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Experience has shown that to hand this kind of equip- of the general adoption of the system. The comment over to other than specially trained men is certain

missioners, of whom Mr. R. T. A. Innes, the wellto end in failure. For the training of these men in

known Government meteorologist, was chairman, remethods of water purification the new School of Army commend that the kilogram, the metre, and the litre Sanitation has been established at Aldershot, where be adopted as the basis of the standards of weight special provision is provided for practical instruction and measure in the colony. An important resoluin every method and the working or trial of any new tion, which will go far towards making the public apparatus or chemical technique adapted for army

familiar with metric weights and measures, is that needs. The success of this effort has been already re- it shall be compulsory to use the system in land markable, demonstrating not only the feasibility of

surveying and in the retail sale of drugs. The purifying water for soldiers under field conditions, opinion is expressed that it will not be practicable to either by means of special filters, by heat exchange

insist upon the exclusive use of the metric system in sterilisers or by chemical reagents, but also showing general trade in the colony until the system is made the fitness of the men of the Royal Army Medical compulsory in the United Kingdom, unless the other Corps for this special work. The school is utilised South African colonies consider it feasible to combine also for instruction of men from every branch of the

for the purpose. service in general sanitary duties, and in this two

The commissioners have made a careful survey of fold way constitutes a centre for the dissemination of the question of weights and measures legislation, and practical sanitary knowledge and work to the whole their recommendations are embodied in a final draft Army.

ordinance the provisions of which are in many reIt is early yet to say what will be the final result spects a distinct advance on the enactments in force of this attempt, but everything points to the con

in this country. Thus the definition of "trade * clusion that the incidence of preventable disease in explicitly includes contracts for land, and so renders time of war must and will be reduced thereby. It is surveyors' measures liable to official verification. In gratifying, further, to record the sympathetic support

the United Kingdom, surveyors generally test their which the movement is receiving from a large number own measures as best they can. The definition of of general officers, commanding officers, and others * measuring instrument" includes instruments for the outside the medical corps; but there is much leeway measurement of area. A similar provision in this to be made up and much apathy and inertia to be country would be most beneficial to the leather trade overcome. This will be done only by the support of in preventing disputes, now of frequent occurrence, public opinion and interest, particularly of the scientific especially in the sale of hides. Short weight and public. Possibly this outline of the present position measure, and the practice of weighing the wrappers may appeal to them to see that the scheme of work with goods sold, are made distinctly penal. Prople here sketched out has free scope and opportunity to

defrauded by these practices in the United Kingdom evolve itself; in other words, that medical science is

have to seek their remedy in the county court, or in applied logically to the attainment of army efficiency, a prosecution for false pretences. and that disease prevention is regarded as much a It appears from the minutes of evidence appended function of the nedical corps as disease or wound to the report that much difficulty is experienced in the treatment.

R. H. FIRTH. Transvaal in getting assay weights standardised aith

accuracy, especially weights from 10 mg, downwards.

Certificates obtained some years ago from official THE METRIC SYSTEM OF WEIGHTS AND

institutions in Austria, England, Germany, and the MEASURES IN THE COLONIES.

United States were found to give very different values

for the same set of proportional assay weights. So THE question of the introduction of the metric far at least as England and the United States are

system of weights and measures into the United concerned, it is probable that at the period in question Kingdom has been before the public for more than the standardising institutions had had but little er forty years. An important step in this direction was perience in the verification of metric assay weighis. taken in 1897, when the Weights and Measures Within the last few years, however, both these depart. (Metric System) Act was passed which rendered it ments have been materially strengthened. The recent lawful to use metric weights and measures in this report of the newly-constituted Bureau of Standards country for the general purposes of trade. The at Washington sufficiently attests the high calibre 0 trading community as a whole has not, however, the scientific members of the present staff, whilst a manifested any eagerness to take advantage of this corresponding improvement has been effected in this permissive legislation, and, so far as retail trade is country by the appointment of Major P.

P. 1 concerned, the use of the nietric system appears to be MacMahon, F.R.S., to take charge of the Standards restricted to dispensing and a few vendors of system has been allowed to appear in the official ance to our colonies of the adoption of the metrin syllabus of our public elementary schools, but no system of weights and measures throughout the stress is laid upon it there, and its chief recommend Empire will be urgently impressed upon the Secretary ation is represented as being “ the advantage to be of State, and it is hoped that the Home authorities gained from uniformity in the method of forming will be induced to take a greater interest in this ques multiples and sub-multiples of the unit."

tion than they have hitherto evinced. The introdueBut although the metric system has made litte tion of the metric system into the United Kingdom is progress in this country, and has met with scant not indeed a task to be lightly undertaken. It woul official encouragement, the importance of its universal involve much hardship to small traders, and will adoption is becoming every year more fully recognised / derange the habits of the whole trading communito in our colonies. The report which forms the subject | Centuries of instruction in the "advantages of uniurt of this article is a very clear indication of the strong multiples of the unit " would not prepare the narius current of public opinion in the Transvaal in favour for so great a sacrifice. When so little has 1.-4

done by the authorities to familiarise the public with I "Report of the Commission appointed to consider and report upon a Drast Ordinance to consolidate and amend the Law relating to Weights and

the real significance of the question, it is not >11fMeasures." (Pretoria : Government Printing Office, 1906.)

prising that public opinion is on the whole unripe la comun

Tager beer: dielist true that for some tears past the Departhe forthcoming colonial conference the import



a change of such magnitude. These considerations Nicol appear among those who have sustained the scienare well understood in the colonies. Thus on p. 64 | tific reputation of Aberdeen. But it is not only with the of the report now under consideration we find the scientific side of culture in the University that the Royal statement :-" The United Kingdom is conservative Society has had interesting links. It is a pleasure to and unless this is forced upon theni it will never be remember that Thomas Reid, the father of Scottish philoadopted."

sophy, whose fame is one of the fairest pearls in the The question of the adoption of the metric system

chaplet of the northern University, contributed to the has not been brought forward in our colonies merely from considerations of relative practical utility or of

Royal Society in 1748 an essay upon quantity. In rememrelative scientific perfection, but owing to difficulties

brance of these varied associations of the past, and with experienced in commerce with foreign countries, and

sinccre wishes for their continuance in the future, the to the prospect of continual loss of trade. Until the Royal Society gladly adds its felicitations to those which United Kingdom, their very good customer, takes will this year come from all civilised countries to the the lead, they cannot afford to make the change. If University of Aberdeen. their loyalty in respect of weights and measures is thus in great measure enforced upon them, it is none We

regret learn of the death Wednesday, the less pathetic. Every day it is more effectually October 10, at the age of fifty-five, of Mr. Herbert Rix, shutting them out from the new markets which are assistant secretary of the Royal Society from 1885 to 1896. of vital importance to their commercial prosperity. Mr. Rix resigned his post ten years ago, finding that his So long as the public at home are taught that the strength would no longer sustain the greatly increased claims of the metric system are based chiefly on its

anxiety and burden of his office. He was already suffering decimal notation, so long will they remain uncon

from a weakness of the heart, which gradually developed vinced of the necessity for adopting it. On the other

during the following years. A year ago he was obliged to hand, if the true issues are placed before them, they are not likely to be inconsiderate in a matter which

relinquish nearly all active work, and the shock of his involves the interests of their most important colonies.

wife's death last August, as the result of an accident, had a disastrous effect upon him. Mr. Rix entered the service

of the Royal Society in 1879, as clerk under the late Mr. NOTES.

Walter White, then assistant secretary, whom he succeeded

six years later, his service to the society thus extending The following is the text of the address presented by over seventeen years. During this period a great extension Sir Arch. Geikie for the Royal Society at the recent of the activity of the society occurred, entailing a large celebration of the quatercentenary of the University of increase in the responsibilities of the executive and in the Aberdeen :—The Royal Society of London for Promoting amount of work thrown upon the office. Mr. Rix's bent Natural Knowledge sends cordial greetings to the Uni- was in the direction of the moral rather than of the exact versity of Aberdeen on the auspicious occasion of the

sciences, but he gave the best energies of a well-trained celebration of the four hundredth anniversary of its found- mind to the arduous duties of his position, and the simple ation. The Royal Society would more specially desire to directness of his character, his high principles, and his record its sense of the importance of the services which the kindly nature made him popular with all who came in l'niversity has rendered to the progress of science. From

with him. After retiring from the assistant its infancy the society has been privileged to count among secretaryship he retained for some years the position of its fellows distinguished professors and graduates of clerk to the Government Grant Committee, and continued Aberdeen, and this close and valuable association still con- up to the time of his death to act as secretary to the Lawes tinues. It is a gratification to recall that the illustrious Trust Committee. He devoted much of his latter years to family of the Gregorys, which for some two centuries shed the study of comparative religion, and was a frequent so much fame upon the University and upon Scotland, were lecturer on ethical subjects. He was a graduate of London from the beginning intimately linked with the Royal University. Society. James Gregory early reached such eminence in matheniatical and astronomical research that in 1668, when

The board of directors of the great manufacturing firm he was only thirty years of age, he was elected a fellow,

of Kynoch (Ltd.) has decided to introduce the metric six years after the incorporation of the society. His

system of weights and measures into all their works. A invention of a reflecting telescope, of which he had first

small committee has been appointed to consider the details conceived the idea, prompted Newton to proceed in a

of the change and to provide the necessary instruments, similar direction in order to evade the difficulties of

and as soon as the committee reports the change will be chromatic dispersion, and led to mutual regard and friendly

made. All the weights and measures used by the firm,

whether lineal, square, cooperation. To his brother David Gregory, who had the

or cubic, will be metric. For distinction of being one of the earliest effective promoters

money calculations the pound sterling will be adopted as of the Newtonian philosophy, the society is also indebted

the unit, and this will be subdivided decimally. for important communications published in early volumes

A REUTER telegram of October 11 from Basse-Terre, of the Philosophical Transactions. The obligations of

Guadeloupe, reports that a violent eruption of Mont Pelée physical science to Iberdeen did not end with the lives of

has caused a shower of ashes to fall over the south-east of the masters of the seventeenth century, for within living

Guadeloupe. memory the Cniversity has numbered among its professors the world-renowned pathfinder James Clerk Maxwell. To A New ZEALAND international exhibition is to be held, the progress of the study of medicine the same remark- under the auspices of the New Zealand Government, at able family of Gregory continued during successive gener- | Christchurch, Canterbury. The exhibition will be opened ations to make important contributions, while the fame on November 1, and will be terminated in April, 1907. of the medical school was in more recent years extended by A special feature is to be made of the representation of Allen Thomson. In natural science the well-remembered Maori life, and Poi dances and hakas will be arranged names of John Fleming, William MacGillivray, and James from time to time.




The annual meeting of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union rats dying of plague and transferred to healthy animals will be held at York on Saturday, December 15. Mr. W. transmitted the disease. The Hon. N. C. Rothschild colle Eagle Clarke, of the Royal Scottish Museum, will deliver tributes a paper on the species of Alea found on his presidential address, entitled “ Antarctic Bird-life,' Experiments on the infectivity of native floors grossly conwhich will be illustrated by a series of lantern-slides from taminated with B. pestis seem to show that they do not photographs taken during the National and Scottish ex- remain infective for more than twenty-four hours, peditions. Further details can be obtained from Mr. T. plague-infected rats as many as 100,000,000 bacilli may be Sheppard, the honorary secretary of the society, at the present in i c.c. of blood, and a few in the urine and facts Museum, Hull.

Chronic plague in rats was noted in six instances at a A FRUIT growers' conference will be held at the South

season of the year when neither human nor rat plagut

existed, suggesting that this possibly is the means by which Eastern Agricultural College, Wye, Wednesday, November 7. The chair will be taken by Mr. Laurence

the infection is propagated from season to season. Hardy, M.P., and an introductory address will be given The contents of the first part of the nineteenth volume by the principal of the college. The subjects to be con- of the Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria com sidered at the conference wi be :-Methods of planting, prise descriptions of new and little-known marine mollus a S. l'. Pickering, F.R.S.; strawberry culture, W. P. from the adjacent sea, by Mr. J. H. Gatliff, and of decapod Wright; treatment of American blight, F. V. Theobald ; crustaceans from the same, by Messrs. S. W. Fulton and and some fungus diseases of orchards and plantations, F. E. Grant, together with the first instalment of a census E. S. Salmon.

of the Victorian representatives of the last-named group We learn from the Times that unavoidable delay in the

by the same writers. completion of the latest addition to the Carnegie Institute Tue papers in the September issue of the Amerikan building at Pittsburg, Pa., has made it necessary to Naturalist chiefly interesting to histologists and change the date for opening the annual international ex- specialists. In the first Prof. A. W. Weysse and Mr. hibition from November 1 of this year to April 11, 1907. W. S. Burgess contribute an elaborate account of the This change has been made because the trustees desire the histogenesis of the retina, summarising their conclusions exhibition to be held in conjunction with the opening and at considerable length in tabular form. The marine rope. dedication of the building, which has been enlarged during | pod crustaceans of Rhode Island receive attention at t*** the past two years to about six times its original size. A hands of Mr. L. W. Williams, while Mr. R. H. How number of eminent men, representing the scientific, artistic, discusses the lichens of Mount Monadnock, New Hampand literary organisations and institutions of the world, shire. will be present at the dedication.

ANOTHER of those emendations in nomenclature which The new session of the Royal Geographical Society will are rapidly tending to make zoology an impossible sciente be opened on November 12, when a paper will be read on to all save the specialists in particular branches appears North-Eastern Rhodesia by Mr. L. A. Wallace. On in a paper on the “ digger-wasps ” of North America and November 19 Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner will deal with the the West Indies, forming No. 1487 of the Proceedings of subject of the Seychelle Islands, and on December 10 an the U.S. National Museum. According to the author. Ms account of irrigation in the United States will be given by H. T. Fernald, none of the insects which have been inMajor John H. Beacom. Other provisional arrangements cluded in the genus Sphex during the past century properly

as follows :-Polar problems, Dr. Fridtjof Nansen ; belongs to it. Consequently the species and subgenera se through Central Africa from the west coast to the Nile, long included under that generic designation now appear Lieut. Boyd Alexander; nine years' survey work in under the title Chlorion, while Sphex is made to include northern China and Mongolia, Colonel A. W. S. Wingate ; those hitherto known as Ammophila, a further change being a journey through Central Asia to northern China, Major the substitution of the subfamily Chlorionine for thir C. D. Bruce; the north magnetic pole and the north-original Spheginæ, and the transference of the latter, unde? west passage, Captain Amundsen; aboriginal India, Colonel the altered form of Sphecinæ, to the old Ammophilinde Sir T. H. Holdich, K.C.M.G.; a journey from Yunnan Fortunately (under its amended form of Sphecida) the to Assam, E. C. Young; the story of London maps, family name of Sphegidæ is retained for the whole group Laurence Gomme; the evolution of the map of Africa, | The author appears to have made an exhaustive study a! Edward Heawood ; inland waterways, G. G. Chisholm ; that section of the group he classifies as Chlorionina. the Taupo volcanic region, New Zealand, J. Mackintosh having examined, and when necessary re-described, all the Bell. At one of the meetings in the early part of next type specimens in American collections. vear an authoritative account will be given of H.R.H. the

To the June issue of the Proceedings of the Philadriphis Duke of the Abruzzi's expedition to Mount Ruwenzori.

Academy Mr. H. W. Fowler contributes the first part o IN 1904 an advisory committee was appointed by the a paper on American fresh-water “ heterognathous " fishes, Secretary of State for India to inquire into some of the

those usually classified under the family problems concerning pl je, and the first function of the

Characinidæ. In the author's opinion they should form advisory committee was to appoint a working commission

two families, for which the titles Erythrinid.x which has been investigating the disease in India ever Characidæ are adopted. Apparently, however, there is since. A series of reports on the work already accomplished no justification for the use of the name Characinide tee has just been published in a special number the Journal Characidæ), since there is no such genus as Characinus of Ilygiene (vi., No. 4). The first half of this contains or Characus. If but one family is recognised the narro the results of experiments on the transmission of plague | Erythrinidæ may be employed, but if two groups ar hy feas. Guinea-pigs allowed to run free in plague houses recognised a new title (such as Citharinida) is required. li in 29 per cent. of cases contracted plague, but if the may also be noticed that the author does not recognise to animals were kept screened by fine gauze, so that fleas preoccupation of Chirodon (or Cheirodon) by Chirodus had no access, they remained healthy. Fleas caught on The author has had access to all Cope's type-specimes






and proposes a number of new names, and he is of opinion Owing to the want of knowledge of the complete lifethat the information he conveys with regard to rare histories of many of the Uredinales, the classification of nominal species will be appreciated by naturalists.

the group is a matter of some difficulty. Prof. J. C. Museum technique is the leading feature of the five

Arthur presented an outline of a system of classification to articles (iour of which were read at the recent Bristol

the International Scientific Congress of Botanists at Vienna conference) in the September issue of the Museums Journal.

in 1905, that is published in their “ Resultats Scientifiques.” in the first, and perhaps most generally interesting, Dr.

Three orders, Coleosporiaceæ, Uredinaceæ, and Ecidiaceæ, Sorby discusses the mode of forming a collection to illus

are defined according to the nature of the teleutospores and trate the origin and structure of rocks. The material of their germination. Suborders are determined by the posirocks, such as sands and clays, should form the starting tion which the spores occupy in the tissues of the host point. This should be followed by illustrations of different plant. Finally, the genera in each suborder are grouped modes of deposition and sorting, while the consolidation of according to the development of one or more of the acidio-, deposits by infiltration, or by removal and replacement of uredo-, and teleuto-spore stages. material, claims the next place. The formation of con

In the annual report for 1905-6 of the botanic station, rictions, and various mechanical changes, culminating in

agricultural school and experiment plots in St. Lucia, siats-cleavage, complete the illustration of the genesis of

the superintendent, Mr. J. C. Moore, refers to tapping aqueous rocks, after which come illustrations of the form

trials made on trees of Castilloa elastica that point to a ation of the igneous series. The next three articles deal

yield of 2 Ib. of cured rubber for mature trees. The agrirespectively with the exhibition of coins, models of cultural instructor, Mr. G. S. Hudson, devotes a considerProtozoa, and the hanging and care of pictures. In the

able portion of his report to the subject of cacao, detailing filth Dr. J. E. Duerden describes a new method of pre

the results obtained on experiment plots. A new hybrid serving entire tortoises which deserves the best attention

plant has been produced by crossing Theobroma pentagona of museum curators, the specimens treated by this method

with Theobroma cacao. On the debated question of shade having, it is stated, a remarkably life-like appearance.

or no shade for cacao, Mr. Hudson says that shade and The report of the working of the Government Museum shelter are obviated partly in Grenada by close planting, at Madras for the past year is a record of steady progress. but he recommends for St. Lucia a light shade of Para The great collection of prehistoric antiquities recovered rubber trees or Erythrina indica, and wind belts of Inga from interments in the Nilgiri Hills by Mr. J. W. Breeks and others has now been increased by a splendid series of bronzes, iron weapons and implements, pottery, and human

We have received several of the recent issues of the bones from the excavations at Aditanallur, in the

Boletin del Ministerio de Fomento of Peru, a well-edited Tinnevelly district, conducted by Mr. A. Rea, and these

journal issued by the Department of Public Works. It have been arranged in a new gallery built for their re- contains much valuable information regarding the railways ception. Mr. Thurston, who usefully combines the duties

of the Republic. of curator with those of director of the Ethnographical

An admirable coloured geological map of Queensland Survey, has made his usual tours among the jungle tribes,

(Publication No. 206), on a scale of forty miles to the and has collected many curious implements, skulls, and

inch, has been received from the Geological Survey of other specimens. He has made a special anthropometric Queensland. It has been compiled under the supervision survey of that little-known tribe, the Chenchus of the

of Mr. B. Dunstan, acting Government geologist, by Mr. Nallamalai Hills. His materials enable him

H. W. Fox, and shows the mineral localities clearly marked establish the correlation, so far as the type of head is

in red. concerned, between the people of the Canarese, Maratha, and Telugu area, that is to say, the north-west and north- The Transactions of the Institution of Engineers and rast of the province, as compared with the Malayalim and Shipbuilders in Scotland (vol. xlix., part vii.) contains a Tamil dwellers in the south. This is interesting in con- valuable paper on equimomental systems and their use nection with Mr. Risley's speculations on the brachy- in applied mechanics, by Mr. R. F. Muirhead. The value crphalic Marathas. During these expeditions he used for of this principle has hitherto been regarded by engineers the first time an Edison's phonograph, by which he was as of academic interest, and in developing the principle able to secure records of tribal songs and music. Dupli- and in reducing the results to a form suitable for practical cates of these are to be sent to Mr. C. S. Myers for the application the author has done much to reduce the time Museum of Comparative Music at Cambridge. Mr. and labour of engineering calculators. Thurston finds the phonograph an admirable means of

The annual memorandum issued by the chief engineer of conciliating timid and suspicious jungle folk, who fear the

the Manchester Steam Users' Association deals with several ordinary anthropometric methods. No travelling anthro

subjects of importance to engineers, such as steam-pipe pologist, he says, should be without it.

explosions, the brittleness of steel plates, and boiler tests. A COLLECTION of diagnoses of new Philippine ferns, pre- Many steam pipes are badly designed, and may explode at pared by Mr. E. B. Copeland, forms the second supple- any time. They could, however, be made safe without ment to vol. i. of the Philippine Journal of Science. The much expense; and in order to encourage those dealing most striking novelty is an epiphytic plant of the nature with these matters to study the subject, a sketch is given of a Drynaria, receiving the name of Thayeria cornucopia, of a glass model which clearly shows the hammering action that is said to have a unique humus-collecting structure; of water when confined in steam pipes. In the section each leaf forms a complete receptacle, enclosing the humus dealing with boiler tests, particular stress is laid on the on all sides. New species are described for a number of carrying out of gas analysis with the greatest possible genera, including Alsophila, Cyathea, Trichomanes, Nephro- If this is done, it will be possible to utilise the sun lepis, Plagiogyria, &c. The writer revives the genus analysis for determining the chemical composition of the Schizostege, assigned to Cheilanthes by Baker and fuel, and for ascertaining at any instant what is the Pteris by Christ and Diels, for two new species.

efficiency of the heating surface.

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In Engineering (vol. Ixxxii., No. 2126) an abstract is duce the cost of material and running expenses and repairs,
given of a paper by Mr. A. R. Ledoux, presented to the enabling employers to lessen the cost of output, and make
American Institute of Mining Engineers, describing a new improvements in their plant to enable them to keep up to
method of mining kaolin. Deposits in the Housatonic date in their works and factories with all competitors.
River district in Connecticut were being worked at a loss,
owing to transport difficulties and to increase in expenses

During the past few years several theories have been caused by the dip of the vein, which ran at an angle of

advanced connecting the fluorescence of organic subabout 50 degrees from the vertical, between gneiss and

stances with their chemical constitution. A new hypothesis hornblende schist, and a footwall of rock. The material

is now suggested by Profs. Luigi Francesconi and G. is therefore now mined by well, by which method the

Bargellini, based on the examination of a very large number crude material is obtained with but little of the over

of substances by a very sensitive method which they have burden, &c. The wells are from 50 feet to 198 feet deep,

devised for detecting fluorescence (Atti dei Lincei, series 5, and contain a 4-inch, and, inside this, 2-inch pipe.

vol. w., No. 3). When a beam of sunlight is concentrated These go down gradually into the clay. Water at a pres

by a lens on a solution of the substance contained in a sure of about 40 lb. per square inch is forced through the

test-tube in a darkened box, and the liquid is examined smaller pipe, and on its passage upward carries with it

from above, the cone of light appears, in the case of fluor. about 5 per cent. of solid matter, of which 75 per cent. is

escent substances, of a different colour from that of the

solution. The striking fact has been elicited that aliphatic pure kaolin.

substances do not show fluorescence, and the same holds Much valuable information regarding the mineral re- true of alicyclic compounds in which fatty groups presources of Peru continues to be got together in the admir- dominate. It is contended that all aromatic substances are able series of monographs issued by the Government Corps

potentially fuorescent, and that a greater or less degree of Mining Engineers. In Boletin No. 29 Mr. Federico G.

of Auorescence is to be attributed to the presence of certain Fuchs describes the copper-bearing region in the vicinity groups or radicals which enhance or diminish the effect, of Ica and Nazca. His detailed description, covering 100

each group possessing a specific influence. pages, and his geological map show the importance of a mining centre that has long been neglected. In Boletin The chemical and electrical effects induced by ultraNo. 35 Mr. Enrique I. Dueñas reviews the mineral re- violet light in the case of certain elements have recentiy sources of Jauja and Huancayo. At the present time no attracted attention, and explanations have been advanced mines are being worked in these provinces, but the author based on the electronic theory of matter. In this connecshows that they are rich in coal, asphalt, copper, silver, tion an investigation of the photoelectric properties of gold, molybdenum, and iron. In Boletin No. 36 Mr. Luis anthracene, by A. Pochettino (Atti dei Lincei, series 5, Pfücker describes the iron-ore deposits of Aija and Calley- vol. xv., ii., p. 171), has a special significance. It has cancha. The ore, which occurs in veins, is of great purity long been recognised that anthracene is highly fluorescent, and richness, but the absence of fuel is, in the case of the and the author has recently proved that this fluorescence is Aija deposits, unfavourable to their development. The accompanied by “ ionisation" of the air in the neighbourCalleycancha veins are more promising owing to their hood of the anthracene. In the paper cited it is shown that proximity to the Mancos coalfield.

the photoelectric effect of anthracene is very nearly the sane The address delivered by Mr. James Adamson, hon.

as that of zinc, and that, as with zinc, the activity decats secretary

with time. This decay is, however, observed only when the the Institute of Marine Engineers, October 1, dealt in a scholarly manner with the advantages layer of anthracene exceeds a certain thickness (0-02 mm.), of a technical society.

and is attributed to the high dielectric properties of the To the individual member, the advantages are in the direction of mental exercise, and material, which, by allowing the accumulation of a positive consequent strengthening of the faculties of the mind ; in charge on the anthracene, arrests the ionisation effeci. The the direction of finding out, in the course of discussions original activity of anthracene which has completely lost with fellow-craftsmen, how troubles in connection with its photoelectric properties can be restored, not only by details have been met and difficulties overcome; in the leaving the material in darkness, but by exposing it during direction of social intercourse, and in exchanging experi- neutralise the positive charge. The decay of the activity

a few minutes to the radiation of radium, which serves to ences for mutual benefit. The advantages to the community of which the members of the society are units

with time is capable of being expressed by an exponential

Similar results noticed in the case of are in tending to improve the conditions of life and work

phenanthrene. The resemblance of the phenomena deall round; in tending to bring to the front, for the benefit of all, the latest improvements and developments ; the question, suggested by Armstrong and Lowry in ima.

scribed to those characteristic of radio-activity again raises in tending to educate the general public in respect to the

In various aspects of the world of science, and to give the

of the relationship of radio-activity and fluorescence

the case of anthracene, atomic degradation is hardis perbe people a better understanding of things within the domain of science. The advantages to the nation are in tending attributed to molecular transformation involving the chan

able; the fluorescence of anthracene is, indeed, generalis to improve the trade of the country by improving methods of one structure into another under the influence of light of manufacture; in tending to improve material and minimise risk of failure; in tending to lessen insurance tinguished from an atonic, change, caused by an externe'

Whether radio-activity is not also a molecular, as dos premiums by lessening risk of breakages, stoppages, and

stimulus, similar to, if not identical with light, is a disablements; in tending to the adoption of improved methods, material and appliances, with better conditions of question which naturally arises from the analogy presentas

by the two cases. upkeep and improved views in respect to upkerp and expenditure, to get the best results in immediate running An elaborate work on salt and salt mines is in course and prospective life average, thus minimising costs and of publication by Mr. W. Engelmann, Leipzig, for the economising capital outlay, with consequent advantages in Vienna Academy of Sciences, under the title “ Das Sale competing for the trattic of the world, and in tending to re- dessen Vorkommen und Verwertung in samtlichen Staate:





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