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modern universities. It is too often forgotten in this the gift of every living university to each of its sons country that the provision of universities is primarily a is capable, in addition to equipping for remunerative national obligation, and that the State which is con- labour, of affording intellectual guidance in all life's tent to leave to private initiative and to individual difficulties, of encouraging individuality, and of progenerosity the all-important work of raising and moting symmetrical intellectual development. endowing seats of the higher learning is neglecting Besides providing men able to compete worthily in one of the most potent means for securing its own the international struggle for industrial supremacy, vitality. The recognition by statesmen of this national the modernised university, which is actually the crown duty need not discourage local effort and enthusiasm; and summit of a sanely planned system of secondary indeed, experience tends to show that both are and elementary education, will send out men of wide quickened in districts where such State universities sympathies, above insular prejudices, and in all things are established. The duty has been fully recognised dominated by a sweet reasonableness. by foreign Governments, and the lavish generosity of the State in Germany and the United States was ably pointed out by Sir Norman Lockyer in 1903. Sir James Crichton Browne has repeated the warning

NOTES. more recently. Speaking at the University of Leeds The seventh annual Huxley memorial lecture of the at the beginning of the month, he said :

Anthropological Institute will be given on Thursday, England has been remiss of late in perceiving and

November 1, at 8.30 p.m., in the theatre of the Civil promoting those interests that hinge on scientific and Service Commission, Burlington Gardens, W., when Prof. medical research. In this direction Germany has stolen a W. M. Flinders Petrie, F.R.S., will deliver an address on march upon us, for the various Governments in that Empire Migrations." Tickets can be obtained on application have unstintedly provided their universities with fully

to the secretary of the institute, 3 Hanover Square, W. equipped research laboratories, organised and conducted by professorial directors."

The inaugural meeting of the session of Guy's Hospital The importance of securing this exercise of what Pupils' Physical Society will be held on Saturday next, should be regarded as a State prerogative consists, not

October 13, when Prof. T. Clifford Allbutt, F.R.S., will only in ensuring an immediate and adequate supply deliver an address on “Words and Things." The chair of institutions of university standing, but-in an equal will be taken at 8 o'clock by Sir Samuel Wilks, F.R.S. degree-in realising the right atmosphere in the university when it gets itself established.

Dr. Thomas Harrison, formerly Chancellor of the Uni

The parochial spirit is fatal to university development. versity of New Brunswick, died on September 18 in The boy proceeding from the school to the university Fredericton, at the age of sixty-eight. He was professor should pass from an institution dominated by local of mathematics in the University from 1885 to 1892, and aspirations to one imbued with Imperial instincts, Chancellor from 1892 until last August, when he retired where thought is unfettered and ambitions are free to on a Carnegie pension. Soar. Sir James Crichton Browne expressed the same thought very distinctly at Leeds when he

A REUTER message from Wellington, New Zealand, remarked :

ports that a monument to Captain Cook was unveiled on

October 8 in the presence of a large gathering of both " It would be a misfortune to a boy to pass from a

races at Poverty Bay, on the east coast of the North Island, secondary school to a university in the next street, where he would meet as his fellow-students only his old school

at the spot where the explorer first landed. fellows, and where, however amply fed with knowledge,

We learn from the New York correspondent of the Times he would still be surrounded by the same traditions and associations and shop amongst which he had been brought

that Sir William Perkin was the guest of honour at up. A provincial university is a contradiction in terms.

Delmonico's on October 6 at a dinner given by four What is wanted is a group of territorial universities, each hundred American chemists and manufacturers of chemical with distinctive features of its own, specially adapting it products. Prof. Chandler presided, and many well-known to its environment, but all affording the most liberal in- Americans were among the guests. Dr. Nichols presented struction, the finest culture, the best intellectual discipline of the day, and collectively meeting the higher educational

to Sir William Perkin the first cast of a gold medal to be needs of the whole country."

known as the Perkin medal, and to be awarded each year

to some American chemist who has distinguished himself Another point made by Lord Strathcona may be in the field of research. Another gift to Sir W. Perkin considered profitably in conclusion. Speaking of

was a silver service as a personal tribute from the chemists American universities, the Chancellor said :

and manufacturers who were present. “ They found out long ago that law and medicine and theology are not the only legitimate points of academic

It was mentioned last week (p. 545) that the Governor study; and in their faculties of applied science they are

of Hong Kong had appointed a committee to inquire into training their young men to do work that is most loudly the alleged failure of the observatory to give warning of called for. They have never accepted the view that uni- the violent

that burst

the colony versities must necessarily be institutions cloistered and September 18. According to a Laffan message from Hong apart from the main current of public life and service. On the contrary, they make a training for citizenship and

Kong on October 8, the report of Zi-ka-wei Observatory for public usefulness the basis and foundation of much of

at Shanghai shows that a published warning was issued their educational activity. The reward they have is that against the passage of a typhoon two days before it struck --fully as much as we do here--they find their alumni Hong Kong. The latter place was not warned because in every walk of life, not in the learned professions' for years the Hong Kong Observatory has refused to exonly; and some of the most notable benefactions which

change warnings with the Jesuit observatories at Shanghai the American universities have lately received come from

and Manila. men whose desire it is to connect them still more closely with practical work.”

It is announced in the Lancet that the first International In other words, a university training is valuable Congress on Alimentary Hygiene and a Rational Diet for in every department of work. The culture which is Man, to be held at the Paris Faculty of Medicine on

re

storm

over

on

October 22-27,

will include the following sections :- held their annual dinner at the Hotel Cecil, Sir W. Hool (1) biological physics; (2) biological and physiological Treacher in the chair. Among the guests were Prot. chemistry; (3) rational food systems and dietetics : Blanchard, of Paris, the medical director-general of the (4) analytical chemistry, adulteration, and legislation ; Navy, Sir John McFadyean, and others. (5) bacteriology, toxicology, and parasitology ; (6) statistics, instruction, and ways and means; (7) application of

With regard to the series of demonstrations in practical hygienic principles in the manufacture and preparation of microscopy mentioned in Nature of September 13 (p. 490). food, and conveyance of food from place to place ; (8) the

the committee of the Quekett Microscopical Club has made hygiene of food and rational food systems in the home

the following arrangements :-November 16, Mr. H. F.

Angus, on Axial Substage Illumination with Artificul and elsewhere ; (9) cooperation and competition ; (10) dis

Illuminant"; December 21, Mr. Angus, on Dark-ground tribution of food gratis or at reduced prices; (1) food in relation to the prevention of alcoholism and tuberculosis ;

Illumination "; January 18, 1907, Mr. C. L. Curties, on

“ Polarised and Multicolour Illumination " and " Various and (12) the diffusion of knowledge in schools and elsewhere with respect to rational food systems and the hygiene

Methods of Recording Observations"; March 13. Mr. of food. The first seven of these twelve sections constitute

Conrad Beck, on “ The Illumination of Opaque and l'o

** The Com

mounted Objects"; April 19, Mr. Beck, on Division 1 of the congress, dealing with scientific methods, and Prof. Bouchard and Prof. Armand Gautier will pre

parison of Objectives"; May 17, Mr. F. W. Watson

Baker. side. The five last sections constitute Division 2 of the

The next ordinary meeting of the club will bcongress, dealing with social questions relating to food ;

held at 20 Hanover Square, W., on Friday, October 10, al the president will be M. Jules Siegfried.

8 p.m., when the following papers will be read )

Tetramastix o poliensis, a rare rotiter, C. F. Rousseler. The annual Huxley lecture was delivered at Charing and on the reproduction of mosses and ferns, J. Burion Cross Hospital on October 1 by Prof. Ivan Pawlow, of Cards of admission to the demonstrations or the ordinary St. Petersburg, the subject being the scientific investi- meetings may be obtained from the hon. ser., Mr. 1. gation of the psychical faculties or processes in the higher Earland, 31 Denmark Street, Watford, Herts. animals. All the experiments were made on dogs, and

“ L'EBER DIE ZELLE " (Leipzig: W. Engelmann, price the excretion of saliva was made the test of the response

60 pf.) is the title of a fragment (45 pp.) of a work on of the animals to external impressions. As is well known,

the cell begun by the late Prof. Alfred Schaper. It contains the salivary glands secrete, not only when the stimulus

a short historical introduction wherein the chief stages in of appropriate substances is impressed on the mouth, but

the development of the cell theory are given, and also a also when other receptive surfaces, including the eye and discussion of the more modern views as to the structura the ear, are stimulated ; the latter actions have received the

of the cell constituents. Its chief interest will probably name of psychical stimuli, but have unquestionably much

be for those who knew its author. in common with ordinary reflex action, and are termed by Prof. Pawlow “conditioned reflexes," to distinguish them Some phases of the gastrulation of the horned road from the ordinary or unconditioned reflexes. The greater (Phrynosoma cornutum) form the subject of a paper by part of the lecture was devoted to the development of this Messrs. C. L. Edwards and C. W. Hahn published in the conception of the nature of the conditioned reflexes, which American Journal of Anatomy (vol. V., No. 3). The reg would thus be removed from psychical phenomena and be in the genus Phrynosoma comes nearer to those of lorer relegated to the domain of physiology.

vertebrates than does that of any other of the Amniota in The winter session of the London School of Tropical

that its protoplasmic pole seems less encumbered with yolk,

while the elevation of the blastoderm renders the processos Medicine was opened on Monday last with an address by Colonel Kenneth Macleod. In the unavoidable absence of

taking place therein as independent as in amphibians. the Duke of Marlborough the chair was taken by Sir

Phrynosoma is, in fact, a connecting link in this rrspert Francis Lovell, the dean of the school, who, in introducing mollusc Bithynia.

between other reptiles and the axolotl, and thus with the the lecturer, briefly described the aims and objects of the school. Colonel Macleod, after paying a tribute to the To the Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Zoology (vol. work of Sir Patrick Manson, briefly detailed the inception Ixxxiv., part iii.) Mr. H. Schlichter communicates a poprr of the school, and pointed out that, while the debt has on the electrical organs of the proboscis-fish llosmyrus been paid off, a sum of at least 60,000l. is needed for oxyrhynchus) of the Nile, dealing specially with their endowment. Prominent among the needs of the school histology, which has hitherto received little at present is the appointment of an entomologist. The attention, although the organs themselves have been long trend of modern investigation and thought has forced into known. Although situated in the tail, as in Torpedo the forefront the fascinating subject of comparative and Raia, the electric organs of Mormyrus (which have pathology. In the tropics all life, and particularly parasitic but little power) have each plate composed of 3 whole life, is exuberant; the lower life is rampant, and the bundle of modified muscular fibres instead of a single fibre, higher heavily handicapped. The salutary effect of so that they must be regarded as representing the uninn drainage, cultivation, and cleansing is well illustrated of numerous electro-blasts. Special attention in devoted by the banishment of malaria from England. To develop by the author to the manner in which the nerves supplere and strengthen the resistive and curative elements of the these organs terminate, and to the nature of such terminanimal organism is one of the chief objects of medical ations. Another and longer article in the same issue science, and the principle which underlies the great dis

E. Rossbach, is devoted to the anatomy and developmental covery of Jenner is, after the lapse of a century, obtain- history of the “redia"-stages of the trematode worms ing new and remarkable applications. Examples were also infesting (in the above-mentioned stage) the pond-nails given by the lecturer of problems still awaiting solution. Paludina vivipara, Limnaca stagnalis, and verlain thr: In the evening the staffs and past and present students species of the same genus as the latter. The budding, of the London Schools of Tropical and of Clinical Medicine degeneration, and regeneration phenomena of certain marine

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ectoproctous Bryozoa form the subject of the third article, yams, onions, and cotton. The cotton exports from St. by Mr. O. Römer.

Kitts, Nevis, and Anguilla, amounting to

tons of

lint, showed a very large increase over the preceding year. Is the Revue Scientifique (September 1) Dr. A. Calmette

A trial was made in St. Kitts of growing wrapper tobacco discusses the channels of entrance of the tubercle bacillus

under shade and Sumatra tobacco in the open; as this into the organism. The chief conclusion is that both in

was a first attempt, the curing presented difficulties that man and animals the tubercle virus usually gains access

might be avoided in the future. by the digestive tract, particularly the intestine.

We have received a short pamphlet referring to the THE Bio-Chemical Journal for September (vol. i., Nos. preservation of a portion of the primeval forest, known as 8 and 9) has a number of important papers, including a Riccarton Bush, that still exists on the Canterbury Plains study of the digestive gland in mollusca and crustacea, by in New Zealand, about two miles from Christchurch. The Mr. H. E. Roaf; variations in the gastric hydrochloric pamphlet gives some details as to the indigenous and rare acid in carcinoma, by Mr. F. W. Morton Palmer; an plants growing there, and contains a list of the flowering investigation of the staining act with eosin-methylene blue, | plants and ferns. The dominant tree is the kahikatea, by Dr. Wakelin Barratt; secretin in relation to diabetes Podocarpus dacryoides, but there are large specimens of mellitus, by Messrs. F. A. Bainbridge and A. P. Beddard ; two other species of Podocarpus and two species of Elæoand further observations on the treatment of diabetes by carpus. There are also found the urticaceous milk-tree acid extract of duodenal mucous membrane, by Prof. B. Paratrophis heterophylla, a Pseudopanax with protean Moore, Mr. E. S. Edie, and Dr. J. H. Abram.

foliage, the pepper tree, Drimys colorata, and other

specialities. The acquisition of forest land containing so Is the opening article of the sixth number (July) of the

many unique specimens merits the consideration, not only Philippine Journal of Science, published at Manila, Mr.

of the citizens of Christchurch, but of the inhabitants of P. G. Woolley discusses the disabilities against which the

New Zealand generally. An influential committee has been serum-laboratory has had to contend in its crusade against

formed to raise the necessary funds, and the Government rinderpest in the islands, one of these being the difficulty

of New Zealand has promised a vote of about one-fifth of of procuring cattle sufficiently susceptible to the disease.

the sum required. As the investigations connected with the nature of the virus are only in their infancy, it will suffice to state that A Memoir of the Geological Survey on the water supply the results at present obtained are not in all ways in accord

of the East Riding of Yorkshire, by Mr. C. Fox-Strangwith previous theories. As the result of a preliminary ways and Dr. H. R. Mill, has just been published by the survey of the Lobu Mountains, in the Batangas province. Board of Agriculture and Fisheries. The memoir contains Mr. W. D. Smith is enabled to report the occurrence of

an outline of the geology of the East Riding and of porpost-Eocene strata containing the gastropod genus Vicarya,

tions of the vales of York and Pickering, with especial so widely distributed in the Indo-Malay countries. The reference to the water-bearing strata.

It includes records remaining articles are devoted to the vegetation of the

of all known sinkings and borings in the area, together Lamao forest, a catalogue of Philippine Hymenoptera, with

with analyses of waters and a bibliography. There is also descriptions of new species, and notes on Mindoro birds.

a section on the rainfall, with a colour-printed map.

(opies may be obtained from any agents for the sale of An extension of cotton cultivation is again recorded in Ordnance Survey maps, or directly, or through any bookthe annual report for 1905–6 on the botanic station in seller, from the Ordnance Survey Office, Southampton, Antigua, the crop being estimated at forty tons.

A new price 3s. variety, Centreville, received from the Department of Agriculture in the United States, and said to be immune to

The latest addition to the series of reports designed by wilt, was grown experimentally ; the yield was good, but

the Geological Survey to describe the mining centres of

Western Australia is a report (Bulletin No. 22, Perth, the staple proved to be irregular. An experiment is being fostered by the curator, Mr. T. Jackson, to grow broom

1906) by Mr. H. P. Woodward on the auriferous deposits corn with the object of manufacturing brooms to supply

and mines of Menzies, North Coolgardie goldfield. It local requirements.

covers ninety-two pages, and is accompanied by two maps

and six plates of sections. The area embraced covers Is an article on Antarctic botany, printed in the Scottish about fifty square miles, and consists of a complex series Geographical Magazine (September), Mr. R. N. R. Brown of basic rocks through which have been intruded a series discusses our present knowledge and future problems. of acidic dykes. The quartz veins, which are confined to Only two flowering plants have been collected in the the greenstones, are of various types, most of the gold Antarctic regions as compared with about 400 species from having been obtained from segregation veins of lenticular Arctic countries, but the lichens and algæ are better re- form. From the area described there have been produced presented, and fifty mosses have been recorded. Seeing i 403,787 ounces of gold, derived from the treatment of that the mean summer temperature never rises to 32° F., 348,967 tons of quartz. The deepest mine in Menzies, the the vegetation is richer than would be expected. Much Menzies Consolidated Gold Mine, has yielded 65,875 ounces still remains to be done in collecting, especially from the from 99,371 tons of quartz. The vein in this case is clearly Pacific and Indian sides, to obtain data that may throw of the true fissure type. light on the former configuration of land and water.

The standardisation of error is a difficult problem to In the annual report for 1905-6 on the botanic station which the attention of the Engineering Standards Comand experimental plots in St. Kitts, the curator, Mr. F. R. mittee has been directed. Much has been written on the Shepherd, notes that a number of cacao and rubber plants | limits of error, but no attempt has hitherto been made to have been distributed, the latter being principally speci- deal with the subject in the exhaustive manner that it is mens of Castilloa elastica ; a first consignment of Hevea treated in reports No. 25 (London : Crosby Lockwood and plants was received during the year. The crops grown Son, price 1os. 6d. net) and No. 27 (price 25. 6d. net), issued on the experimental plots included sweet potatoes, cassava, by sectional committees of the Engineering Standards Com

NO. 1928, VOL. 74]

a

on

mittee Report No. 25 deals with errors in workmanship, Atti dei Lincei (vol. xxv., ii., p. 59) to be accompanied by based on measurements carried out for the committee by the the transformation of carbohydrate into phenolic derivatives National Physical Laboratory. In order to assist them in containing a closed carbon chain. In certain cases the formulation of a system for limit gauges, the com- coumarin and its derivatives seem to be formed, which mittee, in addition to collecting evidence from both manu- show characteristic colour reactions with alkalis and with facturers and users, carried out a comprehensive series of ferric chloride. The production of such substances, it is measurements on actual work, and a record of these suggested, may prove a valuable means of detecting changes measurements is contained in report No. 25, but no system in maize caused by parasitic agency, and a method of of limits is laid down therein, the recommendations being diagnosis in cases of pellagra, which is generally regarded contained in report No. 27, which deals with British as due to the toxic action of substances elaborated in standard systems for limit gauges (running fits). The maize owing to the development on it of certain fungi. measurements were carried out a number of plain cylindrical shafts and holes from 2 inches to 12 inches in

We have received a copy of vol. xix. of the annual rediameter. The recommendations based on these measure

ports on the advancements of pharmaceutical chemistry ments deal with running fits, and cover diameters of and therapeutics, issued by Messrs. E. Merck, of Darminch up to 12 inches. It is proposed that the allowance

stadt. The work comprises 260 pages of information of a for a running fit shall be made in the hole, and not on

character sufficiently defined by the title, and supplies a the shaft. The standard tolerances and allowances are

re really valuable summary of recent pharmacological reclearly shown graphically and in tabular form. Four

search. Each substance is dealt with under the heading grades of work are provided for, the highest being intended

of its name, the names of the drugs being arranged alphafor special cases in which extreme accuracy is necessary.

betically. A useful index of diseases and symptoms is The reports should be carefully studied by all mechanical appended as a guide to the appropriate drugs for their engineers, and it is to be hoped that the committee will

treatment. The fact that particulars are given of the carry its investigations still further, and ascertain whether

chemical nature and properties of new drugs which harit is possible to draw up recommendations for standard

been put on the market with fancy names makes the reising driving fits.

port valuable, not only to the medical man, but to the

chemist. The work is sent free to medical men and other PAPER by Mr. Wilkinson in the current number of interested in pharmacology or therapeutics on application the Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, on at Messrs. Merck's London office, 16 Jewry Street, E.C. waste in incandescent lighting, is of particular interest in view of the recent recommendations of the standardising

IN No. 85 of the Communications from the Physical committee in connection with incandescent lamps. Mr. Laboratory of the Leyden University Prof. H. Kamerlingh Wilkinson deals very fully with the question, and gives Onnes and Dr. W. Heuse describe some experiments made examples of waste due to various causes, and suggests

on the coefficient of expansion at low temperatures of remedies to counteract them. The need for local labor- Jena and of Thüringen glass. An ordinary dilatometer atories and standardising of the pressure of supply is very

method was employed, the temperature of the rods of glass, strongly insisted upon, and several pressure charts are

which were about I metre long, being measured by an given which show how irregular the pressure regulation appropriate platinum-resistance method, accepting for this is at various supply stations. Automatic regulators in the platinum the relation between resistance and temperature generating stations are the author's solution of the latter obtained in experiments described in Communication difficulty, the benefit of which has already been proved at No. 77, R,=R. (1+0.003864t - 000001031*). The steadı. Harrogate, where they are installed. Mr. Wilkinson also low temperatures were obtained by means of liquid gave finds that “ local control ” of lamps to be used on the

contained in an ingeniously constructed vacuum vessel open supply mains is effective in ensuring that the lamps sup

at both ends, into the outer wall of which was sealed plied by the manufacturers are up to specification, and at

about the middle point a kind of " aneroid box," to take the same time leaves the contractors the benefit of the trade up the strains due to the very different expansion of the in lamps.

outer and inner glass tubes. The results of the experMR. F. HOWARD Collins has sent us a specimen of the

ments gave for the range - 182° C. to +16° C. the follow

ing values of the coefficients in the ordinary formula fcr 360° Mariners' Compass Card,” designed and registered

linear dilatation, L,=L,(i+at+B1-) :by him. There is nothing new in the idea of marking by degrees, it having been suggested for use in ships of H.M.

For Jena glass 16'1', a=774 x 10-6, and B=0.00882 x 10-2 Navy so far back as about 1896. But though the plan is

For Thüringen glass, a=9.15 x 10-6, and B=0-0119 x 10a good one, the great difficulty is to get it made universal. The authors seem unaware of the experiments by Dr Ships nowadays generally do steer by degrees, but the card Travers on the same subject, and their result gives for is marked from N. and S. 90° each way to E. and W. mean expansion of ordinary glass a value considerarlı Thus a ship would steer X. 80° W. present style, new greater than that found by him. style 280°, which would convey very little to a poorlyeducated sailor man. As regards compasses in use ashore

AMONG the articles in the current number of the Jente!

Review are for surveying and similar purposes, they have been

two dealing with scientific subjects. marked to 360° for a very long time; and the only other

Henryk Arctowski deals with polar problems and the intesmarkings on the card are the cardinal points, the method

national organisation for their solution. He first directs of recording being similar to that suggested. The system

attention to the conference held on September 7 in Brussi. has much to commend it, and if it could only get generally

when the three questions it is suggested might be solvent known there is no doubt its advantages would in time by international cooperation were discussed, viz lead to its adoption throughout the fleets of the world.

problem of the North Pole, the geographical problems!

the Antarctic regions, and the scientific problems neresu The development of certain species of moulds, such as tating simultaneous expeditions and universal cooperation Penicillium and Aspergillus, is shown by B. Gosio in the M. Arctowski gives a brief historical sketch of poiar 7

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search up to the present time, considers critically the atory attached to the solar observatory on Mount Wilson di

is given by Prof. Hale in No. 2, vol. xxiv., of the Astroplans which would possibly prove successful in clearing physical Journal. As Prof. Hale points out, it is now

necessary, if research in solar physics is to produce the up outstanding questions. Mr. S. Leonard Bastin dis

most fruitful results, to be able to imitate, as nearly as cusses the possibility of an intelligence in the plant. The is possible in the laboratory, the conditions of temperature, purpose of the paper is to bring together a few instances pressure, &c., obtaining in the sun. To this end the which seem to point to a limited intelligence in the vege- laboratory at Mount Wilson has been equipped, and the table kingdom. The cases selected are those not easy to

means are always at hand to obtain, immediately, spectro

grams for which the light-source has been subjected to explain as direct response to any special stimuli. The

enormous pressure or temperature, or has been placed in Droseraceæ provide Mr. Bastin with several instances. The

a strong magnetic field, is in an attenuated atmosphere, study of roots and the opening and shutting of floral or, in fact, is under any special conditions which may envelopes add other interesting examples to a readable possibly account for peculiarities observed in the solar article. The same number of the magazine contains some

phenomena. reflections upon English and German education, by Mr. The UTILITY OF SHORT-FOCUS REFLECTORS.-In No. 39 R. B. Lattimer.

the Naturwissenschaftliche Rundschau Dr. A. Berberich

discusses the advantages of short-focus reflectors in nebula The Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society, Edin- photography, and describes the results obtained at Potsdam

with burgh, for September (vol. xvi., No. 6), contains an

an astrographically mounted reflector of 41 cm. interesting account of certain blood-inhabiting protozoa by exceptionally good one, made by Schmidt, of Mittweida,

diameter and 92.7 cm. focal length. The mirror' is an Miss Muriel Robertson, including the description of a new

Saxony, and giving well-defined small images, over a large trypanosome from a python. Other papers are a note on field, with the full aperture. When the full aperture is a rare sponge from the Scotia collection, by Prof. Arthur used in photographing the Pleiades, the resulting photoThomson and Mr. J. D. Fiddes ; notes on fossils from graph, with thirty minutes' exposure, shows all the details

of the nebula secured by Prof. Keeler, with the Crossley the Falkland Islands, by Mr. E. T. Newton; note on the

reflector, in four hours. geology of Gough Island, by Mr. J. H. Harvey Pirie ; and

Similarly, forty minutes' exposure on y Cassiopeia shows the petrology of Gough Island, by Mr. R. as much detail in the nebula as was obtained by Dr. Campbell

! Roberts, with his reflector of 51 cm. aperture and 250 cm.

focal length, in ninety minutes. With the aperture reduced A SECOND revised edition of Prof. E. Mach's “ Erkenntnis to 24 cm., the Potsdam instrument will photograph the und Irrtum ” has been published by the firm of J. A. Orion nebula in one hour, and show all the details and Barth, Leipzig. The original work

| all the stars shown on Dr. Roberts's photograph after an reviewed in

exposure of three hours twenty-five minutes. XATURE of November 30, 1905 (Supplement, p. vii).

Prof. BARNARD's “ UNEXPLAINED OBSERVATION."-In a The practical treatise on “Nitro-Explosives,” by Mr. letter to the Observatory (No. 375) Mr. Charles L. Brook P. Gerald Sanford, published by Messrs. Crosby Lock

suggests that the object seen by Prof. Barnard in 1892, for

which he was unable to account by any known object, and wood and Son ten years ago, was reviewed in Nature of

therefore published a note on the subject only quite recently, September 3, 1896 (vol. liv., p. 410). The second edition,

may have been a new star. The reason for suggesting revised and enlarged, which has just appeared, embodies this possibility is that, with but one exception, all the accounts of important advances since the publication of the known Novæ have appeared in the Milky Way; and original work, and the chapter on smokeless powders has Venus, which Prof. Barnard was examining when he made been considerably enlarged.

the unexplained observation, was on that date either on the border of or in the galaxy.

Jupiter's Sixth SATELLITE.—As Jupiter is now approach

ing opposition, the search for the smaller satellites has OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN.

| been commenced at Greenwich. Owing to unfavourable THE RELATION BETWEEN THE SPECTRA OF SUN-SPOTS AND

meteorological conditions no photographs were obtained Stars.—The conclusion arrived at by Sir Norman Lockyer until August 28, but on that date, and on August 31, the regarding the similarity of the spectra of sun-spots and

sixth satellite was successfully photographed with the Arcturian stars (Proc. Roy. Soc., vol. Ixxiv., 1904) receives 30-inch reflector, giving exposures of twenty-eight and confirmation from a research carried out at the Mount forty-five minutes respectively. Several other successful Wilson Observatory. The results of this research are pub- photographs have been obtained since (the Observatory, lished by Mr. W. S. Adams in No. 2, vol. xxiv., of the

No. 375). Astrophysical Journal. During the latter part of June

OBSERVATIONS OF LONG-PERIOD Variables.--In No. 4116 some spectrograms of sun-spots were obtained, including

of the Astronomische Nachrichten Prof. A. A. Nijland pubthe blue end of the spectrum, and these were compared

lishes the results of a series of observations of a number with a spectrogram of Arcturus secured with the Snow telescope and a grating spectroscope, with a total exposure

of long-period variable stars. The list includes thirteen

Algol variables, four short-period and forty-one long-period of twenty-three hours. The comparison showed that a Striking resemblance exists between the sun-spot and the

variables, and the observations were made with the 10-inch

telescope and 3-inch finder of the Utrecht Observatory, the star spectra. Not only are the lines intensified in the

step" method being employed. spot found to be intense in the star, but the absolute intensities are very similar.

From this evidence Mr. Adams concludes, as did Sir Norman Lockyer, that the physical conditions prevailing THE CONGRESS OF ANIERICANISTS AT in the atmosphere of Arcturus are nearly identical with

QUEBEC those existing in sun-spot vapours. Hence, on the probable supposition that sun-spots are cooler than the general THE fifteenth International Congress of Americanists solar photosphere, Arcturus and similar stars must be was held at Quebec on September 10-15 under the placed on a lower temperature level than the sun.

presidency of Dr. Robert Bell, of the Geological Survey

of Canada. There were about 133 members and associates, THE MOUNT WILSON SPECTROSCOPIC LABORATORY ---An most of whom were Canadians; a noticeable and pleasing interesting illustrated account of the spectroscopic labor- feature of the congress was the large number of French

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