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Canadian clergy and missionaries who attended the con- Gordon, of the Philadelphia Museum, illustrated an ferences; the missionaries were hearty, bronzed, bearded analogous series of rattlesnake motives in Central Amesican men, mainly in the brown or white robes of their several and Mexican art. Miss Angel de Cora, of the Winelago orders; many of them contributed papers, and several tribe, described her efforts to revive among the Indian joined in the discussions. An exceptionally large number students of the Government school at Carlisle the decorof papers was promised, but owing to the non-appearance ative art of their respective tribes; the experiment has of many authors, most of whom were Americans, the met with great success, and the Indians have begun in actual number read was not excessive, and there was recover their national pride and an interest in their generally time for a short discussion; it is a common fault legendary lore. Miss Natalie Curtis, who has travelled of congresses that too much time is occupied by the read- much in North America and lived among various tribes in ing of papers, many of which are of limited interest, and order to study their music and songs, sung belore the too little time is provided for discussion of problems of congress a delightful series of various types of Indian general interest; it is scarcely an exaggeration to state songs; these were faithfully rendered with great spirit. that the most valuable discussions were the informal ones Several papers were given by the veteran Dr. Seler on that took place on the precipice-poised Dufferin Terrace. his recent discoveries in Mexico, and he joined in many
The papers that were read fell into two or three groups, discussions; and Sendr L. Batres, of Mexico, gave a long. of which the more important were Canadian ethnology and copiously illustrated account of his recent excavations in Central American archæology. The former were mainly Teotihuacan. Dr. Tozzer gave an interesting account of provided by missionaries, who, from their long residence his field work in Central America. The Maya of Yucatan among the tribes of whom they treated and their know- are at present all Catholic, but they still retain a considerledge of the languages, were able to give faithful and de- able number of their old beliefs and customs, although in tailed accounts of the customs and mode of life of the a modified form. The Lacandones, who are comparatively people; but the scientific hearers could not always feel a free from outside influence, retain many of their ancient perfect reliance upon the interpretation of customs and
They make pilgrimages to ruined cities, where ideas by certain observers, their point of view being so they offer incense to the gods, making offerings of copal different.
placed in the bowls of incense burners. Idols are anointed The genial Father Morice was much in evidence, and with blood drawn from the ear. The names and attributo he read a long paper on the position of women among the of deities recorded by early Spanish writers have also Dénés, or Athapascans, as they are generally termed. He survived; but no knowledge of the hieroglyphic writing described the five different ways in which marriage may survives, a circumstance which appears to be due to the be contracted, and related the deplorable part of the women extinction of the noble and priestly castes; the surviving during the funeral ceremonies which accompany cremation, population probably represents the descendants of the and during widowhood in general. He repeatedly referred ancient common people, who, while having a general superto the slight consideration paid to women, the men treat- ficial knowledge of ceremonial religion, would not be ining them no better than dogs; one would like to hear structed in esoteric religion or in ceremonial lore. what the women themselves really think of the matter, but The above are some of the subjects brought before this this information could only be obtained by sympathetic congress, and are sufficient to show the range of subjects white women from native women. This side of similar dealt with ; from this point of view the congress was very questions has hardly ever been obtained, and it promises successful, and not less was this the case from the socia! most important results. Father Pacifique, a missionary aspect. Government officials and private citizens did thrir among the Micmacs, considers the manitus, or guardian best to render the congress a success, and especial thanks spirits, of that tribe as of “truly diabolical nature," and are due to the staff of Laval University, who by their states that these Indians have now conceived a profound assiduity, urbanity, and diplomacy helped to make every aversion against them, and gained such an attachment to thing go smoothly. The weather, too, was all that could the true God and to the Church that religion has become be desired. a second nature to them. The good man apparently has Abstracts of nearly all the papers were printed and dis not realised that the Indians were previously saturated tributed to members and associates, who were also pro. with spiritual ideas, and that their religious sense is by no vided with a local guide-book and various publications, means the result of the foreign doctrine.
amongst which may be noted a special number of the The Rev. J. Jetté, S.J., stated that the Ten'a, an Transactions of the Department of Archæology of the Alaskan tribe living on the Yukon River, not only have University of Pennsylvania (vol. ii., part i.). "The Prono chiefs or rulers, but lack a word that signifies chief, or vincial Government of Quebec gave two volumes dealing authority, or even family. Individual authority in any with geographical names in Quebec. The Provincial form is unbearable to the tribe. They are controlled solely Government of Ontario presented the archæological rrport by public opinion, and no individual thinks for himself; as of the Department of Instruction ; this contains a numbers they do act spontaneously they are most untrustworthy, of valuable papers on the archaeology, anthropology, and and the stupidity of their obedience is appalling. Wealth ethnology of Canada by authors of repute ; indeed, it forms and influence make the people who own them the natural a very welcome statement of the present state of uur advisers of the tribe, but they do not confer any real knowledge of these subjects. The University of California authority. Dr. F. Boas gave a valuable paper on the contributed a report, by Putnam and Merriam, on cave most important unsolved ethnological problems in Canada ; exploration in California, and the American Anthropoof particular importance is archæological investigation of logical Association a report on anthropology in America the extreme north-western Arctic region, in order to deter- since the New York meeting, 1902. A series of publi. mine the influence of the Indian and of the Asiatic cultures cations, by L. Batres, was given by the Commission of upon the western Eskimo. The prehistoric distribution of Inspection and Preservation of Antiquities of Mexico. types, as well as the present types, of the interior of It is to be hoped that one result the congress will Labrador and of the Mackenzie Basin require investigation. be to encourage the central and provincial government The linguistic subdivisions of the Algonquin and the and the learned societies of the Dominion to take a greater Athapascan are not sufficiently known, and extended collec- interest in their native peoples. Unfortunately there has tions of linguistic material from the Salish tribes, from been great neglect in this respect, and if those in authorada the Nootka, as well as from the northern branches of the do not bestir themselves it will soon be too late as the Kwakiutl of British Columbia, are required. The early i opportunities for successful work are rapidly disappearing history of the eastern Algonquin still presents many obscure The British Association has given a small grant for min points. A particularly promising region is the interior of years towards ethnological research in British Columbia. Labrador.
and for the last year or two the Government grant corn. Prof. McCurdy exhibited a large number of lantern-slides mittee has continued this work ; valuable results have been to illustrate an extensive collection of pottery in Yale obtained, but this is but a drop in the bucket and University from Chiriqui which is decorated with re- ethnologists look to the Canadian governments to completo presentations of the armadillo, the treatment including all the work in a manner worthy of a great country. stages from realism to extreme conventionalism, and Dr.
A. C. Hapon.
THE STUDY OF FOSSIL FISHES.'
armour plates which were symmetrically arranged like
those of Pterichthys. THE discovery of general principles in the study of fossils No link is known between the Ostracoderms and the
is much hampered by the imperfection of the geo- typical fishes which have a lower jaw and paired fins; and logical record. As every geologist is aware, we are de- it is evident that the latter had already appeared in Silurian pendent for our knowledge of the life of past ages on a times before they possessed a skeleton hard enough to be few isolated episodes which have been locally preserved. preserved among fossils. The Silurian and earliest There is no continuous history of the life of long periods Devonian Acanthodians (Fig. 2), however, cannot be far in the rocks of any region that has hitherto been well from the beginning of these typical fishes, and they seem explored. Cessations in the deposit of sediment, the re- to show how paired fins began. These very old Acanthocurrence of unfavourable conditions, and extensive migra- dians are known because they are completely covered by tions, among other causes, have all contributed to this small, hard skin-granules like those of the oldest fossilised result. An increasing acquaintance with scattered episodes Ostracoderms. Not only did the armour begin here in the in the secular development of life, however, tends to reveal same way as in the Ostracoderms, but there was also an its main outlines; and if we are unable to discover the actual facts we at least arrive at an D approximation to them which serves all immediate
d. purposes. If we can determine the “ fashion,' to speak, which prevailed during each successive period in the geological history of a race of animals, we are able to distinguish between those changes in anatomical structure which led to stagnation or extinction, and those which were necessary for evolution to a higher plane. An acquaintance with the precise links between one grade and the next is not of supreme importance.
In the case of fossil fishes, some general principles are already discoverable, and they may be treated as an illustration of the results which palæontology is
С now attaining
The earliest remains of fish-like animals satisfactory enough for discussion are those from the Upper Silurian rocks, both of Europe and North America. They suggest that long before the latter part of the Silurian period fishes had already become a flourishing and varied race, but could not be preserved among fossils because they had not
acquired a hard skeleton. The Upper Silurian fossils show how this skeleton first began, and, if we may assume that the order in which the different kinds of hard parts successively predominate is the order in which they evolved,
a. it is easy to perceive how they gradually arose. Fortu
Fig. 2.-Outlines of Acanthodian Fishes, illustrating their gradual nately all the phenomena can be traced in one compact
elongation in shape and loss of “intermediate spines," as they are group of lowly fish-like animals, the Ostracodermi or Ostra- traced upwards in geological formations. A, Climatius scutiger, cophori, which are so readily distinguished from the fishes Egerton; Lower Old Red Sandstone, Forfarshire. B, Mesacanthus
mitchelli (Egerton); ibid. proper that there is no risk of confounding with them
C, Acanthodes sulcatus, Agassiz; Lower
Carboniferous, Edinburgh. D, Acanthodes gracilis, Roemer; Lower members of any other line of descent. The hard skeletal
Permian, Bohemia. [Figs. B, C after Traquair, Daster Fritsch.) parts were confined exclusively to the skin, and in most of «l., anal fin; d., dorsal fin; i. sp., pairs of spines between paired fins the earliest members of the group they were merely
(“intermediate spines "); P., pair of pectoral fins ; V., pair of pelvic scattered tubercles of limy matter like the shagreen of modern sharks (Fig. 1). The tubercles fused together into occasional fusion of the skin-granules into plates where armour plates in two different ways. Sometimes (as in stiffness was possible or necessary. A few rows of the the Cephalaspidæ) a few regularly spaced tubercles grew granules fused together at the front edge of the median larger than the others, and each of these became a centre fins above and below the body, thus forming cut-waters or of attraction round which the immediately surrounding spines”; and as a double series of exactly similar tubercles coalesced to form polygonal plates. These
spines occurs along the lower border of the abdomen coalesced again in accordance with the shape and motions where the two pairs of fins are found in later fishes, it is of the underlying soft parts. More rarely (as in the reasonable to infer that these are likewise the stiffened Asterolepidæ) fusion of the tubercles occurred first along front edges of fins. In other words, paired fins were not the sensory canals, thus eventually producing overlapping originally restricted to two pairs, but formed a double
1 Abridged from the Presidential Address to the Geologists' Association, series along the entire length of the abdomen. The later February 2, 1906. (Proc. Geol. Assoc., vol. xix., pp. 266-282, figs. 1-15.) Acanthodians (Fig. 2, C, D) had only the ordinary two pairs
of fins; but as these were unsuited for further elabor- herring and salmon, characterised, not only by a complete ation, the primitive fishes of this grade did not advance vertebral column, but also by a simplified lower jaw, which further. They became long-bodied or almost eel-shaped consists only of two pieces on each side (without the before their final extinction.
splenial bone which forms so conspicuous a feature of the Fishes only began to make real progress when their ear fishes). The Isospondyli, as they are termed, being fin-flaps were stiffened by internal rods of cartilage in thus provided with a completely bony internal skeleton as addition to the hard skin-structures. Such fins well as completed fins, admitted of many more variations essentially paddles, and could be used for crawling in the mud as well as for ordinary swimming in water. It is therefore interesting to observe that during the Middle and Upper Devonian periods, when four-legged lung-breathers must
D have been just beginning to appear on the land, nearly all the highest fishes had their fins in the shape of paddles (Fig. 3, A). It seems as if at that time there was a general tendency for the fashionable and most advanced fishes to become crawlers rather than swimmers; and there cannot be much doubt that the known Crossopterygii, or fringe-finned ganoids," as these fishes are commonly termed, are the unsuccessful survivors of the race which originally produced the earliest crawling lung-breathers or Labyrinthodonts. The Dipnoi, or paddle-finned fishes, which breathe both by gills and by a modified air-bladder (almost a lung), were also especially abundant at the same period. In fact, in having the fundamental part of the upper jaw fused with с the skull instead of loosely suspended from it, the Dipnoi agree more closely with the land animals than do the Crossopterygii; but before this feature had been acquired, the roof-bones of the skull had subdivided into smaller plates, such as could not have changed into the skull-bones of an ordinary Labyrinthodont, while the teeth had curiously clustered into plates, so that they could never have produced the Labyrinthodont dentition. The few survivors both of Crossopterygians and Dipnoans at the present day exhibit the usual long-bodied or eel-shaped contour of decrepit derelicts.
B The next grade of fishes, the Chondrostei (Fig. 3, B), which specially characterised the Carboniferous and Permian periods, had fins in which the internal cartilages formed only an effective basal support, while the greater part of their expanse was stiffened by flexible skin-fibres, which had become “ fin-rays.” Some of these fishes degenerated into eel-shaped creatures in the Triassic, Rhætic, and Liassic periods, while others grew to unwieldy proportions and eventu
A ally passed into the modern sturgeons.
Thus far there had been scarcely any ossification of the internal skeleton of the head and trunk in fishes; but by the dawn of the Triassic period a large number of the Chondrostei had passed into the Protospondyli, and then the formation of a hard brain-case and vertebral column
Fig. 3.- Diagram illustrating grades in the evolution of bony fishes. - A, Paddie began. This only happened after the median fins finned fish (Rhizodont Crossopterygian) characteristic of the Middle and i'rper had become absolutely complete, namely, after the
Old Red Sandstone periods, internal skeleton only partially shown in travi upper lobe of the tail had shortened so that the tendency towards shortening lobes of fins and simplifying their internal support
B, Ray-finned fish (Palæoniscid) characteristic of the Car boniferous and Pernias tail-fin formed a flexible fan-shaped expansion at periods, showing the extended pelvic fin with numerous supports, the dorsalas the blunt end of the body, while each separate anal fins with supports fewer than rays, and the caudal fin heterocercal : fredra ray in the other median fins was provided with towards shortening upper lobe of tail, and towards equality in number beeveer its own definite support. The Protospondyli
rays and their supports in the other median fins. C, Ray-finned fish (Dapeciss)
characteristic of the Triassic and Jurassic periods, showing short-based pelva is (Fig. 3, c) characterised the Triassic, Rhætic, with one large support, the dorsal and anal fins having a separate support for exs and Jurassic periods, and exhibited endless ray, and the caudal fin almost homocerca!; tendency towards acquisition of boor variety ; but their sole survivors at the present
vertebræ and ossification of the cartilaginous skull D, Modern ray-boed bory
fish (Hoplopteryx) characteristic of the Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary periode. day are the long-bodied Lepidosteus and Amia
showing premaxilla below maxilla, completed internal skeleton, pelvic fra la of American fresh waters.
forwards, and some spinous fin-rays; tendency towards extreme development of Associated with almost the earliest Proto- ear-capsules, supraoccipital bone, and premaxilla, besides a fixed number of spondyli, there
spinous fin-rays and the forward position of the pelvic fins. a few precocious fishes which evidently completed their vertebral column at once. This race, including such genera as than any of their forerunners. The typical fish-head now Pholidophorus and Leptolepis, seems to have temporarily began, for the first time in its history, to exhibit essential exhausted itself in the effort, for it always occupied changes. The supraoccipital bone often grew upwards a secondary place in the fish-faunas until the beginning project on the roof, and thrust outwards the now wel of the Cretaceous period, when it rapidly multiplied, ossified and enlarged ear-capsules (Chirocentridæ); while became fashionable, and replaced the Protospondyli. the premaxilla sometimes extended backwards to set Thus arose the modern fishes of the same grade as the beneath the maxilla and exclude the latter from the margin
of the upper jaw (Enchodontidae). The pelvic fins in a Eucken's Philosophy of Life," by W. R. B. Gibson ; 1ew fishes were now displaced forwards, so that their * British Dogs at Work, by A. C. Smith, illustrated ; supports even touched the bones bearing the pectoral fins • Savage Childhood, a Study of Kafir Children,
by D. (Crenothrissidæ). Still more interesting, the bones of the Kidd, illustrated; “ Tuberculosis : its Origin and Extincgill-cover began for the first time to develop spines tion,” by Dr. W. P. Turner, illustrated ; " The Sense of Enchodontidae).
Touch in Mammals and Birds, with special reference to Among, fishes, as anong other animals, spines charac- the Papillary Ridges,” by Dr. W. Kidd; “ Through the terise only the latest representatives of the class. When Telescope," by the Rev. J. Baikie, illustrated ; Ariththe skeleton is well ossitied, races which have reached or metical Exercises for Junior Forms,” by R. B. Morgan; just passed their prime tend to acquire more skeletal “Man : his Manners and Customs,” by Prof. L. W. Lyde, matter than they actually need, and the surplus is then illustrated; and Descriptive Geography of the British arranged as spines and bosses, usually in a symmetrical Empire,” by F. D. Herbertson, illustrated.
113nner. In the case of fishes, some of the fin-rays become Messrs. Wm. Blackwood and Sons will issue :-" The hardened, and spines arise chiefly on the cheeks and gill- Century's Progress in Astronomy,” by H. Macpherson, Lovers.. The Acanthopterygii (spine-finned ") are thus jun. ; CHC1,-Problem,” by R. Gill; and " Development the highest and latest fishes of all, though they sometimes of Greek Philosophy,” by R. Adamson, edited by Prof. eventually descend from their high estate by degeneration. Sorley and R. P. Hardie. They exhibit all the peculiar changes in the skull, upper The list of Gebrüder Borntraeger (Berlin) contains :jaw, and pelvic fins noticed as first appearing in a variable
* Allgemeine Botanik," by E. Warming and W. Johannsen, inanner in the Cretaceous Isospondyli. They also differ German translation by Þr. Weinecke; “ Die kristallinen from all the earlier races of fishes in the common numerical Schiefer," by Prof. V. Grubenmann, II. Theil ; “ Einfixity of their vertebræ and fin-rays. There are whole führung in die mikroskopische Analyse der Drogenpulver, families in which the number of vertebræ never varies, and
eine Anleitung zur Untersuchung von Pfanzenpulvern, there are large genera in which all the species have the by Prof. L. Koch, illustrated ; Jugendformen und same definite number of spinous fin-rays.
Blütenreife im Pflanzenreich,”. by Dr. L. Diels, illusThe spiny-finned fishes began by Berycoids and possibly trated; “ Uber Vererbungsgesetze," by Prof. C. Correns ; Scombroids in the Chalk, closely resembling, but not “ Arten und Varietäten und ihre Entstehung durch Mutaidentical with, genera living at the present day. The so- tion,” by Prof. H. de Vries, German translation by Prof. called Beryx of the Chalk (Hoplopteryx, Fig. 3, D) is now
H. Klebahn, illustrated ; “ Das Berneroberland und Nachproved to be very different from the existing genus bearing bargebiete," ein geologischer Führer von Prof. A. Baltzer, that name. By the Eocene period, however, nearly all the
Zwei Teile, illustrated ; Geographische Beobachtung, modern groups of Acanthopterygii had become completely by Prof. A. Penck; and " Biophysikalisches Centralblatt,' separated and developed, and their sudden appearance is vollständiges Sammelorgan für Biologie, Physiologie und s mysterious as that of the early Eocene Mammalia.
Pathologie mit Ausschluss der Biochemie unter Leitung, The study of fossil fishes, as now pursued, is thus an
by W. Biedermann, E. Hering, O. Hertwig, F. Kraus, attempt to solve the following fundamental problems :(1) 'The nature and order of the successive advances in by Drs. Č. Oppenheimer and L. Michaelis; and a new
E. von Leyden, J. Orth, R. Tigerstedt, Th. Ziehen, edited anatomical structure which have suddenly infused new life
edition of “Die Harze und die Harzbehälter, Historischinto the class—the " expression points," as Cope termed
kritische u. experimentelle, in Gemeinschaft mit zahlreichen them.
Mitarbeitern ausgeführte Untersuchungen by Prof. A. (2) The new possibilities of development which arose with
Tschirch. much successive“ expression point.
The Cambridge University Press announcements in(3) The direction of the various abortive lines of advance
clude :-“ Trigonometry for Beginners," by J. W. Mercer ; and degeneration in each successively higher grade.
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Russell, vol. ii. (the as contrasted with dead matter; for, in my opinion, we are much more likely to approach some explan. pological Expedition to Torres Straits by the Members
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A. Smith WOODWARD.
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v. Dr. B. Pleus, i.; " Fauna u. Flora des Golles von Guide to the Bodleian Library,” by A. Clark, illustrated; “ The Oxford Geographies, by Dr. A. J.
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Ueber die Sperrtischerei trei Welby, with preface to the English edition by Lord Kelvin,
den Finnisch-C grischen Völkern," by U. T. Sirelius, illet-O.M., F.R.S. ; Surgical Instruments in Greek and
trated ; and a new edition of “ The Anthropology of the Roman Times,” by J. Milne ; and “ A Catalogue of the
State of São Paulo," by H. v. Ihering. Herbarium of Dillenius," by G. C. Druce, with the assist
Mr. Alexander Gardner announces :-" Familiar Scott ance of Prof. S. H. Vines, F.R.S.
Animals," by A. N. Simpson. Messrs. Archibald Constable and Co.
The announcements of Messrs. Charles Griffin and G “ Harvard Psychological Studies," vols. i. and ii., by
include :-“ A Manual of Petrol Motors and Motores Prof. H. Munsterberg, illustrated ; Egyptian Excava comprising the Designing, Construction, and Working o! tions : Biban el Moluk, the Tomb of Hatshopsitu," by
Petrol Motors," by F. Strickland, illustrated : " l'aport T. M. Davis :—The Life and Monuments of the Queen, by Technology, an Elementary Manual on the Manufacts E. Naville, Description of the finding and Excavation of Physical Qualities, Chemical Constituents, and Testing in the Tomb, by H. Carter, illustrated ; " Natives of
Paper and Paper-making Fibres," by R. W. Sindall, illus Australia, by N. W. Thomas, illustrated, “ Natives of
trated ; General Foundry Practice: a Practical Hari British Central Africa," illustrated, Vatives of British
book for Iron, Steel and Brass Founders, Metallurgato Columbia," illustrated, “Race Prejudice," by J. Finot,
and Students of Metallurgy," by A. C. Mollilliam anů translated by F. Wade-Evans (“ The Native Races of the
P. Longmuir, illustrated ; Proportional Sri SquarBritish Empire '') ; “ Indian Trees, an Account of Trees, applied to Geometrical Problems, by Lieut.-Colonel T Shrubs, Woody Climbers, Bamboos, and Palms, in English, illustrated : “ Lectures on the Marine Stran digenous or commonly cultivated in the British Indian Turbine,” by Prof. J. H. Biles, illustrated : " The Theri" Empire,” by Sir D. Brandis, K.C.I.E., assisted by Indian
dynamic Principles of Engine Design," by L. M. Hobb; foresters, illustrated ; “ The Religion of Ancient Egypt, by "Locomotive Compounding and Superheating, by JF Prof. W. M. Flinders Petrie, F.R.S., “ Islam, by Sved
Gairns, illustrated : “ Shaft Sinking in Difficult Coas, Ameer Ali, “ Islam in India, bv T. W'. Arnold,
by J. Reimer, translated from the German by J. W “ Buddhism," by Prof. T. W. Rhys Davids, 2 vols.,
Brough, illustrated; "A Vocabulary of Sea Terms “ Scandinavian Religion,” by W. A. Craigie, “ Judaism,
Phrases : English-Spanish Spanish-English," by Flowby I. Abrahams, “ The Religion of Ancient Persia, by Paymaster G. Hewlett: Peat : its Use and Manufacturr Dr. A. V. W. Jackson, Primitive or Nicene Christ
by P. R. Björling and F. T. Gissing, illustrated ; and rrs ianity," by Dr. J. S. Black, Shintoism, Mediæval
editions of "A Handbook on Petroleum, for Inspert. Christianity," “ The Religion of Ancient Italy (“ Re
under the Petroleum Acts and Others," by Captain) ligions: Ancient and Modern ''); “Electric Traction
Thomson and Sir B. Redwood, illustrated ; ** Lobris dengan Engineering.” by H. F. Parshall and H. M. Hobart, illus
and Lubricants : a Treatise on the Theory and Pract** trated : “ The Corpuscular Theory of Matter," by Prof. Lubrication and on the Nature, Properties, and Testing J. J. Thomson, F.R.S., illustrated ; Precision Grinding,
Lubricants," by L. Archbutt and R. M. Deeley. Illustratri by H. Darbyshire, illustrated ; " Modern American Machine Principles and Practice of Brewing for the l's Tools," by Prof. C. H. Benjamin, illustrated ; “ Time and
Students and Practical Men." by Dr. W. J. Sykes massa Clocks, a Description of Ancient and Modern Methods of
by A. R. Ling, illustrated ; and " Road Making and M.