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JENA LABORATORY GLASSWARE.

&

OTT

GEN.

VEN

MARBLE REDUCED
TO QUICKLIME IN

BOILING FLASKS, BEAKERS,

RETORTS, TEST TUBES, TUBING 10 MINUTES

FOR EXPLOSION FURNACES,
with our NEW BLAST

COMPOUND TUBING (D.R.P.)
WARNING.
BUNSEN BURNER AND

Resisting in a high degree sudden
Observe that the
MIDGET FURNACE.

changes of temperature and the
Regulator of
We make these in two sizes at

action of corrosive chemicals. Burner, Body of

present, '" and g" and the prices Furnace, and are- Burners only, 1/6 and 2/6;

Combustion Tubing for ElemenHood are all dis. complete with Furnace, 4/6 and

Price-list sent free

TRADB MARK. tary Analysis. (PP free) tinctly stamped 6

on application. in the metal

The consumption of gas is the SCHOTT & GEN. Glassworks, Jena (GERMANY). “ BREWSTER,

same as with an ordinary Bunsen, SMITH & Co.,

but the heat derived' is three The Jena Glasses are, in the U.K., on sale with the following firms : LONDON." times as great, and a number of

Aberdeen.

Manchester. Beware of imita.

interesting experiments can be A. & J. SMITH, 23 and 25 St. JAMES WOOLLEY, SONS & tions that do not performed wiih them, which Nicholas Street

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Birmingham.

Newcastle upon Tyne, tial feature of this

with very expensive furnaces. F. E. BECKER & CO. (W. and BRADY & MARTIN, Ltd. burner's success. We are the SOLE MAKERS. J. George, Ltd., Successors), 159

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and 160 Great Charles Street. BAIRD & TATLOCK (London

PHILIP HARRIS & Co., Ltd., convenient. These little furnaces are not only useful for reducing calcium

Ltd., 14 Cruss Street, Hatton

Edmund Street. carbonate to lime, but also work very wellin fusion experiments.

Garden, E.C.
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F. E. BECKER & CO. (W. and J. BREWSTER, SMITH & Co., PHILIP HARRIS & Co., Ltd., George, Ltd., Successcrs), 33 10 37

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(PATENT). Shows a magnificent display of scintillations, showers of sparks, direct from the mineral Pitchblende, Radium, Polonium, Uranium, Therium, or any radio-active substance, even a Welsbach manue contains sufficient Thorium to excite the very sensitive screen of ihe Scintilloscope, which is far more sensi. tive than the Spinthariscope. Th- Scintilloscope rivals the most delicate Electroscope as a detector of Alpha rays.

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THORIONITE.

ESTABLISHED 1851.
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REYNOLDS & BRANSON, LTD. CARL ZEISS, JENA.

,

and

Makers, Laboratory Furnishers,

Manufacturing Chemists.

BRANCHES :-
LONDON-29 MARGARET ST., RECENT ST., W.
Berlin. Frankfort o/M. Hamburg. Vienna. St. Petersborg.

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MICROSCOPES

Suitable for every Class of Scientific and Technical Research.

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PHOTO-
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PROJECTION

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PHYSICAL APPARATUS

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A NEW PATTERN

FORTIN'S STANDARD BAROMETER

(Registered Design No. 420,397.) As will be seen by the illustration, this Barometer built on original lines.

By the absence of the ordinary tubular enclosures in the usual form of instrument) the mercurial column is FULLY EXPOSED to view, NO SHADOWS are thrown upon the column, and therefore an extremely accurate and in stantaneous reading is made possible. The scales being graduated upon the flat side pieces the DIVISIONS AND FIGURES ARE ALWAYS IN View, and the vernier is very much more legible than in the ordinary tubular patterns.

The bore of the tube is 0.5 inch.

The scales are graduated in inches and millimetres, and, by means of the verniers, are capable of being subdivided to read 10 0·002 inches and 0'1 m/m.

The attached Thermometer on the body of the instrument is graduated in Fahrenheit and Centigrade scales

It is the BOLDEST Standard Barometer made. The PRICE IS LOWER than that of any other forma of Standard Barometer of the same dimensions.

It yields readings equally close as the highest priced instruments.

Price complete, mounted on handsome Polished Solid Mahogany Board, with Brackets for Suspension, and Opal Glass Reflectors,

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CAMBRIDGE, ENGLAND Awarded 2 Grands Prix at Milan International

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THURSDAY, OCTOBER 4, 1906.

tenuity, has for some time been felt to involve difficulties, which become more serious upon a closer examin

ation. These difficulties are cogently stated by the THE EVOLUTION OF THE GLOBE.

authors, especial stress being laid on the great disGeology: Earth History. By Thomas C. Chamberlin

crepancy which Moulton has pointed out from a and Rollin D. Salisbury. Vol. ii., Genesis, Paleo- consideration of the actual distribution of moment of zoic, pp. xxvi +692. Vol. iii., Mesozoic, Cenozoic, momentum in the solar system. The meteoritic pp. xi +624. (London : John Murray, 1906.) Price hypothesis, whether in Lockyer's or in Darwin's form, 21s. net each.

is held by the authors to be open to the same objec*HE first volume of this important work, noticed tions as the theory of a gaseous nebula, with which,

indeed, it is practically identical as regards its more its second edition, dealt with geological processes and important consequences. According to the planettheir results. In the two volumes now before us, esimal hypothesis, the constituents of the system which complete the work, geology is treated from might be molecules or small masses of any

kind the historical side, and we have a comprehensive re- moving in orbits about a common centre, the essential view of the history of the earth on systematic lines. point being that their behaviour depended, not on The treatment of these two formally separable mutual collisions (as on the meteoritic hypothesis), branches of the science is, however, such to but on revolution in independent orbits. On this emphasise the essential unity of the whole. As geo- supposition there was, after the initial nebula was logical processes were discussed with continual refer- once formed, no fundamental change in the dynamics ence to the historical application of the principles laid of the system, but only a progressive aggregation of dow'n; so the evolution of the globe, which is the the infinitesimal planetoids (“ planetesimals '') to story of these latter volumes, is regarded consistently form the planets and their satellites as they now from the causal point of view. Indeed, some subjects exist. already considered under the head of geological pro

The original nebula postulated was not a gaseous cesses, such as the dynamics of deformation, the one, but belonged to the type giving a continuous causes of glaciation, &c., are now more fully discussed spectrum, and had, like most of these, the spiral in connection with the particular geological periods form. There were also, as in such nebulæ in general, which most clearly exemplify the phenomena.

knots of denser aggregation which became the nuclei The part of the work which will be read with of the several planets, though the greater part of the greatest interest is that which falls under the subtitle material outside the central helioid was still widely ** Genesis." Considering geology as “the domestic scattered. The manner in which such a system may chapter of astronomy," the authors devote much more have been developed from an ancestral helioid by the space than is customary in geological treatises to the near approach of another star is tentatively pictured ; problem of the origin and primitive condition of the but this is no essential part of the hypothesis, which globe. This is, we think, amply justified by the is concerned, not with the whole evolution of the solar fundamental place which cosmogony necessarily system, but with the birth and subsequent history of occupies in the construction of the science. It is the planets. Starting with the conception of an inevident that opinion concerning such questions as the finitude of small masses revolving in different elliptic causes of crust-movements, the essential mechanism orbits of considerable eccentricity, with a certain of igneous action, the origin of the atmosphere and degree of clustering already pronounced, the authors hydrosphere, the beginning of life, must be controlled discuss the manner in which these planetesimals beby the view adopted, formally or tacitly, of the mode came aggregated into planets, moving in orbits of of origin of the earth as a planet. Less obviously, only small eccentricity, and with rotation in the same but not less surely, some theory of the earth's initial direction as the orbital revolution. state is involved in numerous geological doctrines, the

It is for the mathematician rather than the dependence of which on such considerations is liable geologist to pass judgment upon this new treatment to be overlooked; and the authors do good service in of the dynamical problems involved, but the geologist recalling this fact repeatedly in the historical record must be vitally interested in the verdict. The earth which follow's. The clear recognition of cosmogony as built up on the planetesimal hypothesis will be a as the foundation of geology, by revealing an very different body from the earth as condensed from suspected element of hypothesis at various places in a gaseous spheroid, and must have passed through the superstructure, offers a warning which is perhaps very different stages of evolution since it acquired in some quarters not wholly unnecessary.

individuality. The first-formed solid nucleus was The special interest of this part of the book, how- probably devoid of any 'atmospheric envelope, its ever, lies in the first complete exposition of the attraction being insufficient to control the rapidly

planetesimal ” theory, which the senior author has moving molecules of gases. An appreciable atmoalready propounded elsewhere. That our solar system sphere had probably been gathered when the growing has in some manner been evolved from a nebula of globe had attained one-tenth of its present mass (being some kind is an assumption to which few will demur; then comparable with Mars). The atmosphere would but the particular theory associated with the name of at first be collected from outside, but there was already Laplace, and generally known as the nebular hypo- a large quantity of occluded gases in the material thesis, starting from a gaseous nebula of extreme built into the solid globe, which might eventually be

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