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attempt to induce the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries Shimoga and Kadur districts, by Mr. H. K. Slater; and to undertake the issue of the report. Although the attempt on economic minerals, by Mr. V. S. Sambasiva Iyer. In was unsuccessful, it is hoped that in the near future the the last report the occurrence of deposits of asbestos, mica, Board will become more closely associated with fishery re- gold, pyrites, magnesite, chromite, garnet, staurolite, and searches throughout the country. As the result of fourteen apatite is recorded. In the Memoirs of the Mysore Geoyears' trawling experiments, correlated with Government logical Department (vol. iii., part i.) Mr. E. W. Wetherell statistics, and a review of the history of the local fisheries, gives a general account of laterite, and a description of the the present report contains a much fuller account of the

more important exposures in the districts of Bangalore and “ white-fisheries ” of Northumberland than has previously Kolar. The origin and nature of laterite have always been been possible. The experiments indicate that the stations such controversial questions that the author's conclusions are subject to gain and loss from the areas immediately are of special interest. He shows that the Bangalore-Kolar outside, and that the inward movements include a certain laterite is detrital and of lacustrine origin, and that there number of deep-sea fish, especially plaice. When reduced is no geological relation whatever between the horizontal to a common standard, the results demonstrate that while

laterite proper and the clayey lithomargic beds below. The there was a steady improvement in the fish-population from apparent gradation from these beds into laterite is due to 1892 to 1903, a decline has set in since the latter date. the fact that the laterite was lain down in water on the Recently the fish captured have been found to feed chiefly decomposed surface of the preexisting rocks, and subseon sand-eels, in place of molluscs and crustaceans, due, quently the chemical changes caused by percolating water apparently, to the scarcity of the two latter. The improves have acted both upon the laterite itself and upon the dement in the flat-fishes of the district is attributed to pro- composed material below it. tection, and it is considered that protection will likewise lead

The excellent work that is being done by the South noticeable increase of crabs and lobsters. Important statistics are furnished with regard to the rate

African Philosophical Society is well shown by the varied of growth and the migrations of fat-fish.

contents of the Transactions (vol. xvi., part iii.). Dr. R.

Broom describes and illustrates Hortalotarsus skirto podus, PROF. R. DE C. Ward contributes a valuable paper on the South African dinosaur described by Seeley in 1894. the classification of climates to the July and August Dr. R. Marloth gives some notes on Aloe succotrina, which numbers of the Bulletin of the American Geographical he has found growing at a spot on Table Mountain, and Society. The chief systems of classification described are Mr. T. R. Sim summarises the recent information concernthose of Supan, Köppen, Hult, and Ravenstein, and Prof. ing South African ferns and their distribution. The list Ward comes to the satisfactory conclusion that the first he gives shows a total of 212 species. Mr. J. R. Sutton of these is the best for general purposes. Teachers of discusses the climate of East London, Cape Colony, giving $ography will find this paper extremely useful.

a summary of meteorological observations made during the The present stage of development and the prospects of

twenty-one years 1884-1904. Mr. D. E. Hutchins reviews the magnesite mines of South Africa are described in the

the cycle year 1905, an important one to those interested Engineer (vol. cii., No. 2646). They are situated between

in long-period weather forecasts, and concludes that Kaapmuiden and Melelana, eighty-seven miles from

farmers may expect general good seasons for the next two Delagoa Bay and 300 miles from Johannesburg. The

or three years, and that after 1908 there will be six years magnesite occurs in nearly vertical beds associated with

of drought. Mr. A. L. du Toit points out the considerable serpentine in schists, and is worked in open cuttings. The

influence of the geological formation on the storage of magnesite is of good quality, and the mines have opened

underground water, and considers the potentialities of such out an industry that is likely to be of considerable future

a supply in south-eastern Bechuanaland. Dr. Thomas importance.

Muir makes known a solution to a set of linear equations

connected with homofocal surfaces. Mr. W. L. Sclater Is the Engineering Magazine for September there are gives an account of two recently discovered inscribed stones right articles by prominent American engineers, the most bearing on the history of Cape Colony. One is a boundary striking being a warning by Dr. Louis Bell on the subject stone erected by the governor Joachim van Plettenberg at of over-specialisation in manufacturing methods. Standard- Colesburg in 1778 to mark the extreme north-eastern isation, however desirable from a pecuniary standpoint, in boundary of the colony, and the other is a stone in the the last resort means the cessation of active improvement. castle wall with inscriptions by John Roberts, commander Labour-saving machinery, interchangeable parts, and of the Lesser James, 1622, and by James Burgess, master systematised production have their due place to fill in the of the Abigail, 1622. world's economy. But they need not become, as they are

The last issue of the Journal of the Institution of becoming at the present time, an excuse for stagnation ;

Electrical Engineers contains an interesting paper and, above all, they should not be allowed to check the long-flame are lamps, by Mr. L. Andrews. The paper is development of the craftsman, who is necessary to the

of especial interest at the present time, owing to the recent perpetuation of industry. The greatest industrial problem development of the long-fiame are, which is largely due today is to maintain the supply of intelligent American

to the enterprise and competition of the gas companies labour in spite of the American industrial system.

during the last two years. With the perfection of highThe Records of the Mysore Geological Department (vol. pressure gas the electric arc was seriously threatened, as v.) contain the general report of the work of the department gas lighting, without a doubt, was driving out the arc for the year 1903-4, by Dr. W. F. Smeeth, the State lamp from both the cost and candle-power points of view. geologist. The work is of a very varied character, and This competition, however, has had a beneficial result, in comprises, in addition to geological inquiries, inspection of that the long-flame arc lamp has been developed and can mines and explosives, prospecting, lectures, and the now more than hold its own with high-pressure gas lamps, management of the library, laboratory, and museum. The as is proved by the fact that, after a practical trial of both same volume contains special reports on the Chitaldrug systems which lasted over some time, the South-Eastern and Tumkur districts, by Mr. E. W. Wetherell; on the Railway Company has decided to adopt oriflame arc lamps

on zone. an

at the renovated Charing Cross Station, as they found by In an article in No. 8 of Le Radium Mr. J. S. Eve test that, on the price for price basis, the oriflame lamps describes a method of estimating the proportion of radium gave a much better light than the high-pressure gas lamps. or thorium in a mineral by means of the q rays which it Mr. Andrews's paper chiefly deals with one particular kind emits. Incidentally, it is pointed out that solutions of of flame arc lamp, namely, the Carbone lamp. The paper radium bromide which are intended to serve as standards led, however, to a discussion which opened up the question of radio-activity are liable, unless acidified, to become inin its more general form. It is to be hoped, therefore, that exact owing to the deposition of radium on the glass of the question of long-flame arcs will not be allowed to the vessels containing them. It appears advisable aluats drop until a much greater development has taken place, to control such solutions by reference to a standard of as much is needed before we can say that it is períect, as solid radium bromide. Dr. M. Levin contributes an article the efficiency of flame arc lamps still leaves much to be on the absorption of the a rays of polonium to the same desired.

number of Le Radium, Mr. H. L. Bronson deals with the The August issue of the Psychological Bulletin is a

transformation periods of radium A, B, and C, and Mr. pathological number. In addition to an article on the re

W. H. Bragg describes investigations of the a particies of lation of emotional and intellectual functions in paranoia

uranium and thorium. and in obsessions (by Dr. Adolf Meyer, the editor of this

Both theoretically and practically the formation of number), it contains a discussion by Dr. J. W. Baird of the

" basic" salts has long been a difficulty to chemists. In contraction of the colour zones in hysteria and in neuras

the case of the carbonates, for example, no good reason thenia. The conclusions to which Dr. Baird's observations

has been given why the carbonates of the metals of the lead are (1) that the colour zones of the abnormal sub

alkaline earths alone should be definite compounds. The jects examined are, on the whole, of smaller area than

current number of the Journal of the Society of Chemical those of the normal subjects, and (2) wherever a contrac

Industry contains an interesting study of the basis tion of the colour zones occurs a definite order is observed

carbonates of magnesium, by Mr. W. A. Davis, whiih -the red and green zones narrow together and the blue

throws a good deal of light on these very obscure comand yellow zones together, and there is a greater degree of

pounds. The starting point of the work is magnesium contraction in the red-green zone than in the blue-yellow bicarbonate. It has been shown by Treadwell and Reuter

that whilst a solution of calcium bicarbonate is stable at ALTHOUGH it is well established that selenium and the ordinary temperature, a solution of the corresponding tellurium are isomorphous in their compounds, it is still magnesium compound is only stable in the presence of a question of controversy whether the isomorphism extends carbon dioxide. It is known that when the pressure to the substances in the elementary state. Drs. G. Pellini of the carbon dioxide above this solution is removed and G. Vio show in the Atti dei Lincei (vol. xxv., ii., crystals are deposited of the composition MgCO.3H O. p. 46) that the solidifying points of mixtures of these sub- and these have been regarded as hydrated magnesium stances are proportional to the percentage compositions, carbonate. In the present paper the author shows that and that the elements are therefore isomorphous. The this substance is really a hydroxy-carbonate, hexagonal mineral tellurium from Honduras, which contains about 29 per cent. of seleniuin, would thus appear

Mg(OH)(CO,H)2H,O, to be an isomorphous mixture.

since only two-thirds of the water can be driven oli at A METHOD of isolating radio-thorium from thorium salts

100° C., or by boiling with xylene. Photomicrographs of is described by Messrs. G. A. Blanc and O. Angelucci in

both these salts are given. The decomposition products c the Atti dei Lincei (vol. xxv., ii., p. 90). When sulphuric

this hydrosy-carbonate are then studied, and the resu!'s acid is added to a solution of thorium nitrate containing applied to the softening of magnesian waters, the Sol ir barium chloride no precipitate is formed in the cold solu. method of manufacturing potassium carbonate with the aid tion, but on warming, part of the barium is precipitated of magnesia, and the formation of mixed carbonates of as sulphate, the precipitate carrying down some of the magnesium and the alkalis. The author claims thu: radio-thorium. The sulphate is converted into carbonate

various observations which were formerly inexplicable mar by fusion with sodium carbonate, and the product, after be interpreted without difficulty in the light of the expanthorough washing, is dissolved in acid; on adding ammonia

ation which has been given of the manner in which basi a slight precipitate of radio-thorium is obtained which has

carbonates are formed. an activity about 5000 times as great as thorium hydroxide Prof. STRASBURGER's interesting book on botanical ar? in a state of radio-active equilibrium.

other natural characteristics of the Riviera, a review of The use by the Königliche Porzellan Manufactur of which appeared in NATURE of June 22, 1905 (vol. Irii.. fused magnesium oxide in the construction of tubes and p. 171), has been translated into English by O. and 6 crucibles has led Messrs. H. M. Goodwin and R. D. Comerford Casey, and is published, with the colour Mailey to publish the results they have obtained in an illustrations, by Mr. T. Fisher Unwin. The Engine investigation of the physical properties of fused magnesium version of this charming book will delight visitors to the oxide (Physical Review, vol. xxiii., No. 1). The fused Riviera who are unfamiliar with the German language. substance is a white, very hard crystalline substance, the size of the crystals depending on the rate of cooling. The

A SERIES of instructive experiments in practical phe ir melting point of the material is 1910°, the coefficient of

graphy is described by Mr. T. T. Baker in a boca''

entitled " expansion being very nearly the same as that of platinum,

Simple Photographic Experiments," just pet a fact which will prove of value in its application.

lished by Messrs. Percival Marshall and Co.

The results recorded for the electrical conductivity show that Messrs. CONSTABLE AND Co., LTD., have just pulsshed up to 1150° C. fused magnesia is a better insulator than the third edition of Mr. H. H. Cunynghame's work" () porcelain. Fused salts, as a rule, have very little action the Theory and Practice of Art-enamelling upon Merais on the material, and it is attacked only slowly by cold, A short description of a new furnace invented by phone dilute mineral acids.

author has been added to the volume.

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OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN.

star B Scorpii. As it is such a rare occurrence for a planet

to occult so bright a star, he gives the particulars of the COMET 1906e (Kopff).—Circular No. 91 from the Kiel occultation for Sydney, Brisbane, and Wellington in the Centralstelle contains a set of elements for comet 1906e, hope that use may be made of them by observers suitably calculated by Herr M. Ebell from positions observed on located. August 23 and 31 and September 12.

RESULTS OF THE INTERNATIONAL LATITUDE SERVICE, 1902These elements give the time of perihelion as May 3.09,

1906.-In No. 4121 of the Astronomische Nachrichten Prof. 1906, and from them Herr Ebell has calculated

Th. Albrecht discusses the results obtained by the six ephemeris from which the following is taken :

international latitude stations during the period 1902.0Ephemeris 12h. (M.T. Berlin).

1906.0. The variation of the position of the apparent pole

is shown on a diagram, which includes the tenths of each 1906 a (true) 8 (true) 1906 a (true)

8 (true)

year from 1900-0 to the beginning of the present year. Oct. 22 27 Oct. 18

+4 58

The values given for the period 1902.0-1905.0 are final, but 6

+ 4 4

those for 1905:1-1906-0 are only provisory, although Prof. 26 +5 40

Albrecht states that they are probably correct to one two26

hundredth of a second. 14

THE AMANA METEORITE.--An interesting description of the At present the diminishing brightness of the comet is

various meteoritic objects which fell at Amar Iowa, about half what it was on August 23, when its magnitude was about 11.5.

U.S.A., in 1875, is given by Dr. G. D. Hinrichs in Das

Weltall for September 15. Two plates accompanying the From the ephemeris it may be seen that this object is

description show photographic reproductions of the still in the constellation Pegasus, about half-way between

meteorites, together with the

of the Ś and 34 Pegasi, and is observable throughout the evening.

wherein they are now to be found. Other illustrations Observing at Rome on September 12, Prof. Millosevich

give charts of the locality in which these objects were found it to be a faint object having a coma which was

discovered. not symmetrical about the thirteenth-magnitude nucleus.

FINLAY's Comet, 1906d.-M. Léopold Schulhof continues his ephemeris for Finlay's comet in No. 4122 of the Astro. BOTANY AT THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. nomische Nachrichten, from whence the following abstract is taken :

THE work of Section K was not characterised by the Ephemeris 12h. (.M.T. Paris).

announcement of any discovery of very exceptional

interest, nor by any sensational feature. As has been 1906 a (app.) 8 (app.) 1906 a (app.)

8 (app.)

usual in recent years, an elfort was made to group the Oct. 4 7 37 + 20 33

Oct. 16 8

+ 20 49

papers presented so that those dealing with allied topics 8 7.46 + 20 39

8 8

were taken at the same session. The whole number of 12 7 54 + 20 44 24

+ 20 59

papers read was not large, and no less than three morning

sessions were devoted to discussion of definite topics, the The comet, according to this ephemeris, is now in the

proceedings being opened in each case by one or constellation Gemini, travelling directly eastwards towards Cancer, and rises at about 11.30 p.m.

papers giving an account of the present position of the It will be about

subject to be discussed, or presenting facts and conclusions one degree south of K Cancri on October 16.

likely to lead to debate. These discussions were to some Two photographs of this comet are reproduced in the

extent organised beforchand ; that is to say, the members September number of the Bulletin de la Société astronomique de France. They were

most likely to contribute usefully to the discussion of a taken the Juvisy

given topic were informed of the intention to hold the Observatory on August 21 and 22 respectively by M.

discussion some time before the meeting, and were invited Quénisset, and show a well-marked nucleus ; a rudimentary

to contribute, abstracts of the opening papers being distail is also seen on the original negative. During the

tributed to them as early as possible, so that they were exposure on August 21 the comet passed over a tenth

in possession of the lines to be taken before the meeting: magnitude star, the light of which was not perceptibly

Such of these members as were present and had signified diminished by the interposition of the coma.

their willingness to speak were called upon in succession I NEW FORM OF Wedge PHOTOMETER.-In No. 4120 of by the chairman as soon as the papers were over, the disthe Astronomische Nachrichten Herr H. Rosenberg de- cussion being afterwards open to any member of the scribes, and gives a drawing of, a new form of wedge section. Although it is true that very good discussions photometer which he has designed. In the ordinary photo- often arise quite spontaneously after papers which are not meter of the “ wedge type the observer is unable to

expected to provoke debate, it is believed that on the eliminate the influence of the variation in the brightness of whole the best results are obtained by the method of semithe general background of sky, and the eye, becoming organised discussion described, though it is neither possible fatigued, is unable to determine exactly the point of extinc- nor desirable to limit the sectional meetings entirely to tion.

proceedings of this type. In Herr Rosenberg's apparatus, however, the image of The success of such discussions depends very largely on an artificial star, formed by a constant light source, is the selection of topics of suitable scope.

On the whole projected alongside the image of the natural star, and the

the tendency is to take too wide a subject, with the result wedge adjusted until the two images are equally bright. that the different speakers are apt to deal with quite By adjusting the brightness of the artificial star, so that distinct aspects of it, and unless the opener has the exit is less than that of the faintest object which is to be

ceptional power of drawing all the threads together in his examined, and determining its value in magnitudes, one

reply the impression left on hearers is liable to be somemay thus measure the brightness of any stars within the

what inconclusive and chaotic. On the other hand, if the limits of about eight magnitudes. The error caused by the

subject chosen is too narrow, its treatment is apt to beuncertainty as to the exact point of extinction is thus

come excessively technical, the discussion is of limited eliminated.

interest, and may even languish owing to lack of A postscript to Herr Rosenberg's description states that sufliciently instructed specialists. he finds the principle of a similar contrivance was de- Of the three discussions at the York meeting, the first scribed by Herr Müller in No. 3693 of the Istronomische

was taken on Friday morning, August 3, and was really Nachrichten, and an instrument was constructed at the

divided into two parts. Dr. D. H. Scott opened the Potsdam Observatory.

session. Though his title was a wide one_." Some Aspects Occu'lTATION OF A STAR BY Vent'S.-In a communication of the Present Position of Palæozoic Botany "consider

the British Astronomical Association, published in ations of time compelled Dr. Scott to limit himself to No. 9. vol. xvi., of the Journal, Dr. Downing directs the “ the difficult question of the position of the ferns in the attention of amateur astronomers in Australasia to the fact Palæozoic flora,' " the difficulty arising from the accumuthat on December 9 Venus will occult the third-magnitude lation of evidence showing that most of the so-called

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Palæozoic ferns were in reality seed-plants." Dr. Scott ledonous" type, a conclusion with which the joint authors showed, in his luminous address, that “a large body of of the other paper concurred. true ferns of a simple type--the Primofilices of Mr. Arber Mr. A. W. Hill sought to show, by a consideration of -existed in Carboniferous times," while it is probable that the seedlings of bulbous and rhizomatous species of true Marattiaceous ferns also existed side by side with Peperomia and Cyclamen, that clues may be obtained to these.

the mode of evolution of the true Monocotyledons, the inu The second part of the discussion, dealing with the cotyledons assuming different functions. Thus in his view formation of the well-known calcareous nodules found in the single cotyledon of the Monocotyledon represents onls the coal seams of the Lower Coai-measures, though it one of the two cotyledons of the typical Dicotyledon, it might be thought to be of purely technical and specialist other being represented by the first foliage leal. Viss interest, is in reality of great importance to everyone con- Sargant found herseli unable to accept Mr. Hill's sugge cerned with Palæozoic botany, because the nodules in ques- tions. tion contain the greater part of the plant remains showing Several interesting papers on the vogelation of differral histological structure that are known to us from Palæozoic

parts of the world were read. Mr. Seward communicaird rocks, and their mode of formation is of the first import

a paper by Prof. H. H. W. Pearson, of Cape Town, 8,10 ance as throwing light on the question of how these plants is doing excellent work on the natural history of the in grew.

Several geologists specially conversant with the digenous Cycads. Mr. Hugh Richardson gave an outlios occurrence of Coal-measure fossils had been particularly account of the vegetation of Teneriffe, laving stress on il invited to take part in the discussion, which was an excel- zonal distribution. Mr. C. E. Moss gave a general paper lent instance of the fruitful concentration of two branches

on the succession of plant formations in Britain, in which of science upon a special problem. Prof. Weiss opened the he dealt with succession from sand dunes, from pali discussion with a short general paper stating the problems, marshes, in lowland and upland peat formations, and in and was followed by Miss Stopes, who gave an account of

certain types of forest, in all cases from his own obsesiher recent work, which went to show that the nodules

ation. He used the term

formation" to mean "an were formed in situ, the calcareous material being derived historical series of plant associations," beginning as an by so!ution and re-segregation from marine shells the re

open " and ending as a " closed " association. All them mains of which are found in the roof of the same seam.

papers were illustrated by lantern-slides. A possible chemical process by which such a solution and

Palæontological papers of some importance were reall re-deposition could be effected was indicated. The most

by Prof. Jeffrey, of Harvard, and by Prof. Weiss Paul clinching proof of this method of formation was shown in

Jeffrey dealt with the structure and wound-reactions of the the case of two gigantic nodules lying side by side, in which

Mesozoic genus Brachyphyllum, a genus of hitherto doubtful the petrified remains of plants are found to be continuous

affinity, which was now shown to be an undoubted member from one to the other. It is clear that in such cases at

of the Araucarineæ, mainly from the evidence of recenti: least the plant must have been petrified where it was

discovered material with the anatomical structure for found. Mr. Lomax brought forward evidence which

served. One of the most interesting points in the paper seemed to him to support the rival hypothesis, that these

was the use the author made of the * traumatic " resin. nodules were often carried by water transport to the situ

canals found in Brachyphyllum. It appears that this planı ations in which they were found. Mr. Watson, who has

produced definite resin-canals in its wound callus like the worked with Miss Stopes, attacked the views of Mr.

modern Abietineæ, and unlike the ancient or modern Lomax, while Mr. Bolton, of Bristol, Prof. Hull, and

Araucarineæ. Largely, though not wholly, on this accoun other geologists, including Dr. Teall, took part in the

Prof. Jeffrey concludes that this old genus connects the discussion. The second discussion took place in joint session with

Araucarineze with the Abietineæ, removing the former

from their somewhat isolated position, and showing thrip Section D on Monday morning, August 6, and dealt with the nature of fertilisation. The opening paper was given cussion, while recognising the validity of Prof. Jeffrey

as undoubtedly coniferous. Mr. Seward, in the din by Mr. V. H. Blackman. This discussion is dealt with in

demonstration that Brachyphyllum was a member of th the account of the proceedings of Section D (NATURE,

Araucarineæ. found himseli unable to accept the evidenca September 27, p. 551). Here it need only be said that the

of Abietinean affinity, and particularly that based on th:danger already referred to, that of choosing too wide a subject for discussion, was to some extent apparent. The

occurrence of the traumatic resin-canals. Dr. Scott

the other hand, saw no reason why such evidence shouki work bearing on fertilisation is now so varied in kind and

not be valid. occupies so many classes of workers, both zoological and

Prof. Weiss described botanical, that it is difficult to focus the interest in a

an interesting new Stigmari. single discussion.

possessing a considerable amount of centripetal primar The third discussion was on the phylogenetic value of the

wood, so that at first sight it has the appearance of a szett vascular structure of seedlings. Papers were read by Mr.

of Lepidodendron, though its characteristic periderm with

the remains of rootlet cushions attached show that it is Tansley and Miss Thomas, by Mr. T. G. Hill, and by Mr. A. W. Hill. Miss Sargant, Dr. Scott, and Prof.

undoubtedly of stigmarian nature.

Dr. A. F. Blakeslee described some new results he huul Jeffrey took part in the discussion. The work of Mr.

obtained in connection with the Tansley and Miss Thomas and of Mr. T. G. Hill to some

physiological PT extent covered the same ground. In both cases the com

which he discovered some time ago in the Mucorinex. In parative anatomy of the vascular system of the hypocotyl Phycomyces nitens, in addition to the heterothallic sports, in Gymnosperms and Dicotyledons was the subject of homothallic mycelia may be obtained by special methants investigation. Mr. Tansley and Miss Thomas found that but the sexual character of these is unstable, and no fis

ation of the homothallic character takes place. Dr . the type of symmetry of this structure had considerable phylogenetic value, thus confirming and extending Miss Blakeslee's paper was illustrated by a series of brzutiful Sargant's conclusion relating to Monocotyledons, published preparations showing the homothallic and heterothalla some years ago. Without going into technical details, it character respectively of various mycelia. The author lui be stated that nearly all the cases met with fall

contributed a general paper on differentiation of Ps * naturally into a series, and the conclusion is reached that gametophyte and sporophyte. For the former he uses the the more complex type, met with among the older Gymno- terms homothallic and heterothallic, for the latter how sperms, and also among some Dicotyledons, is phylo- phytic and heterophytic. Investigations are now prowran genetically the older, while the simpler type, very widely ing as to the sexual differentiation in the sporophrie of ut prevalent among Dicotyledons, is derived by reduction, Bryophytes. The evidence shows that both miale through various transitions, from this older type. Mr. female"

spores exist in the sporogonium of aruse's T. G. Hill, while bringing to light many of the same facts, polymorpha, and attempts are being made to determine was not in agreement with this view, basing his opinion

what point the segregation of sex occurs. Dr. Lang, MT on the apparently primitive diarchy of the ferns. Mr. Hill V. H. Blackman, and Mr. R. P. Gregory took part in showed that the anatomical evidence pointed to the coty

the discussion on these papers. ledons of the “polvсotvledonous "conifers being derived by Of purely physiological papers, Prof. W, B, liottone splitting, in some cases at least, from a primitive “ dicoty- | contributed a very interesting account of his success.

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attempt to inoculate papilionaceous plants with the root- apply to the measurement of other animals. Dr. Guébhard nodule organisms belonging to non-papilionaceous Legu- appealed to the archæologists of the world to bring into minosæ and to plants of quite different families, those of existence a map of prehistoric monuments, the preliminary Acacia (Mimosea) and of Elæagnus and Alnus being steps towards which have been made by the Société préchosen. In another paper Prof. Bottomley showed that the historique de Paris. long-known effect of sprinkling urine on the floors of green- Two long sittings were held on the morning and evenhouses in order to

more luxuriant growth of ing of the second day. The first subject was the Palæoorchids is due to the presence of both nitrite and nitrate lithic age of Brittany, introduced by M. Sageret, of Carnac, bacteria in the cells of the velamen, which are thus able

who was followed by MM. de Mortillet, Rutot, and 10 utilise the ammonia arising by decomposition of the Baudouin, who showed why beds of this epoch are rare : urine and absorbed along with the water vapour normally

the Neolithic period has attracted

attention in condensed by the velamen.

Brittany (Mortillet); Brittany is only the central area of Miss C. B. Sanders, of Oxford, described some experi- Quaternary Brittany, which was united to the British Isles ments carried out in Prof. Gotch's laboratory on the local until the Magdalenian period (Rutot), and to a southproduction of heat connected with the disappearance of western continent which survives in Belle-lle, Quiberon, starch in the spadices of various Araceæ. Remarks on

Houat, &c. (Baudouin). Some stones of this period were this paper were made by Dr. F. F. Blackman.

exhibited by M. Landren, of St. Nazaire, under the name Dr. Ellis, of Glasgow, described experiments to show

of eoliths; the Rennes flints of M. Pavot were not regarded that ciliation cannot be used as a taxonomic character as of prehistoric character. Dordogne, the scene of the last among bacteria-as has recently been done by Migula, congress, next claimed the attention of the meeting. M. because under appropriate conditions all the members of l'Abbé Chastaing offered some remarks on the hammers for such groups as Coccaccæ, Bacteriacea, and Spirillaceæ, in use with bones discovered in the cave of Le Moustier, and which this character has been used, can be made to acquire

M. de Ricard directed attention to the new Magdalenian cilia.

station of Rocheyral, Drôme Valley. Finally, M. de The semi-popular lecture was delivered by Prof. Yapp, Mortillet brought into prominence the Placard who took his hearers for a most pleasant excursion (Charente), and the various industries there practised; in through some of the principal regions of South Africa, in- this connection there arose

discussion troducing them to the various types of vegetation met with Solutrian age of M. l'Abbé Breuil, for which M. Rutot by means of a series beautiful lantern-slides from his and M. l'Abbé Chastaing took up the cudgels. own photographs.

M. Rutot spoke on the question of the Micoque beds, on The section met on Thursday afternoon,

ist 2, and

the Vézère, after dealing with the Strépyien of France. for a short time on Monday afternoon, August 6. The He showed that the Chelles-Moustérien of Micoque was in other afternoons were left free for excursions, of which reality Strépyien, and that this stage fell between the suveral were arranged by the local secretary, Dr. Burtt, Chelléen and the Mesvinien, and not between the Chelleen of the British Botanical Association, and by other local and the Moustérien. M. Feuvrier (of Dôle) directed attenbotanists. Those to Askham Bog and to Skipwith Common tion to a Magdalenian cave in the Jura, and M. J. Dharvent may be specially mentioned as of great botanical interest. exhibited a sculptured flint of the Moustérien age.

On Wednesday evening Neolithic problems

approached ; among the papers were those of Dr. Martin, THE ARCHÆOLOGICAL CONGRESS AT on the false tumulus of La Motte Beudron (Deux-Sèvres); VANNES.

M. Goby, on the tumuli of the districts of St. Vallier de THE second congress of the Prehistoric Society of France Thiay, St. Cézaire, and Grasse (Alpes Maritimes); and M.

was held from August 21-26 in the capital of the Roerich, of St. Petersburg, on sculptured Neolithic flints. department of Morbihan, the classic land of Megalithic M. Rutot then turned to the Flénusien, or lower Neolithic, monuments, at any rate so far as France is concerned. in France, and showed that traces could be found from The attendance exceeded that of the very successful first one end of France to the other. Dr. Montelius then gave congress held at Périgueux last year.

a summary exposition of the Stockholm collections from The inaugural meeting at 10 a.m. on Tuesday, August 21,

the Robenhausen and other periods. was graced by the presence of prominent citizens. Speeches On the morning of Thursday the pottery of the dolmens were made by the Mayor of Vannes, Senator Riou, Prof. came up for discussion; M. Fourdrignier, of Paris, showed Adrien de Mortillet, president of the congress, and by Dr. that the study of finger-prints might be of value, but it Marcel Baudouin, the secretary, who insisted on the need was pointed out that the information could throw little of providing a special building to house the rich collections light on questions of race. Other papers were those of of the Société polymathique, and on the desirability of M. Goby, on the dolmen pottery of the Grasse district, and creating a national Megalithic park comparable to the the micaceous pottery of Camp du Bois-du-Rouret (Alpes Yellowstone National Park of the United States.

Maritimes). The president of the local committee, M. Morio, After a remarkable paper by Dr. Stjerna on the Scanwelcomed the congress in the name of the Société poly- dinavian origin of the Burgundians came papers on Megamathique, the museum of which was much admired by lithic monuments, among them those of Dr. Jousset, on the parties which visited it in the afternoon. It includes the Carnacean age of Perche; Dr. Coutil, on Megalithic collections from the principal tumuli of the neighbourhood, monuments in Normandy; M. José Fortès, on Megalithic excavated by the society during its many years of exist- sculptures in Portugal; M. Tavarès de Proença, on the ence; there are, for example, the splendid necklaces of classification of Portuguese dolmens; M. Coutil, on his callais beads, a fine series of fibrolite axes, curious stone exploration and restoration of the tumulus of Fontenay-lediscs, scarcely found outside this area, and huge polished | Marmion (Calvados) in 1904 and 1906. Important comcelts. In the evening M. Riou gave a reception at the munications were read by Dr. Waldemar Schmidt, on Mairie, and various toasts were proposed.

Megalithic monuments in Denmark; by Dr. Montelius, on The numerous papers and the lively discussions attest the same in Sweden; by Dr. Baudouin, on five years' the success of the congress. M. Rutot, the curator of the excavations and restorations of the megaliths of Vendée. Royal Museum of Brussels, led off with a consideration A popular evening lecture on the dolmens of Brittany, of the question of the Paläolithic bed of Havre ; he main- illustrated by lantern-slides, had already been given in the tained that there was no question of displacement; what theatre on the previous evening. had taken place was a falling in of the superincumbent On Thursday evening the subiect of prehistoric gold in farth and erosion of the cliff. Dr. Joussel then described Brittany and Vendée was treated by Count Costa de a new prehistoric bed discovered at La Longère, near Beauregard and Dr. Baudouin, and much was said on the Nogent-le-Notrou (Eure-et-Loire), where objects of varying significance of menhirs and of the alignments. For M. appearance and discutable age have been found, assigned de Paniagua they are evidence of a phallic cult, for M. by the author to the Flénusien age of Rutot. M. Hue

Rutot they are sign-posts for M. Montelius and for brought forward a new method of measuring the skulls of Dr. Baudouin tombstones, and the last view finds supCanide, which M. Baudouin urged all archæologists to port in the results of the excavations of Dr. Baudouin

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