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and M. Hue. The views on the alignments were varied ; into the depths of the forest. Even when feeding it is they were ex-votos, and they were connected with the restless, and it seldom reposes long in the same lair. In Trojan war; but the majority hesitated to express an the Ituri forest these animals avoid swampy ground, and opinion. M. le Rouzic, Dr. Baudouin and others, subject always drink from clear running streams. During rain to more extensive researches in Brittany and elsewhere, they seek shelter in the densest thickets or even under an were disposed to connect them with a solar cult. Among abandoned roof, and it is at such times that they are other papers, Dr. Atgier discussed the Megalithic enclosures, most usually seen by the natives. and M. de Clérambant galgals, or cairns, in Indre-et-Loire. In the Ituri forest the okapi does not eat the giant
M. de Villemereuil proposed a motion on the State pro- leaves of Sarcophrynium amoldianum, which Major tection of megaliths. Speaking generally, it may be said Powell-Cotton believes to be the plant alluded to by that both the discussions and the numerous papers were of Captain Boyd-Alexander in his account of the animal ini much interest, and the meetings were attended by more the Welle district. Specimens of four difierent kinds ut than a hundred members.
leaves which form the food of the Ituri forest okapi are The following three days were taken up with excellently being brought home for identification. organised excursions ; weather, vehicles, meals, and speeches, all were of the best, and more than a hundred took part in each excursion. The first day was consecrated
UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL to the Gulf of Morbihan, and among the objects visited
INTELLIGENCE. were the cromlechs of Kergonan, the tumulus of Gavr'inis, and the magnificent dolmens of Locmariaquer, including The honorary degree of LL.D. has been conferred upun the largest known menhir. On the second day visits were Sir Thomas Barlow and Prof. C. S. Sherrington, F.R.S., paid to the little-known alignments of St. Pierre, in by Harvard University. Quiberon, and of Erdeven, and to the dolmens of Roch-en
Ar a Convocation of the University of Durham, held on Aud, Crocuno, Rondossec, &c.
September 29, the honorary degree of D.Sc. was conferred The third day was reserved for Carnac and its marvellous
upon Sir William White, K.C.B., and Prof. Lebour. alignments Menec, Kermario, and Kerlescant.
Worthy of special mention were the visits to the tumulus Prof. Wien, who occupies the chair of physics at Würzof Moustoir-Carnac, and to the Miln Museum, where the burg, informs us that he has declined the invitation m secretary of the congress paid a well-deserved tribute to
succeed the late Prof. Drude as professor of physics in the the brilliant efforts of the regretted founder and his University of Berlin, because the Prussian Government is enthusiastic and devoted pupil, M. le Rouzic. Finally, a
unable to undertake the erection of a modern physical visit was rendered to the splendid tumulus of St. Michel- | laboratory there. Carnac, so well cared for by M. d'Ault du Mesnil, president Prof. E. A. Minchin, F.R.S., the recently appointed of the Megalithic Monuments Commission, who himself professor of protozoology in the University of London, will acted as guide.
deliver his inaugural lecture on “ The Scope and Problems In the course of the three days numerous speeches were of Protozoology
November 15. The L'niversity made by foreign members, who were roused to enthusiasm
library, in which is included the Goldsmiths' Companys alike by the monuments and by the organisation of the library of economic literature, will be opened by the Chan. gathering. Mention must be made of the utterances of
cellor on the afternoon of Friday, October 26. M. Rutot, on the Gulf of Morbihan ; of Dr. Baudouin, on submerged megaliths in Brittany and Vendée, and on the
Tue new calendar of University College, London, contechnique of restorations; and of the erudition of M. tains an interesting outline of the history of the college de Mortillet, as well as of the demonstrations of MM.
by Dr. G. Carey Foster, F.R.S. The contribution deals d'Ault du Mesnil and le Rouzic; the latter also spoke in
with the growth and development of the University it the Miln Museum on the alignments of Carnac, and on
London as a teaching university, and the part played by his researches on the spot.
University College in that development. Particulars ar As the scene of the next congress in 1907 Abbeville was
given of the post-graduate courses offered this session in suggested by more than one speaker. Before the congress
all faculties, and of the original work produced in the separated, the healths of M. de Mortillet, Dr. Baudouin, college during last session. The number of research and and M. Giraux were proposed in eulogistic terms. As post-graduate students last year was 134, as against 119 M. Rutot said, a society that has been able to accomplish
in the previous session. so much in its infancy will do much more in its maturer The first volume of the report for 1904 of the Connyears, and this was equally the opinion of the foreign missioner of the United States Bureau of Education has savants who attended the meeting.
at last been issued. A gratifying feature noted in the ro ports of the agricultural and mechanical colleges is the
largely increased aid granted them by the several States A NEW SPECUIEN OF TIIE OKAPI. and Territories. This aid amounted for the year to about a letter from the Congo Free State, published in the
1,131,000l., an increase of more than 200,000l. over the IN Times of September 26, Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton
amount for the preceding year. A chapter of more than states that he has succeeded in obtaining the skeleton and
a hundred pages is devoted to the regulations relating to skin of a fine male okapi. This animal was killed at
pensions and insurance in all German universities. The Makala, in the Ituri forest, by the native hunter Agukki,
data were coiiected by Prof. Julius Hatscheck, of Heide who shot the two specimens taken to Europe by Dr.
berg, for Dr. Theodore Marburg, trustee of Johns Hopkins David. After careful inquiry, Major Powell-Cotton is un
University, and by the latter presented to the U.S. Com
missioner of Education. able to satisfy himself that any European has hitherto
It appears that in German killed an okapi. A Swiss official named Jeannet, in the
membership in any teaching body means, nolens wlens, employ of the Congo Government, was, however, in 1905
the payment of regular contributions to the pension funt shown one of these animals by a native as it stood in
of that body, except in elementary schools, where the thick covert, where it was shot by the latter. This the
State assumes the entire burden of pension payment. h. writer believes to be the first living okapi (or “ kangi," John W. Hoyt contributes a detailed account of the Unias it is called by the Makala natives) seen by a European.
versity of Paris during the Middle Ages. Among other According to information furnished by the Mambutti chapters of interest in the report, which runs to 1176 pages, (pigmies), the okapi is generally a solitary animal, the
may be mentioned two on education at the St. Louis two members of a pair invariably feeding apart, although, Exposition and one on higher education in England as together with their single calf, they may frequent the same
affected by the Act of 1902, in which prominence is given section of the forest. The call, which is born in May, is
to Prof. Sadler's reports to various county councils. left hidden in covert by the female, who returns to it at At the University of Leeds on Monday, the inaugural intervals for feeding purposes. Hearing and smell are very address of the new session was delivered by Sir James acute in the okapi, so that the sound of an axe or the Crichton-Browne upon the subject of " Universities and faintest scent of man drives it from its feeding grounds | Medical Education." In the course of his remarks, de
said that centuries ago gifts were given for the promotion effective, and provides for the nourishment of the actively of objects equivalent to those which modern universities lengthening axis cylinders. At the peripheral end, unless hold in view, which, considering the pecuniary resources
the axons reach it, it is ineffective in so far as any real of those who gave them, should put our most open-handed new formation of nerve-fibres is concerned. If, however, modern millionaires to shame. England has been remiss the axons reach the peripheral segment, the work of the of late in perceiving and promoting those interests that neurilemmal cells has not been useless, for they provide hinge on scientific and medical research. In this direction the supporting and nutritive elements necessary for their Germany has stolen a march upon us, for the various continued and successful growth. The neurilemmal activity Governments in that Empire have unstintedly provided their appears to be essential, for without it, as in the central universities with fully-equipped research laboratories, nervous system, regeneration does not take place. organised and conducted by professorial directors. A uni- According to Graham Kerr, the formation of neuroversity is something more than a medical school, a work- fibrillæ may possibly take place in the protoplasmic residue shop of research, or a home of science. It must have of the degenerated axis cylinder ; according to Marinesco, loftier aims than material advancement commercial this property is assigned to the neurilemmal elements themprosperity. It must provide for culture in its widest sense, selves, a proposition which is extremely improbable, seeing afford intellectual guidance, encourage individuality, take that these elements are mesoblastic. In either case these cognisance of the theoretical problems that arise in the two observers consider that the neuro-fibrillæ, however progress of civilisation, be a storehouse of knowledge, and formed, are ineffective until they are activated by union a gymnasium for the exercise of all the powers of the
with those of the central axons. The present observations mind; and to be truly a university it must be an organism, do not entirely exclude this view, but, on the other hand, and not a mere conglomeration of parts. The one great they lend it no support. The facts are readily explicable, objection to the multiplication of universities is that they however, on the theory that the nerve-fibres are growths may tend to become local seminaries, somewhat parochial from the central ends of divided nerves. in spirit, and fed exclusively from one district, for'it would be a misfortune to a boy to pass from a secondary school “ The Ionisation produced by Hot Platinum in Different to a university in the next street, where he would meet as
By Prof. O. W. Richardson. Communicated his fellow-students only his old schoolfellows, and where, by Prof. J. J. Thomson, F.R.S. however amply fed with knowledge, he would still be The present paper forms an account of an experimental surrounded by the same traditions and associations and investigation of the steady positive ionisation produced by shop amongst which he had been brought up. A provincial hot bodies, platinum being assumed to be typical. university is a contradiction in terms. What is wanted is The following are the chief results :a group of territorial universities, each with distinctive The positive ionisation, i.e. the number of positive ions features of its own, specially adapting it to its environ- produced by ! sq. cm. of platinum surface per second, ment, but all affording the most liberal instruction, the possesses a minimum value, which depends on temperature finest culture, the best intellectual discipline of the day, and pressure, in most gases. The positive ionisation in and collectively meeting the higher educational needs of oxygen at a low pressure (less than 1 mm.) is much greater the whole country.
than in the other gases tried. In oxygen at low pressures,
and temperatures below 1000° C., the ionisation varies as SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.
the square root of the pressure ; at higher temperatures and
low pressures it varies nearly directly as the pressure ; LONDON.
whilst at higher pressures at all temperatures the variation Royal Society, June 20. Regeneration of Nerves." By with pressure is slower, so that at pressures approaching Dr. F. W. Mott, F.R.S., Prof. W. D. Halliburton, atmospheric the ionisation becomes practically independent F.R.S., and Arthur Edmunds.
of the pressure. Five sets of experiments are recorded as a contribution The variation with pressure in air is similar to that in to the discussion as to whether the regeneration of nerve- oxygen. In nitrogen and hydrogen the ionisation appeared fibres is autogenetic or not. The experimental methods to increase more rapidly with the pressure at high pressures approach the subject in different ways, and in no case was than in oxygen. In very pure helium at low pressures any evidence forthcoming of auto-regeneration.
there was a positive ionisation which was a function of The facts recorded, taken in conjunction with those pub- the pressure. lished by such observers as Cajal and Langley and Ander- The experiments on ionisation by collisions indicate that son, form, on the other hand, strong pieces of evidence in the positive ions liberated by hot platinum in oxygen are favour of the Wallerian doctrine that new nerve-fibres are of the same order of magnitude as those set free by the growths from the central ends of divided nerve trunks. collisions. The experimental facts recorded by those who, like Bethe The positive leak in oxygen always oscillated around a and Kennedy, hold the opposite view, are susceptible of certain value under specified conditions. It was, therefore, easy explanation, mainly on the lines emphasised by never steady, so the minimum values were taken. This Langley and Anderson, of accidental and unnoticed con- variability was much less marked in the other gases. nection of the peripheral segments with the central nervous The minimum value of the positive ionisation was found system by means of other nerves cut through in the oper- to remain practically constant with a wire heated during ation. If such connection is effectually prevented, real three months at various times (for 150 hours altogether) regeneration of structure and restoration of function never in oxygen at 900°-1000° C. Moreover, four different wires
of different dimensions after continued heating in oxygen Moreover, the regenerated fibres always degenerate in a gave nearly the same value for the ionisation at the same peripheral direction, and in a peripheral direction only, temperatures and pressures. when the link that binds them to the central nervous The positive ionisation in air at constant temperature system is again severed. Perhaps the most striking of the is smaller than that which would be obtained if the nitrogen facts brought out in the present paper is in reference to were withdrawn, so as to leave only oxygen at a low the development of the medullary sheath; this appendage pressure. The nitrogen, therefore, exerts an inhibiting of the axis cylinder appears earliest at situations near the effect on the oxygen. point where the ends of a nerve have been joined together, The minimum value of the positive ionisation at and reaches the distal portions later.
definite pressure in all gases appears to be connected with What takes place in the peripheral segment of a divided the temperature by the relation first deduced by the author nerve is a multiplication, elongation, and union into long for the negative ionisation. This relation may be written chains of the neurilemmal cells. The same change is even i=A0e-/20, where i is the ionisation, is the absolute more vigorous at the central termination of the cut nerve ; temperature, and A and Q are constants. The value of and the view of the phagocytic and nutritive function the constant Q, which is a measure of the energy associated attributed to this sheath has been supported independently with the liberation of an ion, is in most cases smaller for by some striking observations of Graham Kerr which are the positive than for the negative ionisation. referred to. At the central end this nutritive function is
These results refer to wires which have been heated in
a vacuum, and subsequently in the gas considered, for a authors' intention to follow out this research on the same long time. New wires exhibit peculiar properties, especially lines as those adopted in the work on Eucalypts and their in regard to their behaviour under different electromotive essential oils. Bulk material was employed in obrainforces. Old wires also exhibit hysteretic effects with ing the results given in the paper. The Melaleucas are change of pressure.
commonly known as “tea trees, and are distributed The view is developed that the positive ionisation is throughout the whole continent of Australia, and are caused by the gas adsorbed by the metal and the con- familiar plants in the bush. Two species form the subject sequence examined of supposing the ionisation to be pro- of this paper, viz. M. thymifolia, Sm., and M. Tina rifolia portional to the amount of the adsorbed gas present. In Sm.- litis opaca F.v.M., and its enlarged rootstok the case of oxygen, by making the assumption that the R. T. Baker and H. G. Smith. The occurrence of this rate of increase of the amount of the adsorbed gas is pro- enlarged rootstocks, weighing from 20 lb. to 25 lb., in the portional jointly to the concentration of the external dis- Australian species of Vitis, has been recorded by Baron sociated oxygen and to the area of " unoccupied " platinum Mueller, Thozet, Roth, and others, but no chemical insurface, whilst the rate of breaking up is proportional to | vestigation of their composition appears to have been made. the amount present, a formula is obtained which agrees | Such an investigation forms the basis of this paper. Frora with the experimental results. This formula is that the the results a close affinity between the carbohydrates af jonisation i=Ap/(B+p), where p=(kP+ 4ko): - ik, P this “ tuber " and those belonging to the true gums is being the external pressure and k the dissociation constant shown, and the alteration products are more in the direcof oxygen ; A, B, and k are constants depending on the tion of the sugars than the starches.-Investigation of the temperature, and are of the general form aole-b/0. Thus
disease in cattle known as rickets, wobbles," and this view accounts for both the temperature and pressure examination of the poisonous principle of the Zamia palm variation.
(Macrozamia Fraseri): E. A. Mann and T. L Wallas. The positive ionisation from the outer surface of a hot
The authors for some time have been carrying on investi. platinum tube in air is increased when hydrogen is allowed
gations on the above subject, as the result of which they to diffuse through from inside the apparatus. The in- have come to the conclusion that the effects upon cattle crease in the ionisation is proportional at constant tempera- induced by eating the Macrozamia Fraseri are causeri bov ture to the quantity of hydrogen escaping from the surface
the presence in the plant of acid potassium oxalate Salis in unit time.
of sorrel). This is a confirmation of the results of an The negative ionisation from hot platinum in air is un
analysis made by a Mr. Norrie prior to 1876, and preported altered when hydrogen is allowed to disluse out through to the Royal Society of New South Wales by Dr. F. Mil. the platinum.
ford (Journal of the Society, vol. x., p. 295). These results show that neither the negative nor the positive ionisations usually observed with hot platinum heated in air or oxygen are due to residual traces of
PAGE absorbed hydrogen.
A wire which has been heated in hydrogen furnishes a The Evolution of the Globe. By A. H negative ionisation which is very big compared with that The Genesis of the Inventor. By W. H. S.
359 from a wire heated in oxygen at the same temperature. If Biological Philosophy . the hydrogen is at a pressure of the order of 1 mm. the Biology of the Frog. By F. W. G. negative ionisation can be rapidly reduced to a much
Our Book Shelf:smaller value by applying a high negative potential to the wire. The wire subsequently recovers its ionising power Oltmanns : “ Morphologie und Biologie der Algen." if the potential is reduced again. Under these conditions - George Murray, F.R.S. . . the ionisation varies in an interesting way with the time. Beauverie and Faucheron : “ * Atlas colorié de la Flore The reduction in the ionising power of the wire appears to be caused by the bombardment of the surface by positive Letters to the Editor :
361 ions produced by collisions.
When a platinum wire, which has previously been Measurement of Resemblance. (Illustrated'.)-Dr. allowed to absorb hydrogen, is heated for a long time in
Francis Galton, F.R.S. . . a good vacuum so as to expel the gas, its ionising power Models of Atoms.-Prof. Alfred W. Porter
563 does not appear to be reduced. The ionisation apparently
Chemical and Electrical Changes induced by Light. — is not a definite function of the quantity of gas absorbed by the wire.
H. S. Allen . .
The Rusting of Iron.-Dr. Gerald T. Moody. 364 Academv of Sciences, September 24.–M. A. Chauveau Remarkable Rainbow Phenomena. - Prof. J. M. in the chair.-The colour and spectra of solar promin
564 ences : M. Ricco. Direct observation of the eastern group of protuberances during the total eclipse of 1905 showed
Fugitive Coloration of Sodalite.-Jas. Currie
564 that the colour different in different parts, and
The Quatercentenary Celebrations of the Univer. especially at the edges, the latter showing a play of colours. sity of Aberdeen. (Illustratel.)
565 The body of the protuberance was purple-red, the outside Two Books on Angling. (Illustrated.) By J. J. was violet-blue, the summit was pure violet, nearly white, Prof. Ludwig Boltzmann. By Prof. G. H. Bryan, and exceedingly brilliant. Two photographs of the sper
569 were taken, enlarged reproductions of which are
Notes given.—The application of M. E. Borel's method of sum
570 mation to generalised trigonometrical series : A. Buhl.
Our Astronomical Column:The amplification of sounds : M. Dussaud. The vibra- Comet 19062 (Kopf)
573 tions from any source of sound are received on a mem
Finlay's Comet, 1906d
575 brane, and this, either directly, or through a solid, acts
A New Form of Wedge Photometer .
575 on a jet of compressed air. The sound is in this way faithfully reproduced by the jet of air, the amount of
Occultation of a Star by Venus .
575 amplification depending only on the power of the motor
Results of the International Latitude Service, 1902used in the compression.—The recent scientific cruise of the 1906.
573 Otaria : Teisserenc de Bort.
The Amana Meteorite
573 NEW SOUTH WALES.
Botany at the British Association Linnean Society, August 1.-Prof. T. P. Anderson Stuart,
The Archæological Congress at Vannes
577 president, in the chair.-The Australian Melaleucas and
A New Specimen of the Okapi their essential oils, part i.: R. T. Baker and H. G, Smith. In this series of papers on the Melaleucas and
University and Educational Intelligeace their essential oils, of which this is the first, it is the Societies and Academies .
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