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book which for lack of space must pass unnoticed, NATURE, and references are given to them in the subbut the above are probably the most glaring examples. joined summary of the official catalogue.
After such defects as have been discussed it seems almost hypercritical to mention minor blemishes, but Mr. T. E. Heath
: Stereoscopic star charts and spectroit may be pointed out that proper names are often
scopic key maps.-Rev. A. L. Cortie : Photographs of the misspelt, and this is the case even with the names of
solar corona, 1905, August 30, taken at Vinaroz, Spain, such well-known New Guinea worthies as the Rev.
with a 4-inch lens and 20-feet coronagraph.—The Solar Dr. Lawes. The frequency with which such slips illustrating the eclipse camp at Palma, Majorca (August
Physics Observatory, South Kensington : (1) Photographs occur suggests that the author may again be travelling,
30, 1905), and some of the results obtained. (2) Examples or at any rate that he has not had the opportunity
of stellar spectra taken with the 6-inch two-prism prismatic of revising his book. The get-up of the book is
(3) Some photographs taken with the spectro
good, and where the plates are not imaginative they heliograph. These include a disc photograph taken on are often interesting, as is the case with those facing August 31, 1905, the day after the total solar eclipse of pp. 108, 120, 144, 176, 236, and 244.
that year. (4) Curves to illustrate long-period barometric C. G. SELIGMANN.
changes in operation in India, East Indies, Australia, and South America. They show the possible evolution of the
nineteen-year variation in Australia from the elevenTHE ROYAL SOCIETY CONVERSAZIONE.
year (about) variation in India, and the relation of the
Australian to the South American changes. (5) PhotoN Wednesday of last week, May 9, there was a
graphs and diagrams illustrating recent work done on the
orientation of some British stone circles.—The Royal large assembly at the Royal Society on the occa
Astronomical Society: Six photographs of the Milky Way sion of the first of the two conversaziones held annu
taken in 1905 by Prof. E. E. Barnard at Mount Wilson, ally in the society's rooms at Burlington House. California.—řhe Astronomer Royal : Photographic prints The guests were received by the president, Lord of the total solar eclipse of 1905, August 30, from negatives Rayleigh, and included, not only leading men of taken at Sfax, Tunisia.—The Director, Meteorological science, but also representatives of other branches of Office : (1) Antarctic meteorological records with charts and intellectual activity and national interests. There diagrams įrepared in connection with the discussion of the were numerous exhibits of objects and apparatus
results of the Antarctic expeditions. (2) Some recent illustrating recent scientific work, and the following meteorological results, (a) Meteorological charts of the notes will give an indication of their character. De
Indian Ocean and Red Sea for the month of May, showing scriptions relating to exhibits belonging to the same
average winds, currents, and other meteorological informdepartments of science have so far as possible been
ation, including a reproduction of the chart for May of the
tracks of hurricanes prepared by the late Mr. C. Meldrum, brought together. During the evening lantern de- F.R.S. The chart is the first of a monthly series to be monstrations were given by Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, issued by the Meteorological Office for the use of seamen. F.R.S., on the Batoka gorge of the Zambezi river, ' (b) Diagram exhibiting the relation between Admiral Beauand by Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S., on electric fort's numbers for wind force and the corresponding wind production of nitrates from the atmosphere. For an velocity and wind pressure. account of the Batoka gorge reference should be
Mr. R. Kerr: A torsion spring for transference of energy. made to a paper by Mr. Lamplugh in NATURE of (Exhibited on behalf of Prof. L. R. Wilberforce, of UniNovember 30, 1905 (vol. Ixxiii., p. 1); and the subject versity College, Liverpool. )—Mr. Joseph Goold: Vibration of Prof. Thompson's lecture will be found dealt with
experiments. Two distinct systems of vibration in the same
When in Nature of February 8, 1906 (vol. Ixxiii., p. 355), and
steel plate are tuned closely to the same pitch.
either system is excited the other also becomes active; and p. 65 of the present number. In several other cases
their respective intensities go through a variety of fluctudescriptions of instruments and other cbjects ex- ations, producing remarkable disturbances of the compound hibited have already appeared in the columns of node-lines.- Prof. G. Forbes, F.R.S. : Model of naval gun
sight, giving correct elevation for any variations of muzzle into the tube of the instrument, and are provided with velocity, air density, and time of flight, as arranged for the adjusting movements which allow of complete control of 6-inch B.L. gun, Mark XI., under construction at Elswick the lighting. Special devices for the easy attachment and for trial on H.M.S. Africa.—Sir James Dewar, F.R.S.: adjustment of oblique and other illuminators for low-power Metallic jacketed vacuum vessels. In these metallic vessels work are provided, while a detachable bridge can be fitted filled with liquid air the vacuum is produced by the use to the stage so as to adapt it for work with transmitted of cooled charcoal. The envelopes may be made of brass,
purposes of photomicrography focusing copper, nickel, or tinned iron, with necks made of a bad motion is provided whereby the eye-piece may be moved conducting alloy. The necks can be covered with silvered relatively to the objective.—The Director of the National glass vacuum cylinders which act as stoppers and at the Physical Laboratory : (1) Photomicrographs of the polished same time utilise the cold of the slowly evaporating liquid. and etched surface of specimens of iron and steel taken The efficiency of the best metallic Aasks is equal to that during the progress of alternating stress tests, Dr. T. E. of the average silvered glass vacuum vessels now generally Stanton. (2) Photomicrographs, Dr. H. C. H. Carpenter. used in low temperature investigations. Vessels of this (3) An apparatus for tests on the strength of materials al type may be useful in industrial cryogenic operations and very high temperatures, Dr. J. A. Harker. (4) a, Picou for the storage and safe transit of liquid air and oxygen.- permeameter (by kind permission of Mr. J. H. Agar Mr. C. V. Boys, F.R.S.: A gas calorimeter (see vol. lxxiii., Baugh), b, Bifilar galvanometer free from zero creep, Mr. p. 354, February 8, 1906).
A. Campbell. Mr. G. F. Herbert Smith: A refractometer for liquids. Dr. P. E. Shaw: An electrical measuring machine (sep By means of this instrument the refractive indices of May 3, p. 22, and vol. lxxii., p. 495).-Sir Oliver Lodge. liquid and semi-liquid substances may be easily and quickly F.Å.Š., and Dr. Alexander Muirhead, F.R.S.: Wireless determined in sodium light to the fourth place of decimals. telegraphy apparatus for military field purposes. (1) A - Prof. W. F. Barrett, F.R.S.: Entoptiscope, for the self- portable pack-transport set of wireless telegraphy apparatus examination of obscurities and defects within the eye. — for military field purposes, available for communications Sir William Crookes, F.R.S.: (1) The ultra-violet spectra across country for distances up to fifty miles, or 150 miles of the metals, photographed with a quartz train of five over sea; with electric valves employed to accumulate the double prisms. The spectrum of pure iron used as impulses of a small coil and battery, or small dynamo, so as standard. (2) Stereoscopic photographs, taken by Sir W. to give discharges of energy only otherwise obtainable from Crookes on the occasion of the visit of the British Associ- a large and heavy source of electric supply. The arrangeation to South Africa in the autumn of 1905.-Lord Blyths- ment needs no earth connection, nor must it have any wood : Photographs of certain arc spectra.
when it is required to work over long distances with the were produced by means of a Blythswood concave diffrac- greatest efficiency. (2) A vibrating needle point-oil-mercury tion grating, the work being undertaken as a practical test coherer with telephone receiver.-Mr. W. Duddell : Some of the gratings. The radius of the grating was 10 feet, mechanical and electrical phenomena occurring in the telethe first-order spectrum being photographed. The total phonic transmission of speech. The apparatus is intended length given was about 40 inches, from 1 2100 to 1 7400. to demonstrate as curves screen the simultaneous -Dr. W. Marshall Waits : Binocular spectroscope. The movement of the microphone transmitter diaphragm, the instrument consists of a field-glass, or other form of current flowing into the telephone line, the current received binocular, in front of the object-glasses of which two at the far end of the line, and the movement of the receiver exactly similar transparent diffraction gratings are mounted diaphragm when sounds or speech are being transmitted. on optically-worked plane glass. As the instrument has The similarity of and the difference between these four neither slit nor collimator it is applicable, in the first curves can be examined by the aid of the apparatus, and instance, only to luminous objects of definite form, such the distortion and attenuation produced by the resistance.
tubes. For ordinary observations of flame capacity, and self-induction of the line can be demonstrated, spectra, or spark spectra, a metal or ebonite plate, with as well as the distortions produced by the diaphragms of a slit, in front of the Bunsen or spark is employed.--Mr. transmitter and receiver. The characteristic shapes of the Edwin Edser and Mr. Edgar Senior : Specimens of colour curves corresponding to the different vowel sounds and their photographs, and photomicrographs. The exhibit included dependence on the pitch on which they are sung can also (1) Lippmann spectrum photograph bleached after Neu- be exhibited.--Mr. L. H. Walter : New magnetic detector, hauss's method ; (2) colour photograph produced by ex- giving both alternating currents for telephonic reception posing Lippmann film successively to two continuous spec- and continuous currents for recording or visual signals. trums, the red end of one being superposed on the blue The detector is a form of differential dynamo in which end of the other; (3) three-colour photographs of coloured electric oscillations are made to act upon one armature objects, including crystals under polarised light; (4) photo- core only.—Mr. K. J. Tarrant: Photographs of electrical micrographs obtained through red, green, and blue colour discharges, at atmospheric pressure and in vacuo.-M,. screens; (5) photomicrographs obtained by the aid of Zeiss E. G. Rivers: A new electric heater. The principle of apochromatic objective, and other objectives.
construction departs from that usually adopted. The Royal Microscopical Society: Micro-Daguerreotypes of object in view is to secure a large heating surface at blood, milk, and crystals, made by Léon Foucault in 1844. moderate temperature, and the method exemplified is the --Messrs. R. and j. Beck, Ltd. : Ultimate microscope re- use of silicated carbon upon a terra-cotta base, forming solving power with light of different wave-lengths. A
element. These "elements assembled together specimen of Amphipheura pellucida was shown under 1/12 constitute the heater. oil immersion 1.25 N.A. A single filament Nernst lamp Mr. J. E. Stead, F.R.S.: A triple alloy of tin-antimonson a small optical bench was the source of illumination. arsenic, polished and etched, showing bright curved crystais The beam was split up into a brilliant spectrum by means embedded in a soft matrix or eutectic.-Dr. G. T. Moody : of a Thorp replica grating, and any portion of the spectrum Specimens illustrating the indifference of oxygen towards can be used for illuminating the object. The experiment iron in presence of water and the effect of the admission showed that whereas the diatom is brilliantly resolved with of carbonic acid.-Messrs. Wallach Bros.: Oxygen rescue green light, the whole structure is invisible with yellow apparatus and other appliances. (1) The “Evertrusty light.-Mr. Julius Rheinberg : (1) Production of achromatic oxygen apparatus, used by the rescue parties at Courrières. interference bands by the double grating method ; (2) photo consisting of two oxygen cylinders filled with orvgen, two graphs chiefly of diatoms, taken by Dr. A. Köhler with the regenerators through which the vitiated air passes and is Zeiss apparatus for ultra-violet light.- Mr. Il'. Rosenhain : regenerated, and which at the same time serve the purpose Improved metallurgical microscope designed for the examin- of ascertaining if the apparatus is in working order prior ation of metal specimens. The base and limb are of par
(2) Evertrusty oxygen first-aid case for us ticularly rigid construction, and the tube is rigidly attached in case of carbonic oxide poisoning, or after inhalation of to the limb. The stage racks on the broad flange of the smoke, poisonous fumes, &c., consisting of oxvgen cylinder, limb, and is provided with a fine adjustment placed in the reducing valve, pressure gauge, bag and mask, with backline of the optic axis of the microscope. The internal re- pressure valve.-Dr. O. Silberrad and Mr. H. A. Phillips : flectors emploved for obtaining "vertical
illumination. A series of picrates. The salts of picric acid are of interest instead of being carried on a detachable fitting are inserted as having been the probable cause of some of the most
disastrous lyddite explosions on record. The specimens ex- capable of effecting its decomposition.—Mr. J. Stanley hibited were in many cases prepared in the course of an Gardiner and Mr. H. P. Tiomasset: Photographs illusa chaustive investigation recently carried out at the research trative of the vegetation of the Seychelles Islands. laboratories of the Royal Arsenal. Several of the salts The Marine Biological Association : The habits of some exhibited have never before been prepared, and the majority fishes from the inshore waters. A small collection of living have never previously been obtained pure or correctly fishes from the shore and from shallow water was shown analcsed.
to illustrate the differences in habit and mode of life Director of the Geological Survey of Great Britain : adopted by different species.--Mr. Cecil Warburton : Geulagical maps, recently issued by the Geological Survey
Berlese's apparatus for capturing minute insects and and Museum.-Prof. John Milne, F.R.S.: Seismograms of arachnids. - Prof. w. c. McIntosh, F.R.S.: Thirteen recens earthquakes. (1) North-south and east-west com- coloured plates (original) for part iii. of the British ponents of the Formosa earthquake of March 16, 1906. Annelids, to be published by the Ray Society, 1907. 121 Two components of the Colombian earthquake of
These are drawings, from life, of specimens procured from January 31, 1906. (3) An enlargement of the terminal
Shetland to the Channel Islands.--Mr. J. E. S. Moore and vibrations of the upper part of Fig. 2. It shows the ex
Mr. C. E. Walker: Recent researches in cell-division. tinction of an earthquake in wave groups. Each group has (1) Leucocytes lying in cytoplasm of tissue cells in early a duration of about 2.5 minutes to 3 minutes, and contains
stage of cancer. (2) First maiotic (heterotype) division in abour seven waves. One set of groups may approximately cancer of breast. Division figures in this form of cancer resemble another set of groups. (4 and 5) Open diagrams
have been supposed to be rare. (1 and 2, joint research of the same earthquake. The pendulum which recorded with Prof. Farmer, F.R.S.) (3) Specimen showing the upper part of Fig. 4 weighs Solb., and has a period of
characteristic permanent forms in chromosomes of first twenty-five seconds. That which recorded Fig. 5 weighs
maiotic (heterotype) division. (4) Specimen showing pluria few ounces, and has a period of fifteen seconds. Both polar mitoses and amitoses in myeloplaxes (bone marrow). have recorded the period for the large waves as seventeen
(5) Specimen showing division figures in germinal area of seconds. (6 and 7) Open diagrams of the San Francisco
lymphatic gland. (6) Specimen showing cells destined to tarthquake of April 18, 1906.—Royal Observatory, Edin- become foot-cells in testis of embryo guinea-pig.-Dr. burgh: Seismograph records. (1) Indian earthquake, Albert A. Gray: Series of stereoscopic photographs of the April 4. 1905; (2) earthquake in Siberia, July 23, 1905 ; membranous labyrinth illustrating the comparative anatomy (3) earthquake in Calabria, September 8, 1905; (4) earth
of the organ.
The examples shown were illustrative of quake in Greece, November 8, 1905; (5) San Francisco rarthquake, April 18, 1906.—Mr. ). Stanley Gardiner :
Amphibia, reptiles, birds, and Mammalia.—Dr. G. C.
Chubb : Yolk-nucleus in the oocyte of Antedon. The yolk Dredged rocks off Providence Coral Reef, 844 fathoms
nucleus of Antedon was shown to be merely a region of the (H.M.S. Sealark). These rocks were obtained off the outer
egg-cytoplasm on to which has diffused a part of the slope of a coral reef, half-way between the Amirante Bank
material discharged from the nucleolus throughout the and Madagascar. They consist of (1) volcanic ash in
growth of the oocyte. various stages of consolidation ; (2) manganese nodules found nuclei of ash; and (3) coral rock coated with manganese --Prof. Wyndham Dunstan, F.R.S.: (1) New or rire minerals from Ceylon. Many of the minerals ex
NOTES. hibiteri have been collected during the progress of the
Mme. Curie has been nominated by the council of the mineral survey now proceeding in Ceylon in connection with the Imperial Institute. Others have been found in
University of Paris to succeed her husband, the late Prof. river gravels sent for examination to the Imperial Institute. Curie, in the chair of general physics held by him at the These minerals illustrate the wide distribution of thorium time of his death. The nomination has been accepted by in Ceylon. (2) Minerals from Canada.—Dr. A. S. Wood- the Minister of Public Instruction. tward. F.R.S.: Hind limb of the gigantic extinct marsupial Ditrolodon australis from Lake Callabonna, South Aus- Dr. A. C. HADDON, F.R.S., university lecturer in tralia.-Nr. F. ). Lewis : Late Glacial and post-Glacial ethnology, Cambridge, has accepted an invitation to give plant remains from the Scottish peat deposits and from
course of Lowell lectures in Boston, Mass., during Cross Fell. The remains were met with during an investigation of the peat deposits in Scotland and on Cross Fell,
November next. He will discourse on racial problems, Cumberland. All the deposits so far examined show definite
distribution of culture, and social and religious evolution stratification-each layer has its own set of plants, and in Melanesia. very different conditions are frequently shown by strata at different horizons in the same peat deposit.
The Croonian lecture of the Royal Society will be le. The Director, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: (1) Pre- livered on Thursday, May 24, by Prof. J. N. Langley, corious flowering of plants (exhibited by Mr. W. B. F.R.S., On the Presence of Special Excitable Substances Hemsley, F.R.S.). (a) Seedling mahogany tree in flower in Striated Muscle and in Tissue Cells." whon about 6 inches high. Leaves simple instead of pinnate: flowers very similar to those of the adult tree. The Cleve memorial lecture will be delivered at the (01 Seedling Ailanthus glandulosa in power when about
Chemical Society by Prof. T. E. Thorpe, C.B., F.R.S., 5 inches high. Leaves trifoliolate instead of multifoliolate ;
on Thursday, June 21. Houers male. Ich Lilac flowering from the young suckers, with without leaves: flowers normal in structure, Prof. J. B. FARMER, F.R.S., who is giving special attenfra grun (d) Coco-nut flowering on its appearance from
tion to parasitic growths, would be glad to receive specithe shall ni the seed. (2) Exalbuminous grass-seeds (exhibited by Dr. Otto Stapf). The structure of the seed is
mens of such growths. The specimens should be forwarded a uriform throughout the Graminee, the presence of a
to Claremont House, Wimbledon Common, Surrey. Ver mp.cus farinaceous endosperm or " albumin being
MR. R. McG. DAWKINS, fellow of Emmanuel College, riarartaristic of it. A remarkable exception (Velocanna hambusvides, which is exalbuminous and at the same time Cambridge, has been elected director of the British School siviparousi was recently described by Dr. Staph, who in Athens, in succession to Mr. R. C. Bosanquet, lately has since discovered three more examples of exalbuminous appointed to the chair of archæology in the University of grac-verds, all in Bambusexe.-Prof. Il'yndham Dunstan, ERS: (var genetic plants.
The specimens illustrated 3 inimpigation conducted by Prof. Dunstan and Dr. T. A. On Thursday next, May 24, Prof. W. J. Sollas will Heart to throw light on the origin of the prussic arid which is produced or certain plants. All the plants shown begin a course of three lectures at the Royal Institution
** Man and the Glacial Period." The Friday evening contain the same cyanogenetic glucoside (dextrose ether of arefone cvanhydrer), which has been named “phasco- discourse on May 25 will be delivered by Mr. Leonard Hill, lunatin." . Accompanving it in each plant is an
Compressed Air and its Physiological Effects."
A COMMITTEE has been appointed to make arrangements Since the discovery of a spirillar organism, the Spiroto commemorate the distinguished services rendered to chaeta pallida, in syphilitic lesions, a great deal of work archæology by Dr. Arthur Evans, F.R.S. It is proposed has been done on the transmission and prophylaxis of this to place a portrait of Dr. Evans in the Ashmolean Museum, malady. Whether or no this microbe be the ætiologica! Oxford, of which he has long been keeper. The world- agent of the disease, and it cannot yet be said to have been famed discoveries at Knossos have made Dr. Evans well proved definitely, its discovery has undoubtedly stimulated known to students of archæology everywhere, and it may research, and it is now certain from a number of experi. be expected that the plan suggested will meet with wide ments, both in this country and abroad, that syphilis can approval. Subscriptions may be paid to the hon. treasurer, be inoculated on the higher apes. Recently Prof. Metchni. Mr. G. A. Macmillan, St. Martin's Street, W.C., to koff, of the Pasteur Institute, demonstrated that the the account of the “ Arthur Evans Portrait Fund," London application of an ointment composed of calomel ten parts and County Bank, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, W.C., and lanolin twenty parts to the point of inoculation will or to Messrs. Barclay and Co., Old Bank, Oxford. The prevent the development of the disease. This was proved hon, secretaries of the movement are Messrs. D. G. Hogarth by inoculating apes and also a healthy medical student and C. F. Bell, Magdalen College, Oxford.
(who offered himself as a subject for experiment) with The German chief burgomasters, burgomasters, and syphilitic virus, and an hour later rubbing the inoculated councillors who are paying a visit to England as the guests
spot with this ointment in the case of the student and of of the British committee for the study of foreign municipal
one ape. Neither man nor monkey suffered any evil institutions were entertained on Monday at a banquet effect, whereas the other inoculated monkeys which were over which Lord Avebury presided. Mr. Haldane proposed untreated contracted syphilis. In the case of monkeys the the toast of “The German Emperor and the German
ointment must be applied within twenty hours after inEmpress and the other Members of the German Royal oculation, otherwise infection follows, but if this time Family.”; and in the course of his remarks he said that
limit be observed immunity is complete. It is noteworthy the present Kaiser united in himself the thinker and the
that Prof. Metchnikoff will shortly be visiting this country man of action, and has organised his empire on an educa
in order to deliver the Harben lectures at the Royal Insti. tional basis, paying great attention to technical and scien
tute of Public Health, 37 Russell Square, W.C. The tific instruction and investigation. Such institutions as that
lectures, which are delivered at 5 p.m., are as follows:at Charlottenburg are instances of what is being accom
May 25, the hygiene of the inner tissues of organisms; plished in Germany to-day. The toast was acknowledged May 28, the hygiene of the intestinal tract; May 30, by the Ober-Bürgermeister of Berlin, who said that Mr. syphilis. Haldane possessed a deep knowledge, not only of German The proceedings on Commemoration Day at Livingstone history, but also of the German heart.
College, Leyton, E., on Thursday, May 31, will include an The eleventh annual congress of the South-Eastern Union address by Mr. James Cantlie, editor of the Journal of of Scientific Societies will be held at Eastbourne on Tropical Medicine, whose opinion as to the necessity for June 6-9. The president-elect, Dr. Francis Darwin, the training given at the college is of special value, owing F.R.S., will give his presidential address on June 6 at to his experience of the conditions of living in tropical the Town Hall. The following papers will be presented :
countries. Cards of invitation may be obtained by writing Nature near Eastbourne, J. H. A. Jenner; the birds of
to the principal of the college. Sussex compared with the list for Great Britain, W. Ruskin Butterfield ;
On the morning of May 2, in the dynamite factory of the educational value of
Dr. Jonathan Hutchinson, F.R.S. ; sea erosion and coast de
the Nitroglycerine Company, Ltd., of Vinterviken, near
Stockholm, there occurred three explosions in quick sucfence, E. A. Martin ; the geology of the Upper Ravens
cession, which were heard all over the town, and resulted bourne valley with notes on the flora, W. H. Griffin ; the
in the total wreck of the factory and the death of many of flora of the Eastbourne district, Dr. Whitney ; bird archi
the workers; the cause of the explosion is at present un. tecture, E. J. Bedford; nature-study, W. Mark Webb.
known. The hon. general secretary is the Rev. R. Ashington Bullen, from whom all information can be obtained. The museum
The prize of 3000 francs offered by the International secretary, Mr. E. W. Swanton, Educational Museum,
Medical Congress at the Paris meeting has been awarded Haslemere, will have charge of the congress museum at
by the Lisbon meeting to Prof. P. Ehrlich, of Frankfortthe town hall. The photographic surveys of Surrey, Kent, on-Main, for his researches on leucocytosis. British physioand Sussex will be represented by a large series of photo- logists will approve of this recognition of the work of the graphs of scientific and antiquarian interest.
great experimentalist and worker on the borderland of Baron Takaki, the Director-General of the Medical Des physiology and chemistry. partment of the Japanese Navy, delivered last week a series The opinion has been frequently expressed that Scandiof three lectures on the preservation of health amongst the navia, with its huge waterfalls, will before very long be personnel of the Japanese Navy and Army at St. Thomas's one of the most suitable places for large chemical works ; Hospital, at which medical school he was formerly a student. indeed, it is claimed that with the future developments of The subject of kak'ke or beri-beri was dealt with ex- electrochemical technology the greater part of the world's haustively. This disease was formerly very prevalent in supply of soda, chlorates, nitrates, calcium chloride, and the Japanese Navy, and, as the result of observations, iron will be produced in the northern peninsula. Hence it Baron Takaki had come to the conclusion that its pre- is easy to understand the action of the Swedish and Vorvalence was largely due to a disproportion between the non- wegian Governments in protecting the falls against forrign nitrogenous and nitrogenous elements of the food. By capitalists. Sweden has passed a law that the use of the adding a larger proportion of nitrogenous elements to the falls is reserved to the State, while a Bill is before the food the disease has now almost disappeared from the Norwegian Storthing in which it is prescribed that at least Navy. Other diseases, such as typhoid, dysentery, and one-half of the capital laid out on the falls shall be Norcholera have also almost disappeared in consequence of wegian money, and the direction of the works be in the careful hygienic measures.
hands of Norwegians who are living in the land.
Is the Chemiker Zeitung for May 9 is an appreciative Of the five articles in the March issue (vol. iv., part iv.) mute from the pen of Prof. van 't Hoff on his conscientious of Biometrika, three are devoted to the subject of heredity. co-worker and former student, the late Prof. Wilhelm in one of these Mr. E. Schuster, dealing with hereditary Meyerhoffrs, who, at the early age of forty-one, died of deafness in man, points out, in the first place, that heart disease on April 21 in Meran, where he had gone for deaf-mutes generally marry with persons similarly afflicted, the benefit of his health. Meyerhoffer, although born in with the results that might be expected ; and, in the second Russia, was on his father's side of Austrian descent, and place, brings out the normal, or even more than normal, was educated in German schools until his seventeenth fertility of such unions. A paper on Shirley poppies, by mar; after passing three years in the gymnasium of several workers, affords additional evidence of heredity in Czernowitz, he studied first under Bunsen at Heidelberg plants. On the other hand, Messrs. Barrington and Pearand then under Fittig at Strassburg, going from thence to
son, in discussing the heredity of colour in cattle, as Leipzig, Amsterdam, Paris, Vienna, and Berlin. A few exemplified in shorthorns and certain shorthorn crosses," spars ago he declined an invitation to go to Prague, and
do not find that this comes under the Mendelian law, at only a few months ago received a call as ordinarius to the least in the shape of any simple formula. l'nivesity of Aachen. In recognition of Meyerhoffer's
PARASITIC invertebrates, experimental developments of Guldberg and Waage's prin- forms, constitute the subject of the three articles in the
or nearly related free-living riple he was elected a corresponding member of the Scien
April issue (vol. l., part i.) of the Quarterly. Journal of tife Society of Christiania, and at a more recent date to a
Microscopical Science. The life-history of one of the similar honour by the society in Rotterdam.
Gregarinida, Cystobia irregularis, a species infesting the Dr. W. X. Shaw's third lecture was delivered at the holothurian locally known in this country as the University of London on May 15, the subject under con- spinner," has recently been investigated by Dr. H. M. sideration being the normal general circulation of the Woodcock, who in the communication before us states that atmosphere at the surface and in the upper air, and, in he has brought to light several interesting points in the connection therewith, the relation of temperature and rain- life-cycle of the group in general. The hope of adding to iall to the general circulation and local disturbances. We our knowledge of the nature of the “ cælom " and the can only refer here to one or two of the many interesting “ nephridea ” appears to have been the inducing cause points brought forward, e.g. the diagrams of the distribu- which led Mr. F. H. Stewart, I.M.S., to take up the study tion of barometric pressure at the surface of the earth and of the free nematode worm Oncholaimus (or Oncholaemus) at a height of 4000 metres showed that the gradients were vulgaris. The author's conclusions are summarised at the quite opposite in character, but it was explained that when end of his paper. In the third article Dr. Woodcock pubthese two pressure distributions were combined they pro- lishes the first part of a comprehensive review of the present duced the general circulation observed at the surface. state of our knowledge of the blood-parasites known as inother interesting feature of the lecture was a lantern the hæmoflagellates, or trypanosomes. The author lays slide showing the easterly drift of the surface wind-current stress on the extreme rapidity with which investigations at the winter quarters of the Discovery in the recent into the life-history of these minute organisms have been Antarctic expedition, and the westerly drift of the upper carried out, the realisation of the extreme importance of air shown by the smoke at the summit of Mount Erebus, such knowledge in respect to the prevention of disease also the confirmation of the latter motion by the observ- being mainly responsible for this advance. aion of the upper clouds.
CAPTAIN LAMB and Assistant-Surgeon Kesava Pai discuss GRASSHOPPERS and crickets (Locustidæ and Gryllidae) the occurrence of Mediterranean fever in India (Sc. Mem. from Paraguay, by Mr. A. X. Caudell, form the subject Gov. of India, No. 22). In seventeen cases carefully inof No. 1450 of the Proceedings of the U.S. National vestigated, complete agglutination reactions (carefully conMuseum.
trolled against normal individuals) were obtained, and, in The life-history of the warble-flies, Hypoderma bovis addition, from eleven of these cases a coccus corresponding ard H. line ala, the larvæ of which do so much mischief in all its characters with the M. melitensis was obtained to cattle in this country, is discussed by Mr. A. D. Imms by splenic puncture during life. in part iic of the first volume of the Journal of Economic
A CATALOGUE of microscopical slides, microscopes and Biology. Although “ warbles "—the tumours in the skin
accessories received from Messrs. Flatters and Garnett, of calile produced by the grubs of these insects-have been
Manchester, indicates that they are prepared to provide all familiar stock-owners and butchers from time
requisites for microscopical work. The list of botanical immemorial, it appears that we are still completely in the dark as to the mode in which the larvæ effect an entrance
and zoological slides is one of the most comprehensive and
practical we have seen; a variety of articles for natureinto their hosts, as it is still undecided whether they do so
study workers are also supplied. by penetrating the skin or by way of the mouth. THE Naturalist for May contains an excellent portrait
With the view of helping visitors to appreciate the Royal and biography of Mr. H. C. Sorby, in the course of which
Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin, a short guide, with plan of reference is made to the fact that the mechanical theory
the gardens, describing the more important attractions, has oi siaty cleavage is due to him, and that he was the first
been published by the director of the Science and Art
Institutions, Dublin. In addition to the features of interest to make microscopic rock-sections. The articles include ont on chalk belemnites, by Mr. C. D. Sherborn, and one
that the Glasnevin gardens show in common with similar on the senses of bats, by Mr. A. Whitaker, both illus
institutions, the specimens of Nepenthes distillatoria raised
from seed at Glasnevin, the original golden yew, and the tratrd. In the latter it is stated that bats are now ranked as the first suborder of the second great order Carnaria,
fine collection of palms are especially worthy of notice. instead of the last suborder of the first order Primates," Dr. D. H. Scott paid a graceful tribute to a fellowwhich leads us to wonder what text-book the author is worker in fossil botany in presenting a sketch of the life in the habit of using.
and work of the late Dr, B. Renault as his presidential