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“expounded with such wealth of illustration and with surprising amount of the best of the most recent so exhaustive a knowledge of the fundamental litera- literature, and this makes us venture to express the ture of the subject." This praise is, we think, fully hope that in a future edition the author will rely les. deserved. Dr. Meldrum brings stern logic to bear on the existing compilations in dealing with the on the question, and approaches his task with a grim earlier researches, and will extend to the whole liferaearnestness which imparts an unintentional tinge of ture of the subject the same careful and first-hani humour to his book. He is no respecter of persons, consideration he has shown in dealing with the late: and he handles with some severity all those who, in researches. his opinion, have been unfaithful to the facts.

Of criticism or comment there is little or none, but atom,” says Dr. Meldruni, “in the modern theory there is evidence of considerable skill in the selection of chemistry is a dependency of the molecule.!") of the material whereby the most important research Avogadro's hypothesis being the fundamental hypo- secure prominent treatment. With the exception o' thesis of chemistry, other doctrines concerning mole- the recent work emanating from Australia on the cules and atoms are to be subordinated to it."

a rays, of which perhaps the full bearing has no atom can be defined with reference to the molecule ; been sufficiently brought out, the living branches in iť is doubtful if any other definition is sufficient." the subject have been done full justice to. A rele. These quotations will perhaps suffice to indicate Dr. ence to the parts dealing with the slow transformatior Meldrum's view. Dalton's hypothesis came first, but products of radium, radio-thorium, the origin and since 1858, when Cannizzaro appeared on the scene, ultimate product of radium, the work in German Avogadro's hypothesis has been the fundamental one. and France on the production of helium from radili We do not think that this can be seriously contested, and actinium, and radio-tellurium and poloniunt: taking the words strictly in the sense intended by shows that the author has included the best of the Dr: Meldrum. At the same time there is surely some current work on the most important problems. danger of a too pedantic insistence on this question

F. S. of “ ratiocinative precedence.” If we look upon the progress of chemistry, and not merely on its present Introduction to Astronomy. By Prof. Forest Rzy state, it is hardly a crime to speak of that hypothesis Moulton. Pp. xviii + 557. (New York : The Maras fundamental which has been the immediate cause millan Company; London: Macmillan and Cu of another that has ultimately proved more general, Ltd., 1906.) Price 5s. net. comprehensive, and fruitful, and whilst no doubt there STUDENTS of astronomy will find in Prof. Moulton's has been some laxity on the part of chemical writers in

volume an excellent text-book which, by its lucidits their choice of words, the great fact that Dalton came

and wealth of detail, will enable them to obtain : first, and that without Dalton there is no reason to

fairly thorough grasp of their subject. suppose there would have been an Avogadro's hypo

After two chapters dealing with general outlines thesis, will still be regarded, we suspect, as a justifi- and definitions we find a very useful chapter on the cation for some of the statements which Dr. Meldrum

constellations, with special paragraphs on the more criticises so severely.

important stellar groups and simple methods a In saying this we do not wish for a moment to locating them. Four clearly printed maps, so bound underestimate the service which Dr. Meldrum has

that they open out flat when the book is opened, will rendered by giving us this very searching and able be found very useful in the practical work which her: review of the bases of modern chemical theory.

and throughout the book is insisted upon as being A. S.

essential. Die radioaktiven Substanzen und die Theorie des Telescopes, their evolution and various types, an Atomzerfalles. By Prof. Paul Gruner.

Pp. 103.

then discussed, whilst the earth, its movements (Bern : A. Francke, 1906.) Price 1.60 marks.

gravitation, and time are dealt with at some length This little book of 100 pages, we learn from the pre

- in Chapters in cele mai dealt with the moon, eclipses

four succeeding face, had its origin in courses of lectures delivered

the solar system as whole and its individual by the author at the University of Berne during the members, respectively. The chapter on comets and session 1904-5, and is designed to give a complete meteors which follows leaves little, if anything at all yet short review of the whole field covered by the

to be said concerning the general phenomena and the title, including the most recent investigations. The historical apparitions of these bodies. subject is presented from the point of view of the dis

Probably in no branch of astronomy have such rapid integration theory, and the phenomena connected with advances been made during recent years as in solar the induced activity are treated at length. The physics, and of the results obtained therefrom Prof. physiological action of radio-active substances, and

Moulton takes the fullest advantage in the forty-nine their existence in springs, &c., are not considered

pages of description and discussion which he devotes except in passing.

to the sun in chapter xiv. Again, as a pioneer worker The author is to be congratulated on having fully on the probable evolution of the solar system, he is carried out his intention, and has succeeded in pro

seen to great advantage in the next chapter, where ducing a very readable account of the subject from he describes and criticises the Laplacian hypothesis, the physical standpoint, which is thoroughly up to explains the work of Sir George Darwin, and sum. date; but the value of the work would have been

marises the theories advanced by Prof. Chamberlin much enhanced by more diagrams. Only three are and himself. included, illustrating the decay and growth curves of In the concluding chapter we have an epitome of the induced activity of radium, and not a single our present knowledge concerning “the stars and diagram of any experimental piece of apparatus is nebulas,” in which the facts and observations of mosi shown. Practically nothing is said of the methods 'branches of sidereal astronomy are clearly stated and of measurement in use in the laboratory, although discussed. perhaps this is as well in a subject of this kind, where The numerous questions placed at the end of eacto a little knowledge is apt to be a dangerous thing. chapter and the excellent and up-to-date illustrations On the other hand, the author has contrived to com- add greatly to the value and interest of the volumar press within the one hundred pages of his book aias a text-book.

W. ER

a

n

mass

as

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR.

and suppose them to be separated by air or by a non

magnetic solid, there is obviously no reason why their (The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions centres should approach one another when the masses all expressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake become longitudinally magnetised. Number

is to return, or to correspond with the writers of, rejected urged to the right, say, by the attraction of mass n+1, manuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE. but to the left by the equal attraction of mass n-1, and Yo notice is taken of anonymous communications.]

there is no reason to move bodily one way rather than

the other. If we regard the centres of the masses The Recent Radium Controversy.

fixed, then it is obvious if air gaps separate the mass n I SHALL be obliged by your making the following correc- when unmagnetised from the masses n-1 and n+1, that tion on an accidental misstatement of mine, quoted by after magnetisation it will-whether of extensible or highly Mr. Soddy (p. 517, line 3 from foot of column one) in

inextensible material-suffer a tensional stress in consehis very interesting article on “ The Recent Controversy quence of the attractions exerted by its two next neighon Radium," in your issue of September 20 (p. 516). In bours. If the intervals between n and its neighbours be a letter to the Times, from which the quotation is correctly filled by, say, lead, the lead will suffer no compression made by Mr. Soddy, I had written accidentally four unless the mass n lengthens when magnetised. If the mass instead of five. The corrected statement is that Prof. n lengthens, the lead will suffer compression ; but the Rutherford had suggested that radium might be a com- longitudinal stress in n, though less than if the lead were pound of one atom of lead and five of helium. This is a non-existent, will still be a tension. If we suppose that suggestion wholly in harmony with chemical science. the poles of the hypothetical elementary magnets are not Rutherford is scientifically cautious in naming lead as quite at their ends, and that the elements lengthen when possibly one of the ingredients of radium, but he names magnetised, so that adjacent ends either meet across an helium as demonstrated experimentally to be an ingredient, air gap or else exert pressure on an interposed nonand considers five atoms as rendered somewhat probable magnetic layer, then a compressive stress might be looked by elaborate and important experimental investigations, of for, not merely in the layer, but also in the short terminal which he gives careful descriptions and very complete parts between the poles and the ends; tensional stress references in his book on “ Radio-activity."

would, however, exist throughout the longer central porNetherhall, Largs, September 21,

KELVIN. tions. Whether these various hypothetical cases will do

more than serve to show the inconclusiveness of Dr,

Bidwell's illustrations is, I realise, very doubtful.
Stress in Magnetised Iron,

In practice there are usually complications from free Ix NATURE, August 2 (p. 317), I observe under the above ends and want of symmetry. We may, at least theouitle a letter from Dr. Shelford Bidwell re-opening a retically, avoid such complications by taking some endless question discussed in your columns ten years ago. As the solid, the simplest being an anchor ring, preferably of originator of the discussion I feel indisposed to let Dr. small section but large aperture. Is there a hoop Bidwell's letter pass unnoticed.

stress in such a ring when magnetised which did not exist In my first letter (NATURE, vol. liii., 1896, p. 269) I prior to magnetisation, and, if so, what is its sign? If directed attention to the fact that certain writers, including there is a hoop tension, then the case is so far Dr. Bidwell, Dr. J. A. Ewing, and Dr. More, had stated analogous to that presented by a ring rotating about an explicitly or implicitly that the material of a magnet is axis through its centre perpendicular to the plane of its subjected to a longitudinal compressive stress approxi- aperture. If we imagine a short element of the rotating mating to B*/87 when H/B is small, whilst other authori-ring bounded by planes through the axis, the tensions ties, including Kirchhoff and Prof. J. J. Thomson, postu- across the end faces will give an inwardly directed radial lated a tensional stress of like amount. I remarked on resultant which is balanced by the “ centrifugal force." the apparent inconsistency, and explained the reasons which A stationary Saturn ring of continuous material, under the led me to regard the last-mentioned view as the more attraction of a planet at its centre, similarly gives a case piausible. My letter led to others. Dr. Ewing explained of a compressive hoop stress; the pressures over that he had changed his views. He left it, however, un- terminal faces of an element give an outwardly directed certain whether he believed that no such stress as Bo/87 resultant, balanced by the planet's attraction and that of exists in iron, or whether he took the view that tensional the ring on itself. In the Saturnian

the rotating and compressive stresses both exist, but in adjacent por- ring (when reduced to a statical problem), the hoop stresses tions of the magnet. The latter view seems indicated by are really excited by a radial action. Is there anything the illustration he advanced, viz. that of a man sitting in equivalent to this in the magnetic problem? If there is no a clothes basket and pulling the handles. The medium in radial action there will naturally be a change of aperture, this case is obviously not free from stress, having a tensile unless, like Dr. Bidwell, we suppose the magnetic material stress in his arms and a corresponding compressive stress absolutely “ rigid.” With change of aperture there will be elsewhere. Prof. E. Taylor Jones wrote favouring a change in the intermolecular distances, and so in the intertensile stress, and referring to work by himself and Prof. molecular forces. It would obviously be difficult to disNagaoka on the subject. Prof. L. R. Wilberforce dwelt tinguish between the stresses due directly and those due on the fact that the stress B2/87 most properly associated indirectly to magnetisation. with Maxwell's name has its seat in a hypothetical ethereal I might add that Dr. Bidwell's remarks on the medium, not in the material iron. Dr. Bidwell did not “ uniformly magnetised rod " divided transversely seem to then give his views to the public, so far as I am aware. me to confuse tensile with compressive stress. He deduces From his late letter I infer that they have remained un- a stress from iron to air gap, which seems really a tension altered since 1896.

on the iron. If he supposes the two fragments of iron Dr. Bidwell advances illustrations to explain his ideas. held so as to prevent them doing more than just touch, His arguments, however, seem really to amount only to he will, I think, realise this. Again, his remarks in this, that if two masses of iron, whether bars or spheres, reference to his spherical model do not seem to draw a close to one another be capable of bodily movement (e.g. sufficiently clear distinction between stress and strain. A if they rest on a smooth table or be suspended by long rigid " body, if such an entity could be realised, might threads), and have between them some compressible non- be under stress though exhibiting no strain. On the other magnetic medium (e.g. a finger), this interposed material hand, in an elastic body the signs even of the stress and will be squeezed if the iron becomes suddenly magnetic. strain in a given direction may differ. This result is, however, equally consistent with either of During the ten years that have elapsed since the conthe above theories; also it throws no light on the nature troversy began I have been too busily engaged in other of the stress in the iron.

matters to follow the developments of magnetic and elecIf, however, we suppose—as Dr. Bidwell ostensibly does trical theory. I hope that the recognised leaders in these -the two hypothetical masses of iron to be consecutive developments will not turn a deaf ear to Dr. Bidwell's members of an infinitely long series, which seems the only appeals for further light.

C. CHREE. hypothesis likely to represent the interior of a magnet, September 15.

as

0.2

The Rusting of Iron.

The Mixed Transformation of Lagrange's Equations. DURING the past few months the study of the chemical The history of the formula changes involved in the rusting of iron has been coming to the fore. In 1888 Crum Brown pointed out that iron

L=T + 2(00) - R - V... ... (1) remained free from rust in an atmosphere of oxygen,

is as follows. About twenty years ago I read two papers carbon dioxide, and water vapour so long as liquid water by Lord Rayleigh and Prof. W. M. Hicks in which certain was prevented from condensing on its surface. Whitney, problems relating to the motion of a cylinder in a liquid, in 1903, confirmed the opinion that liquid water alone which possesses cyclic irrotational motion, were solved had no effect on the metal at ordinary temperatures. No Both authors employed the old-fashioned method of calcumention was made, however, of the purity of the iron lating the forces due to the pressure of the liquid; but I used. Last year Dunstan, Jowett, and Goulding con- at once perceived that some form of Lagrange's equations firmed these results for polished iron plate (99.94 per cent. must exist which would enable the problems to be solved iron) in a series of carefully planned experiments. Since without introducing internal forces. I accordingly examined iron of such great purity as this is seldom used for com- all the works on dynamics to which I had access, including mercial purposes, it seemed to me desirable to try the Dr. Routh's treatises and Prof. J. J. Thomson's recentl effect of water alone on different samples of varying published papers in the Phil. Trans., 1886 and 1887, but qualities. Three such were chosen :-(1) cast iron from without finding what I wanted. The necessary clue wail piece of old piping ; (2) wrought iron; (3) fairly pure at length obtained by means of a theorem of Lord Kelvin's iron (99.5 per cent.). The pieces were polished, and published in the Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin., vol. vii., p. 60 measured approximately i cm. long by 3 cm. broad and (about 1872 or 1873), which enabled me to establish the

cm. thick. They were dropped into flasks of boiling formula in question. distilled water, and after five minutes the latter were Dr. Routh (“ Rigid Dynamics,” pp. 319 and 320, fourth closed with tightly-fitting india-rubber bungs, in the way edition) has given some rather formidable determinants, bu indicated by Whitney. It was found that whilst the pure means of which it is conceivable that (1) might be deduced and wrought iron were unchanged, the cast iron invariably by a more or less lengthy analytical process; but in their turned a shade darker in tint. The experiment was varied present form I have never been able to make any use of by employing thin glass tubes instead of Alasks, and the them. The procedure explained in $$ 418-420 could not surface of the metal was in some cases roughened with a apparently be employed when the velocities which are to coarse file. After the admission of the iron, the tubes be eliminated are either unknown or would be inconvenient were drawn out and finally sealed off. The results were to introduce.

A. B. BASSET. invariably the same. I have kept these tubes for several Fledborough Hall, Berks, September 21. months, but no further changes have taken place. This seems to indicate that, whilst neither warm nor cold water

Suspended Germination of Seeds. has any effect upon the purer forms of iron, they exert

SOME years ago it was reported that charlock seed had some slight action on the coarser cast iron.

germinated upon the site of a Norman church in Kent Many and various are the theories which have been

Is there any similar record of foxgloves awakening from suggested from time to time to account for the process of a long sleep? Last February I removed an ancient wali rusting. Crum Brown pointed out that carbon dioxide was circling the top of a very bare hill on a north country necessary. This dissolved in the water and attacked the

farm. We took out the large foundation stones. As the iron, forming ferrous carbonate, FeCO,,, or perhaps the spring advanced, the site of the wall became carpeter with soluble ferrous hydrogen carbonate, FeH (CO3). The

seedling foxgloves ; if the cattle permit, a thick foxclor hydrogen gas set free combined with any dissolved oxygen, hedge will round the crown of the hill next year. forming water. The oxygen of the air would convert the

There were no foxglove plants within several hundred ferrous hydrogen carbonate into rust, with the liberation

yards, and even had there been roots there would be as of carbon dioxide. Thus a small amount of carbon dioxide

seed in February. The wall was formerly the fence of in the presence of water and oxygen would be capable of an oak wood, which was felled and turned into pastur converting an infinite amount of iron into rust.

forty years ago. The seeds were unquestionably as ol.' During the present year Moody has confirmed this theory

as that date ; but my own strong opinion is that they were by showing that if elaborate precautions are taken to re

right underneath the foundation stones of the wall. an move every trace of carbon dioxide, pure iron (99.98 per

had lain there ever since it was built. I examined the site cent.) may be kept for an indefinite time in the presence

very carefully, and also noted that disturbance of ths of air and liquid water without undergoing the slightest neighbouring turf, outside the site, did not produce an visible change. He has also directed attention to the fact

foxglove crop.

I believe that the oaks were planted an: that when a piece of pure iron is introduced into a dilute

fenced by a man named Stephen Green between 10 ani solution of distilled hydrogen peroxide the latter is decom

1610. posed slowly, evolving a steady stream of oxygen, whilst

Another less pleasing instance occurred on the le the iron is unchanged. This again demonstrates the fact

farm. I took some cartloads of turf and loamn- topespit that oxygen and water alone have no action on pure iron.

from an old pasture traditionally called the “ Barley Field I have repeated the experiments with hydrogen peroxide, and spread it on another part of the grass; whesi uz via using the different samples of iron already referred to.

there came up thousands of corn-weeds, such as furritori The peroxide was from Merck, and guaranteed to be pure.

and sun spurge, which were previously unknown in the It was diluted to thirty times its volume with freshly-boiled

pastures.

H. B. 1 distilled water. On introducing the iron, it was found that the pure sample remained perfectly bright, a slow stream of oxygen being evolved. After some hours an odd

Optical Illusions on Electric Fan, speck or two of rust appeared. No further alteration A REVOLVING electric fan with gilt blade is illuminare occurred even after the lapse of one or two weeks. The by the light from a window. When we look fixedly on wrought iron decomposed the peroxide rather more rapidly, the revolving face an irregular patch of greyish-purple and the specks of rust were more numerous. The cast colour appears on the yellowish ground. The patch shows iron decomposed the peroxide with astonishing rapidity, an amoeba-like motion, and its size seems to increase with and in a few minutes was covered with rust. This was, no the speed of the fan. The border of the patch is coloured doubt, due to catalytic action.

pale. . In its centre a bright spot is often discerned. It We thus see that the purer the iron the less is the we look at the fan after having closed or turned aside our action of the peroxide upon it. Had such pure iron as that eves for a while the patch has disappeared, and it takes used by Moody been employed, I have no doubt my result a few seconds before it reappears. would have exactly coincided with his.

Several other experiments on illusion can be made conIt is not impossible, therefore, that while carbon dioxide, / veniently by means of the fan. If the blade boa corespunt oxygen, and water are essential for the rusting of pure with red papers and revolved slowly, a white paper Icokes iron, the last two alone may be sufficient to cause rust at through the revolving face appears greenish, and a in the coarser forms, such as cast iron.

greenish one greyish.

T. Trrr.. J. Newton FRIEND. Physical Laboratory, Tokyo, August 26.

Aquatic-dwelling Weevils.

1879 Mr. Mark Firth founded Firth College to faciliIN NATURE of September 6 there is a note (p. 472) on

tate university extension work, it was not until 1883 Dr. Nelson Annandale's papers on the fresh-water fauna

that another special meeting was held, at which Dr. of India, ending with the words an aquatic weevil, Sorby used the following pregnant words : “I do not which, so far at any rate as habits are concerned, is see why we should not make the teaching of metalaltogether unique." if this sentence is intended to mean lurgy a speciality of the town, nor why we should not that water-dwelling weevils were previously unknown it make Sheffield the centre of metallurgical instruction." is incorrect.

In 1885 the Sheffield Technical School was fairly Mr. J. H. Keys and myself took specimens of the weevil Eubrychius velatus, Beck, from a pond near Plymouth in

launched in a separate building, but as a department September, 1905, which were as thoroughly aquatic as any

of Firth College, with chairs of engineering and of of the typical water-beetles (e.g. Dytiscidae), most of their metallurgy both held by the late Prof. W. H. Greentime being spent in crawling under water on the leaves

wood. Until 1889 the department of metallurgy was and stems of Myriophyllum. Fowler has an interesting

in connection with the Science and Art Department, note on this species, to the same effect, in his “ Coleoptera

and its work consisted of courses of lectures on fuel, of the British Islands,” vol. V., p. 373.

refractory materials, iron, steel, and general metals, Mr. Keys also states that Tanysphyrus lemnae, F., and with assaving and experiments in a laboratory fitted the various species of Bagous are all more or less aquatic. with analytical benches, wind and muffle furnaces

E. E. Lowe. similar to those in the Royal School of Mines of that Museum and Art Gallery, Beaumont Park, Plymouth, date. In 1889, Prof. Greenwood having resigned his September 11.

chairs to undertake the management of the Birming

ham Small Arms Factory, John Oliver Arnold was Remarkable Rainbow Phenomena.

appointed to the chair of metallurgy which he holds The letter of Mr. M. Spence in NATURE of September 20,

to-day. He began at once to inaugurate revolutionary describing a bifurcated rainbow, reminds me of a similar changes, the fundamental aims of which seemed to be : phenomenon which I saw some time during the winter (1) to increase the science of the metals themselves, the of 1897-8. On that occasion the phenomenon was not so art being then in great preponderance; (2) as the incomplete as that described by Mr. Spence, only the left- dustries of the district were mainly of iron and steel, hand portion of the bow being visible. The arch rose to pay special attention to these, assured that science from the horizon as a single column to a height of about could be as truly served and minds as fruitfully trained ten degrees, and then bifurcated into two distinct branches, on metals of immediate interest to the district as on which, however, did not extend far from the join. As I was playing in a football match at the time it was

the wider range; and (3) to keep the ideal ahead of impossible to study the effect at all closely; but, so far

having available on a small scale, but by a manufacas I remember, the lower branch sprang out of the main

turing method as distinct from a laboratory method, regular bow, making with it an angle larger than that examples of as many types of metallurgical processes described by Mr. Spence. My incomplete observations were as possible, so that the students might examine the not alone of much value, but in confirmation of Mr. whole course of each process from beginning to end Spence's fuller description they may be worth recording in the comparative calm of an educational establishnow.

George C. SIMPSON. ment. A start was made by erecting a two-hole Manchester University.

crucible steel-melting furnace fully equipped as a small

works, and differing only from the large works in the Is it not the case that the second rainbow seen by your city in that theirs would consist of so many dozens or correspondent (p. 516) was caused by the reflection of the hundreds of holes of the same size. The effect on sun in the sea ? If this were so, naturally persons some the attendance was electrical, and the available laboramiles west of Deerness, or inland, would not have seen it. tory accommodation was at once completely filled. A I once saw the appearance of double rainbows beautifully difficulty here arose in that the Science and Art Departmanifested in Ranenfjord, on the coast of Norway, and

ment objected to the course, but a very simple solution the explanation which I have given is that which found most favour with the passengers on our steamer.

was found in cutting the laboratory adrift from C. S. TAYLOR.

Government control, the public men supporting it Banwell Vicarage, September 21.

guaranteeing against any resulting financial difficulty. It ought in justice to be said that in those

days the department did sounder work for pure science SOME SCIENTIFIC CENTRES.

than it seems to be the present fashion to acknowIX.--The METALLURGICAL DEPARTMENT OF THE

ledge, although its influence on metallurgy in Sheffield

was not good. SHEFFIELD UNIVERSITY.

The complete success of this first part enabled Prof. N EARLY fifty years ago Sir John Brown, the Arnold to induce the members of the governing com

famous engineer and steel manufacturer, with mittee to commence the more ambitious part of his Dr. H. C. Sorby, the father of the introduction of scheme, though with some misgivings, and during the microscope for the examination of thin sections the session 1890-91 the students had the rare privilege of rocks and of polished or polished and etched sur- of following the erection of, as well as working, plant laces of iron and steel, attempted to establish in consisting of a 25 cwt. acid Siemens furnace, with gas Sheffield a school of practical science; but as yet producers and all necessary hydraulic power for lifts, Britain held undisputed sway in the world of en- a No. Stewart rapid cupola, foundry with drving gineering and of metals; and the help of science, stove for sand and “ compo” moulds, and a falling proffered by these far-seeing men, although just as weight test apparatus. As showing the curious feadesirable then as now, was rejected by such easy tures which sometimes govern a problem, although the victors in the wars of commerce. The sum of 2001. No. cupola worked well it had soon to be replaced * o5 spent in advertising, with the result that only one by a Vo. I, as when the lining began to wear it was student entered. Several years' perseverance never pro- only with the utmost difficulty that even a temporary duced more than five students, so far as Dr. Sorby's assistant of the staff could be obtained sufficiently ineniory serves him. Sixteen years later the added attenuated to be able to effect the necessary repairs, personal influence of such men as Mr. Mark Firth, and at any time inspection of the lining was someSir Frederick Mappin, Sir Henry Stephenson, and Mr. what of an acrobatic performance. A 50-ton WickJ F Moss failed to find a response, and although in steed mechanical testing machine for tensile, trans

em

verse, crushing, bending and torsion tests was installed Prof. Arnold, his staff and students since 1889. “The jointly with the engineering department under Prof. Influence of Aluminium on Occluded Gases in Steel" W. Ripper, and whilst this machine formed a solid (Arnold) was the first subject attacked, because of the meeting ground it may also be considered as many conflicting statements as to this influence. The blematic of the relationships existing between these experience gained in this work made possible the two departments from the beginning, namely, that the manufacture of a series of extraordinarily pure steels, métallurgical should, so far as possible, make all the first research on which resulted in “ The Influence metallic materials for the engineering department, and of Elements on Iron” (Arnold), which combated in return know of the behaviour of the materials Roberts-Austen's atomic volume theory as applied to supplied.

steel, and Osmond's theory of the hardness of steel In 1890 the technical school, apparently finding it being due to a flint hard B iron apart from any carbon too difficult to impress its needs on the college autho- contained. Incidentally the micro-constituents Fes rities, became an independent institution, and was and Mns were discovered. The almost pugilistic thus free to work out its own ideals until 1896, when vigour of the tone of this paper and criticisms which the two again joined for the purpose of applying for had preceded it seemed to turn many listeners, used to

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a charter to become a university college, which charter more gentle ways, into opponents without examinwas received in May, 1897. That its isolated progress ation of the arguments, and it undoubtedly took many produced a result acceptable, not only to practical, but years to dispel the feeling, which still remains in the to university men, was shown when application was minds of some of the more unthinking or erratic, as made to enter the then Victoria University (an applica- seen from the way in which in a recent paper simple tion to the making of which the present writer was quotations from a well-known writer were treated in firmly opposed); the report of the University Commis- the discussion as attacks on him. “The Chemical sion as published in the newspapers distinctly stated Relations of Carbon and Iron (Arnold and Read, that the technical department was the only part fit. 1893) was the result of work done to examine the disfor inclusion in the university.

covery of the carbide of iron by Abel and Müller, and It is impossible justly to estimate the influence of the their results were fully confirmed, the carbide being metallurgical department, but the task must be at- obtained in chemically pure crystalline plates. In tempted, as therein lies its soul. Thirty or so researches 1895, in “ The Influence of Carbon on Iron " (Arnold). worked out in the department have been published by the discovery of the saturation point of steel was

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