction from northFranco-American expedition which they sent last winter to

west to south-east. the tropical Atlantic for a similar purpose.

The subject of malaria in Greece was dealt with br We learn from the Times that the arrangements for the Prof. Ronald Ross, F.R.S., on Monday, in the course of international balloon which is to take place on an address at a luncheon given at Liverpool to Prof. September 30 have been completed. Sixteen balloons will Savas, of the University of Athens. Prof. Ross said that be employed in the race, and the aëronauts will represent at the request of the Lake Copias Company (Limited) the Great Britain, France, Germany, America, Italy, Belgium, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine had made an inand Spain. The arrangements for the race have been made vestigation as to the prevalence of malaria in Greece. He by the Aéro Club of France, and the start will be made went out to that country last May, and found a from the Place de la Concorde, Paris. The moving spirit serious state of affairs. The population was practically in the contest is Mr. Gordon Bennett, who offers a challenge confined the valleys, the mountains being almost cup, value 5ool., and 500l. in cash for the winner. The uninhabitable, and in these valleys he found a good deal prizes will be awarded to the aëronaut who goes the of malaria. The statistics of the whole country showed furthest distance. The longest distance yet made in any that out of a population of, roughly, 2 millions, there of these expeditions has been 1200 miles, from Paris to were 250,000 cases of malaria every year, and the deaths Kieff, in Russia, but it is possible that under favourable were about 1760. Last year the number of cases increased conditions that record may be broken.

to 960,000, and the deaths to 5916. He was of opinion

that it was malaria which checked the life of ancient A CONFERENCE of members of the Museums Association

Greece, and that the disease was introduced, or at all and others interested in museum work will be held at

events reinforced, at the time that Greece brought natives Chester on Saturday afternoon, September 22, for the

of Asia into the country. The movement initiated by Dr. purpose of discussing subjects of common interest to those

Savas to deal with the plague was one which should concerned in the work of museums, art galleries, and

recommend itself to all interested in the progress of kindred institutions. The following papers will be read civilisation. and discussed :--The nature of the archæological collections in the Grosvenor Museum, Chester, R. Newstead ; A DETAILED description is given in the Engineer (vol. the nature of the natural history collections in the Gros- cii., No. 2644) of some interesting models of rock-drilling venor Museum, Chester, A. Newstead; the comparative and boring machinery that have been added to the cases method in the exhibition of museum specimens, J. A.

devoted to this branch of mechanics at the Victoria and Clubb; museum taxidermy, and the status of the taxi

Albert Museum. dermist, J. W. Cutmore.

An interesting incident of a sparrow caught in a spider's THE Hull Municipal Museum recently purchased the web is reported to the Spectator of September 8 by Mr. extensive geological collection formed by the late Mr. B. G. Tours, writing from the British Consulate in ChinGeorge Lether, of Scarborough. Mr. Lether was well kiang, China. The web was built across a brick arch, known as an enthusiastic collector, and for many years

and the sparrow, a full-grown bird, flying through it head he was engaged in making a collection of the smaller downwards became caught in it. All its efforts to release species to be found in the fossiliferous deposits which are itself only served to add to its discomfort, and the bird so well represented around Scarborough. The Kelloways

soon became exhausted and gave up struggling. Rock, Calcareous Grit, Coral Rag, Cornbrash, the Mille- | Tours then released it, and he adds that it was “looking pore limestone and Scarborough limestone

well and evidently being very uncomfortable in his extra clothes known to him, and from these various strata he obtained of cobweb.” During the whole proceeding the very large the collection now at Hull. It is particularly strong in the spider had not attempted to interfere with the bird, and smaller gasteropods, but in addition contains a fine series would probably have waited until it was dead ber me of sea-urchins, terebratulæ, ammonites, corals, &c. The doing so. collection is one of exceptional value, and is a welcome addition to the local geological collection in the Hull

In Engineering of September 14 there is a long de pe Museum.

tion, and a large number of excellent illustrations, at the

quadruple-screw steam-turbine-driven 25-knot Cunard liner REPORTS of disturbances in the earth's crust continue to Mauretania, to be launched on September 20 from the be received. During the past few days the following shocks Wallsend shipyard. The following are the dimensions of




the vessel :-length over all, 783 feet; length between per- The liverworts of Japan have attracted the attention of pendiculars, 760 feet; beam, extreme, 88 feet; depth, bryologists on account of the special peculiarities of certain moulded, 60 feet 6 inches ; gross tonnage, 33,200 tons; net species referable to well-known genera. Mr. A. W. Evans tonnage, 11,900 tons; maximum draught, 37 feet ; displace- | describes and figures a few new or interesting species,

at this draught, 43,000 tons. The Mauretania is mostly collected in the province of Tosa, in vol. viii. of 160 feet longer than the Campania, of 1893, 78 feet 6 inches the Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sciences. longer than the fastest of existing ships-the Kaiser A species of Harpalejeunia is interesting as forming a link Ililhelm II.-and 80 feet longer than the Great Eastern, between that genus and Drepanolejeunia. the greatest of preceding vessels. Is Cornwall at the present time, owing to the high price

Tracing the development of the State Forest Department

in West Prussia, Dr. Koenig attributes the foundation of of metals, there is great activity in copper and tin mining, and it is interesting to note, in an important article in the

the present system to the personal interest and direction of

Frederick the Great. With regard to the extent of foresi, Times of September 17, the extent to which scientific

the writer is disposed to believe that more land might with methods and the latest improvements in appliances are being adopted at the newly started mines. At the Tywarn-profitable areas, provided the land were acquired by the

advantage be afforested, notably the sandy and other unhaile mine, for example, with the aid of a gas-power plant State. The article appears in Schriften der and electric pumps, the workings have been drained at the rate of 1400 gallons a minute. This speed has never

forschenden Gesellschaft in Danzig, vol. ii., part iv. been approached in the past history of Cornish mines. At In the Indian Forester (July) the editorial article bears the Great Dowgas tin mines, pneumatic stamps will for testimony to the foresight of the present Commander-inthe first time be driven direct by gas power, and winding Chief in India in demanding the preparation of working and pumping will be electrical. At the Alfred mines a plans for cantonment forests in India, and summarises a central gas-power plant has also been installed. When similar scheme drafted by the United States Forest Service work was resumed at the Clitters mine some five years for the Military Department for a forest reservation at the ago, those

sponsible formed the opinion that the custs military academy army post at West Point, New York, of working mines in Cornwall were far too high; that Following on previous references to types of forest restvalues existed in mixed ores far beyond the knowledge of houses in India, Mr. E. P. Stebbing deals with those met those then concerned in mining and dressing such ores ; with in Assam, that from descriptions and illustrations are and that great improvements in mining and dressing no more satisfactory than those provided in Burma. methods were possible. It has been proved that these impressions were true, and future developments in the

With reference to the maintenance of the Imperial application of modern scientific methods to the ancient Department of Agriculture in the West Indies, an editorial Cornish mines cannot fail to be watched with interest. notice appears in Tropical Life on the work of botanical The seventeenth annual general meeting of the Institu

and experimental stations. It is appropriate to find in the tion of Mining Engineers, held Hanley

same number a biography of Dr. J. C. Willis, who has

done so much towards bringing the agricultural community September 12-14 under the presidency of Sir Lees Knowles, was very largely attended, and an interesting programme

in Ceylon into its present prosperous condition. A note on of visits and excursions was arranged. The report of the

the camphor industry contains description of the

Formosan method of distillation, and the opinion is excouncil showed that the membership of the institution now amounts to 3034. Mr. Maurice Deacon (Chesterfield) was

pressed that the present price of camphor could be reduced

to one-third or less before the Formosan monopoly would elected president for the ensuing year. Three papers were

be endangered. read. Mr. W. D. Verschoyle described a new pocket transit, which was really a combined prismatic compass The Museums Journal for August is entirely occupied and clinometer, ingeniously arranged for observing very with the report of the recent conference at Bristol and an steep angies. Mr. T. Trafford Wynne gave a detailed de- illustrated account and history of the museum buildings of scription of the gypsum deposits of the Dove Valley. The that city. In the latter, the development of the museum discussion on this paper was well sustained. Mr. Bennett

and art-gallery is carefully recorded by Mr. W. R. Bacher H. Brough pointed out that the author in his introductory during a period approaching a century and a half--1772– sketch of the occurrence of gypsum had omitted to refer 1906. It is well known that the Bristol Museum possesses to the Paris deposits, which produced two-thirds of the a number of natural history treasures, among them an world's supply. The speaker suggested that there was

example of the typical southern race of the bonte-quagga, considerable room for improvement in the manufacture of

or Burchell's zebra, now apparently extinct, and unrepreplaster of Paris. Scientific progress had hardly touched

sented in the national collection. the technology of this material, and the temperature of burning and the degree of fineness received no attention. In the twenty-first Educational Leaflet, dealing with the The methods of testing gypsum were now to be investigated scarlet tanager, the U.S. National Association of Audubon by a comunittee of the International Testing Congress. The Societies (as represented by its president, Mr. W. Dutcher) charge of want of progress was warmly combated by other strikes an important note in asserting that its objects are speakers, who adduced evidence to show the high degree not limited to the protection of birds, but embrace the of scientific method followed in several plaster works in awakening of an interest on the part of the agriculturist this country In conclusion, a paper was read by Mr. (as well as the student) in bird-life generally. L’ndoubtedly E. B. Wain and Mr. J. T. Stobbs on the Cauldon Low and this is the right way of looking at the subject, and if it Manifold Valley, North Staffordshire, a district of con- were inculcated and adopted in this country (together with siderable geological interest, in which a large quarry of some relaxation of the law in regard to species held to Carboniferous limestone of very pure quality is worked, be harmful by practical people), we should probably hear and where at one time the famous Erton copper mine was fewer objections to bird protection. The coloured plate of great importance.

shows the male and female tanagers in their respective




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