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collapse. It does not seem to be known in foreign coun- ing the animals with cultures during the insusceptible periud tries, but in the British Isles is met with particularly on was adopted, and proved a decided success on the large the west coasts of Ireland and Scotland, in Cumberland scale. Thus, with louping-ill, 1340 sheep were treated in and Westmorland, and in small, scattered areas throughout this manner, and a single doubtful death from the disease the country. Sheep of all ages may be attacked, and the occurred; with braxy, 1545 sheep were treated, and there mortality may amount to 20 per cent. or even more.

were nine possible (three being doubtful) deaths irou brazy Braxy is often a rapidly fatal disease. The animal goes among them. off its feed, is restless, the belly swells, it falls on its A remarkable discovery was made with regard to the side, becomes semi-comatose, and death soon ensues, the seasonal susceptibility and immunity. It was found that carcase having a characteristic odour. The disease prevails during the period of immunity the blood of the sheep proved in several countries of northern Europe, and in the British highly bactericidal towards the louping-ill and brazy Isles on the west coasts of Ireland and Scotland, central bacilli, while during the susceptible period the bacilli vere Wales, Westmorland and Northumberland, Cornwall, Wilts, not only not destroyed by, but grew well in the sheep's and Gloucester. Sheep under one year are the chief blood. sufferers.

As already indicated, the diseases are mostly communi A remarkable feature of both these (and certain other) cated by the fouling of the pastures by the dejecta. It diseases of the sheep is their seasonal prevalence; thus has been held by some that the sheep-tick plays a part in louping-ill and braxy are not met with during July and their transmission, but experiments showed that this could August, and the former is most prevalent from April to only be to a very insignificant extent. June, the latter from November to February.

The report, which is illustrated with a number of figure In the case of louping-ill, for a long time the specific and maps, is highly suggestive in many directions; the cause remained a mystery, carcase after carcase examined researches made promise to throw new light on the path

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showing no lesions, and inoculations of the blood, &c., ology of many of the contagious and infectious maladies a! failed to convey the disease from one sheep to another. man and the lower animals, and we congratulate Prai At last, examination of the Auid in the peritoneal cavity Hamilton and his collaborators on the valuable work they revealed the presence of a large sporing anærobic bacillus have done.

R. T. HEWLETT (Fig. 1), which, on inoculation into healthy sheep, conveyed the disease again and again. It was for a long time an enigma how this bacillus reached the peritoneal cavity, THE NEW MUSPRATT LABORATORIO the blood and tissues being free from it. Eventually, how- PHYSICAL AND ELECTROCHEMISTRY AT ever, in a diseased lamb the intestine was found to be

THE UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL swarming with the bacillus, and a long series of experiments proved that the organisms or their spores are taken THE laboratory of physical and electrochemistry. what in with the food, and if at the susceptible period of the the University of Liverpool owes to the munifarni year induce the disease in a large proportion of cases. The 'generosity of Mr. E. K. Muspratt, president of the cour! organism, being passed with the dejecta, fouls the pasture, of the University, was formally opened by Sir Willem and so the disease is propagated. Precisely the same holds Ramsay, K.C.B., F.R.S., on Saturday, October 13. The good for braxy, which, however, is caused by an organism' distinguished company which assembled in Liverpod .. different from the louping-ill bacillus, the braxy organism the occasion included, amongst others, the following wr.being also an anærobic sporing bacillus, but being much known

of science from abroad :- Prof. vaa! smaller and more delicate than the louping-ill bacillus (Leipzig), Prof. R. Abegg (Breslau), Prof. Ernst Codes (Fig. 2).

(Utrecht), Prof. H. Goldschmidt (Christiania), Prof. I_24+ Attempts immunise by

of injections of Miller (Toronto), and Prof. Macallum (Toronto). attenuated organisms or by chemical products of the On Saturday forenoon the guests inspected the organisms proved not only failures, but dangerous on laboratory privately, and were afterwards entertained account of the mortality. Taking into account the fact lunch by Sir John Brunner, Bart., M.P., at the l'inity that the organisms are intestinal, the happy idea of drench- Club, many other prominent men of science and letters ?

men

to

means

room.

Liverpool being also present. At 3 o'clock the opening with current at 4, 8 and 12 volts from a different set of ceremony took place in the arts theatre of the University, cells. Specially heavy cables and terminals are arranged a large and distinguished company being present. Mr. to permit of employing 1000 amperes (direct or alternating) E. K. Muspratt formally presenied the new laboratory to in the basement furnace room. The ground floor contains the University, and in a very interesting speech expressed a lecture room with accommodation for about ninety his conviction that physical chemistry was that branch of students, a preparation room, library, workshop, and chemistry which was most likely to advance knowledge photographic room. The second floor contains a junior at the present time. Sir John Brunner had founded the laboratory to hold twenty-one students, a balance and chair of physical chemistry at Liverpool. In order to com- switch room, an optical room, a room for three advanced plete this valuable gift a laboratory was necessary, and so students, research room for a member of the staff, and he (Mr. Muspratt) had resolved to build and equip a labor- an instrument store

The second floor comprises atory of physical and electrochemistry. He was glad to a senior laboratory for eight students, a balance and switch see that a considerable number of rooms had been reserved room, and four research rooms. On the roof there is a for research work in the new building. He wished to lavatory, a distillation room, and arrangements for carryemphasise in the strongest manner the necessity of researching out work the open air. being most actively carried out in the University. He All working benches are supplied with gas, water, and was convinced of the importance of electrochemistry, and electricity. The current is carried by uninsulated wire run so he had taken care that the new laboratory should have on the walls and ceilings by means of wooden battens an adequate electrical equipment.

and porcelain insulators, and terminating in slate panels Vice-Chancellor A. W. W. Dale formally received Mr. fixed on wooden battens above the working benches. Close Muspratt's gift on behalf of the University, the Earl of to each bench is a fire-proof slab constructed of compressed Derby, Chancellor of the University, not being able to be red Ruabon tiles set in cement. Each centre bench carries present. The Vice-Chancellor referred in glowing terms a sink at one end and a thermostat at the other. 10 the liberality and generosity of Mr. E. K. Muspratt, The architects of the building are Messrs. Willink and who had already increased his original gift of 10,000l. to Thicknesse, Castle Street, Liverpool. something like 14.000l. Sir W. Ramsay, in an interesting address, dealt with the paramount necessity of cultivating the "troublesome habit of thinking, as against the subconscious or semi-unconscious processes of brain action. It

UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL was the duty of the University to strive with all its power

INTELLIGENCE. to induce young men to cultivate independent thought. A

OXFORD.-Prof. Somerville, Sibthorpian professor of man might be a walking dictionary, but, if he was, he had all the defects of a dictionary--the words were there,

rural economy, has been elected to a fellowship at St. but they formed disconnected and desultory reading. The

John's College.

Mr. J. E. Marsh, F.R.S., Balliol College, has been power to be desired was not specially to remember the

elected to a fellowship at Merton College. words, but to build them up into living sentences. The chief duty of a chair of physical chemistry was to teach

Scholarship examinations in natural science have been men to think for themselves. He would advise that as

announced for the following dates :-December 4, Balliol,

Christ Church, and Trinity Colleges; December 1, Unisoon as might be the student of that fascinating subject should be induced by example, precept, sympathy, exhort

versity, Magdalen, and Lincoln Colleges; January 15, 1907, ation, and by all means whereby young human minds

Jesus College. could be influenced, to extend the bounds of their subject. CAMBRIDGE.—Dr. G. H. F. Nuttall, F.R.S., fellow of

After Sir John Brunner had moved a vote of thanks to Christ's College, and university lecturer in hygiene, has Sir W. Ramsay for his very interesting address, which been appointed the first Quick professor of biology; until was seconded by Prof. Donnan, the company adjourned to the Senate shall otherwise determine, to devote himself inspect the new laboratory. It five o'clock Prof. Ostwald to the study of the Protozoa, especially such as delivered a highly original and interesting, address on the disease, and generally to promote that branch of study. fundamental principles of chemistry, in which he showed Owing to the terms of the will of the late Frederick James that the phases occurring in nature are all solutions, and Quick, the professorship is not tenable for more than that the concepts of pure substances are only ideal limiting three years without re-election. cases. In fact, a pure

substance was simply a phase The voting on the proposed changes in the mathematical which, within certain limits, boiled or froze at a constant tripos will take place at 2 p.m. on Thursday, October 25. temperature. It was an artificial product. In the evening The Government of India has awarded Mr. A. R. Brown, the guests of the l'niversity were entertained to dinner “ Anthony Wilkin " student in ethnology and archæology, at the University Club by the Liverpool section of the the sum of zool. to assist him in carrying on his researches Society of Chemical Industry.

amongst the natives of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, The following brief description of the new laboratory Mr. H. Yule Oldham, the reader in geography, will may be of interest to the readers of NATURE. The build- give a course of public lectures this term on the history ing, which is connected with the main chemical institute, of geographical discovery, Thursdays 5 p.m., contains a basement, ground, first, and second foors. The beginning to-day, in the Sedgwick Museum. basement includes a dynamo room, battery room, furnace The Clerk Maxwell scholarship is vacant by the resigroom, store, and a research room for six students. The

nation of Mr. O. W. Richardson, who has accepted a generating plant consists of motor-generators driven off the professorship at Princeton, New Jersey. Candidates for city mains at 460 volts, and comprises a 30-kilowatt the scholarship should send their applications to Prof. J. J. direct-current generator supplying current at 80-100 volts, Thomson. a 10-kilowatt charging set consisting of two machines on the same axis each giving 250 amperes at 20 volts, and an 80-kilowatt alternator with two windings to give 1000

MR. J. W. McBain has been appointed lecturer in amperrs at 80 volts or 500 amperes at 150 volts. The chemistry at University College, Bristol. Mr. McBain is charging set is emploved to charge in sections a battery

a graduate of the University of Toronto, and has also of thirts-six Tudor cells, divided up into six sets of six

studied for several years in Germany. cells, so that different floors or rooms may have the use

New physical and engineering laboratories were opened of separate sets. Vertical cables carry the current from

at Edinburgh University on Tuesday. Mr. Balfour prethe machines and accumulators four distributing

sided over the ceremony, and an address on the progress exchange-boards (one on each floor), whence run circuits

of scientific research was given by Mr. Andrew Carnegie. (10 carry 50 amperes) to the working benches. It is possible by means of flexible connections to connect up on The British Medical Journal states that the authorities the exchange-board the terminals at each working bench of the Victoria University, Manchester, have received a with the required voltage. From the battery switch-board sum of 5000l. from the trustees appointed under the will three wires run to each of three exchange-boards, the of the late Miss Middleton, and have allocated this amount arrangement being such that each of the latter is supplied towards the endowment of the chair of anatomy.

cause

on

at

to

The year-book of the Michigan College of Mines, a Swindon ; Jchn M. Robertson, Pembroke Dock; John C. pamphlet of 132 pages, accompanied by an atlas of views Nixon, Southsea; Thomas W. Page, Ipplepen, Newton showing the methods pursued and the facilities for prac- Abbot; Charles A. Brearley, Halifax ; William F. Cobbett, tical instruction afforded by the immediate surroundings, Gosport; Herbert Schofield, Halifax. National Scholar has been received. Established in 1885, and situated in ships for Mechanics :-Henry S. Rowell, West Benwell, the centre of the Lake Superior mining district, the college Newcastle-on-Tyne; Joseph J. Brooks, Devonport; Albert furnishes an excellent practical and theoretical training in C. H. Connor, Gillingham, Kent; Frederick Hickey, Southmining and kindred subjects.

sea; William H. Mead, Southsea. Free Studentships for

Mechanics :- Arthur C. Lowe, Harrogate ; Frank R. Bloor, A COURSE of eight lectures on “ The Carbohydrates and Gillingham, Kent; John Airey, Bradford, Yorks. Vational their Relations to Living Organisms " will be given in the Scholarships for Physics :-Douglas V. Plumbridge, Isle physiology department of University College, University worth ; Andrew McCance, Glasgow; Thomas Royds, Oldof London, by Dr. S. B. Schryver, on Wednesdays at

ham; Henry J. Lomax, Darwen; John N. Brown, London, 5 p.m., beginning on Wednesday, October 24. These

Free Studentship for Physics :-Edward F. Pattenden, lectures are open to all students of the University of

Whitstable. National Scholarships for Chemistry London, also to qualified medical men on presentation of

Arthur Bramley, Elland, Yorks; Harold W. Atkinson, New their cards, and to such other persons as are specially Mills, Stockport; Fred Bridge, Burnley ; William A. Vaish, admitted.

Handsworth, Birmingham; Norman M. Comber, Brighton; A COURSE of four lectures on the “ Phylogeny of the

Percy G. Ward, Brighton. Free Studentship for ChemHigher Crustacea will be given in the zoological lecture istry Henry V. A. Briscoe, London, National Scholar. room of University College, London, by Dr. W. T. Calman,

ships for Biology :-Rowland M. Richards, Manningham, at 5 p.m., on Wednesdays during October and November,

Bradford ; James H. Orton, Bradford, Yorks; Katie beginning on October 24. The lectures are for advanced

Barratt, Swanley, Kent. Free Studentship for Biology: students of the University and others interested in zoology. James L. Thompson, London. National Scholarships for There is no fee for the course ; cards of admission may be

Geology :-Abraham Haworth, Burnley ; Arthur T. Cundy. obtained on application to Mr. P. J. Hartog, academic

Redruth; Ernest Lee, Burnley, registrar of the University.

At the distribution of prizes at the Royal Technical At the opening of the winter session at St. Andrews Institute, Salford, on October 11, Mr. H. B. Knowles, the University on October 12, Principal Donaldson announced principal, read an encouraging report. Speaking of the that the Lord Rector, Mr. Carnegie, has offered 10,000l.

value of the training, given in day technical schools, he to build such an addition to the University library as will

said :-" It may be that a youth who has left school at provide ample space for all the books of the University,

the earliest moment allowed by the law will at the age and a room where students can read with perfect quiet

of seventeen or eighteen have secured a position better and with easy access to whatever they may require. Mr.

paid than the one a student obtains immediately on leaving Carnegie has also promised a donation of 11,500l. for a

technical day classes, although in many cases the training

received has given immediate access to physical laboratory at University College, Dundee.

a career which

would otherwise have been inaccessible. The proper time According to Science, improvements have been made for such a comparison would, however, be some hali-dozen during the summer at Cornell University which will greatly years after ; and I have weighty reasons for my confidence strengthen the scientific work. New and enlarged quarters that then it would be found that the two or three years have been provided for the engineering department and spent in technical departments had been in every respect the departments of geology, physics, and biology. Quanti- a most profitable investment. The principal also directed tative and organic laboratories have been provided for the attention to two important developments in connection with chemical department. A large amount of apparatus has the Salford arrangements for the current session. First, been secured for the different subjects. By the death of the the correlation between the work at the institute and the sister of the late Mr. W. W. Guiteau, the University will work in evening schools has been made more real by the receive the legacy left by him, said to amount to between stipulation that all applicants for admission to the institute 20,000l, and 40,00ol.

under sixteen years of age shall, before admission, pass

an examination in English and mathematics, Secondly, The Board of Education, South Kensington, has issued

courses of instruction suitable for students occupied in the the following list of candidates successful in the competi- various trades, and extending over four or five years, have tion for the Whitworth scholarships and exhibitions,

been arranged on the basis of attendance at classes on 1906 :-(1) Scholarships (tenable for three years), 1251. a three evenings per week. An added inducement to take year each :- Frederick G. Turner, London; William E.

these courses has been offered by making the fee for Hogg, London ; Sidney G. Winn, London ; Samuel Lees,

course small as compared with the fees for the in. Manchester.—(2) Exhibitions (tenable for one year), value

dividual classes constituting the course. A great improve50l. :—William F. Cobbett, Gosport; William H. Mead,

ment in the quality of much of the work is experted as a Southsea; Arthur Williams, Brymbo, Wrexham; James result of this arrangement. Bradley, Hollinwood, Lancs; George E. Morgan, Portsmouth; Albert C. H. Connor, Gillingham, Kent; Edgar J. Mitchell, Devonport ; George O. Dawe, Devonport; Ernest Bate, London ; Henry W. Turner, Portsmouth; William

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.
H. C. Coombe, Devonport; Edwin M. Vigers, London ;
Ronald E. Widdecombe, Saltash; Frederick R. Rogers,

LONDON.
Devonport; Frank H. Cothay, Sunderland ; Sidney Vernon,
Abbey Wood, Kent; Frank R. Bloor, Gillingham, Kent;

Royal Society, February 15.-" Observations on the George W. Burley, Meersbrook, Sheffield ; Robert James,

Labyrinth of Certain Animals.' By Dr. Albert A. Gray. Pembroke Dock; Sidney C. Gladwyn, London ; Frederick

The labyrinths of six animals were examined, and the C. Worton, London; John Airey, Bradford, Yorks;

conditions found may be summarised as follows:- The Charles A. Wright, Preston; William G. Weaver,

labyrinth of the lion presents the usual features of the Brighton; William E. Stokes, London ; Thomas B. Bardo,

Carnivora. The cochlea is of the sharp-pointed type, ard Sheerness; Alfred Bailey, Oldham; John S. Buchanan,

there is hardly any evidence of a perilymph space in tire Cambuslang. Glasgow; Albert E. Palmer, Sunderland ;

semicircular canals. The Indian gazelle has a cochleam! Henry W. Maskell, London.

a fat type, and there is a trace of a perilymph space in

the canals. In the three-toed sloth the cochlea is of a The following list of successful candidates for Royal flat type. The canals are almost square, and the peri. exhibitions, national scholarships, and free studentships | lymph space is well marked. The labyrinth of the wallabs (science) has just been issued by the Board of Education, is like that of the ungulates, but two largo otoliths are South Kensington :--Royal Exhibitions : Walter H. Stock, present in the vestibule.

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Among the birds the ostrich is peculiar, owing to the fact values of k, and kn, the velocities of the + ve and that there is no communication between the posterior and ions under a field of one volt per centimetre :superior canals at the point at which they cross. The

ki cochlea is also very short. The crested screamer has a

ka relatively long cochlea, and the superior canal droops some

2 00
2:495

411 what backwards.

195
2'40

399
1.85
2-30

383 May 10.-" The Mechanism of Carbon Assimilation in

1.81

2'21 Green Plants: the Photolytic Decomposition of Carbon

1.67

2.125 Dioxide in vitro. By F. L. Usher and J. H. Priestley.

160
2 00

333 For summary of this paper see NATURE of October 11 1939

1785

285 (p. 604).

0.945
123

209
0'235
0'235

94 June 14.—“ Studies on Enzyme Action. Lipase, II.” By Prof. Henry E. Armstrong, F.R.S., and Dr. Ernest When k, and k, are plotted against the temperature we Ormerod.

see that between the temperatures 209° and 411° k, and Inasmuch as the ethereal salts which are hydrolysed k, seem to be proportional to the absolute temperature, but under the influence of lipase are all compounds of the type at 94°k, and k, seem to be equal, and much smaller R'.CO.OX', it cannot well be supposed, as R' and X' than would be given by this linear law. may be varied within wide limits, that the selective action Making use of the kinetic theory of gases, we can arrive of the enzyme is exercised with reference either to R' or at the following expression for k, and kg :to X': consequently the controlling influence must be attributed to the carboxyl radicle (CO.O); the enzyme

412 must be so constituted that it can“ fit itself to this group."

k= ?X The problem to be solved is—why should ethereal salts derived from the lower terms of the acetic series be so much less readily hydrolysed than the higher ? The where X is the field in absolute units, e the charge on differences in stability do not account for the differences in the ion, a the mean free path of a molecule, m the mass behaviour of homologous salts; in fact, ordinary hydrolytic of a molecule, v the mean molecular velocity of the moleagents appear to act more readily on the lower terms. cule, and the number of molecules in an ion. Making Nor can the difference be attributed to the destruction of

use of the values of k, and k, given above, we obtain the the enzyme by the acid which is liberated from the salt, following values of n, and ng : as this destructive effect can be avoided by diluting the solutions to the necessary extent. Their experiments have Temp., abs led the authors to form the provisional hypothesis that the 94

4.63

4.63 hydrolysis of the ethereal salt by lipase involves the direct 209

1.82 association of the enzyme with the carboxyl centre and

285

1976 that such association may be prevented by the “hydra

1.64

134 tion" of this centre : consequently, that those salts which 411

152

1'25 are the more attractive of water will be the less readily hydrolysed. The facts generally seem to be in accordance

When n, and n, are plotted against the temperature they with this view, inasmuch as the solubility in water of

show a very rapid increase as the temperature of liqueethereal salts diminishes as the series is ascended ; salts

faction of air is approached. This is what might be such as ethylic formate and acetate undoubtedly tend to

expected, as the ions in a vapour near its liquefaction form hydrates (hydrols) in solution, such as

temperature are usually large. At the upper temperature

the curve shows no very marked tendency, so that it is OH

difficult to predict what might happen at a higher temperaCH,.CO. OE+ OH.=CH.;.CIOEI) OH:

The fact that n varies continuously, and not in jumps, A noteworthy result in harmony with the view is the would seem to show that there is a continual exchange fact that ethylic malate is but slowly acted upon by lipase going on between ions and uncharged molecules; at some in comparison with ethylic succinate and that ethylic collisions several molecules remain attached to the ion, tartrate is practically unaffected. The explanation of the while at others one or more of them is knocked off, and differences to be observed between animal and vegetable so a dynamical equilibrium is set up. As the temperature lipase is probably to be sought for rather in differences in of the gas rises, the collisions are more violent, and, their emulsifying power than in peculiarities inherent in statistically, fewer molecules are attached to an ion ; this the lipoclast. The main difficulty the investigation pre- gradual change would go on until the collisions became sents lies in securing uniform conditions ; if an effective so violent that at times corpuscles would be shot off withcomparison is to be made between ethereal salts, it is an out even a single molecule attached to them. When this essential condition of success that the substances compared happened the velocity of the ion would very rapidly increase be in solution. Peculiar difficulties are encountered on this with the temperature, and so we might expect in flames account in studying the action of lipase from various those very rapidly moving ions which consist of single sources on fatty substances.

unloaded corpuscles for an appreciable fraction of their

existence. June 21.-" Tonic Velocities in Air at different Temperatures." By P. Phillips. Communicated by Prof. J. J. " Note Opalescence in Fluids the Critical Thomson, F.R.S.

Temperature." By Prof. Sydney Young, F.R.S. The object of this paper is to find at different tempera- The experiments described by Travers and Usher were tures the velocity in an electric field of the ions produced mostly carried out at constant volume, the temperature bv Röntgen rays in air at atmospheric pressure. The being raised very slowly. In the author's experiments method used for determining the velocities is that devised the substance was kept at its critical temperature, and the by Langevin in 1902, and published in his Recherches volume altered by equal stages. The tubes emploved were sur les Gaz jonisées,” Paris, 1902.

much narrower. Where comparison is possible the observThe general arrangement of the apparatus is very little ations confirm those of Travers and Usher, and the followdifferent from that used by Langevin, the only serious ing generalisations may be deduced from them :-(1) When difference being that the vessel containing the electrodes i observations were made during compression no opalescence is made so that it may be immersed in baths at different was visible until a definite volume was reached : opaltemperatures.

escence then appeared at the bottom of the tube, that is The velocities have been found at temperatures ranging to say, just over the mercury; on further compression the from - 1799 C. to + 138° C., and the following are the opalescence or mist became denser, and extended further

ture.

on

near

up the tube; near the critical volume the mist was very

DIARY OF SOCIETIES. dense, especially near the middle; continuing to compress,

THURSDAY, OCTOBER 18. the mist disappeared below, but became dense above; the

CHEMICAL Society, at 8.30.- Presentation of the Longstaff Medal to Prs clear part extended upwards, and the mist finally dis

W. Noel Hartley.-The Amino-dicarboxylic Acid derived from Pinene : appeared at the top of the tube. When observations were W. A. Tilden and D. F Blyther.–The Preparation and Properties of made during expansion the phenomena were very similar, Dihydropinylamine (Pinocamphylamine): W. A. Tilden and F. G except that the mist was usually lower down in the tube.

Shepheard. -Determination of Nitrates: F. S. Sinnatt -The Satare os

Ammoniacal Copper Solutions: H. N. Dawson. - Malacone, a Silicate ai (2) The limits of volume between which mist was visible

Zirconium containing Argon and Helium : S. Kitchen and WG were much the same for the four paraffins examined, about Winterson.—The Relationship of Colour and Fluorescence to Constits. 1.17 or 1.18 to 0.87 or 0.88 (critical volume=1.00). (3) At

tion, Part i., The Condensation Products of Mellitic and Pyrome! itic

Acids with Resorcinol: O. Silberrad.-The Colouring Matters of the slightly higher temperatures the mist was much less dense

Stilbene Group, Part. iii. : A. G. Green and P. F. Crosland.-1) Separ. and the range of volume more restricted. It seems prob- ation of aa. and BB-Dimethyladipic Acids ; (2) Action of Alcobolis able that the position of maximum opalescence depends on Potassium Hydroxide on 3.Bromo-1 : 1-Dimethyl-bexabydrobenzere the volume, but further investigation is desirable.

A. W. Crossley and N. Renouf.-(1) The Compounds of Pyridine with
Dichromates ; (2) The Normal Chromates and the Unsaturated Character

of the Chromate Radical : S. H. C. Briggs.-(1) Interaction of Succinic June 28.—“ The Alcoholic Ferment of Yeast-juice. Acid and Potassium Dichromate, Note on a Black Modification of Part ii.-The Coferment of Yeast-juice. By Dr. Arthur Chromium Sesquioxide ; (2) Derivatives of Polyvalent lodine : the Active Harden and W. J. Young Communicated by Dr. C. J.

of Chlorine on Organic Iodo-derivatives, including the Sulphonium and

Tetra-substituted Ammonium lodides: E. A. Werner,-(1) New Deriva. Martin, F.R.S.

tives of Diphenol (4-4'.Dihydroxydiphenyl); (2) The so-called "Beozidine Experiments have been made on the nature of the

Chromate and Allied Substances : J. Moir.-The Interaction of the dialysable, thermostable substance contained in yeast-juice, Alkyl Sulphates with the Nitrites of the Alkali Metals and Metals of the

Alkaline Earths : P. C. Ray and P. Neogi upon the presence of which the fermentation of glucose

INSTITUTION OF MINING AND METALLURGY, at 8.-The Auriferoas by yeast-juice depends, and to which the name coferment Rocks of India, Western Australia, and South Africa ; M. Maclaren. is provisionally applied. The inactive residue, obtained by Sand Sainpling in Cyanide Works: D. Simpson.- Treatment of the filtration of yeast-juice through a Martin gelatin filter,

Precipitate and Manipulation of the Tilting Furnaces at the Rediarg. has been prepared in a solid form, which is quite inactive

Lebong Mine, Sumatra : S. J. Truscott.- A Combined Air and Waler

Spray: T. White. when dissolved in glucose solution, but is rendered active

FRIDAY, OCTOBER 19. by the addition of filtrate or of boiled yeast-juice. This INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.- Discussion : Railway solid retains its potential activity for a considerable time.

motor-car Traffic : T. H. Riches and S. B. Haslam. -Paper : Sore When a small quantity of boiled yeast-juice is added to a

Notes on the Mechanical Equipment of Collieries : E. M. Hann. solution of this inactive residue in 10 per cent. glucose,

SATURDAY, OCTOBER 20. fermentation commences, and continues for a period vary

Essex Field CLUB (at Epping). - Annual Fungus Foray-all day Meetias. ing with the amount of boiled juice added. The cessation

- The Ecology of Fungi : George Massee. of fermentation appears to be due to a change in the coferment, since the addition of a further quantity causes a repetition of the phenomenon.

CONTENTS.

PAGE Floral Biology. By F. D. ...

бо; PARIS. Single.phase Commutator Motors

606 Academy of Sciences, October 1.-M. H. Poincaré in the volcanic History of Auvergne. By Prof. T. G. chair.-Remarks by M. Berthelot on his work entitled

Bonney, F.R.S.

607 Traité pratique de l'Analyse des Gaz."-Some new amples of

Our Book Shelf:

L. Rosaceæ containing hydrocyanic acid : Guignard. In addition to the plants mentioned by the

Stonham: “The Birds of the British Islands” ... 637 author in earlier papers on this subject, the names of Rice and Torrance: “ The Manufacture of Concrete twenty additional genera are given from which hydrocyanic Blocks, and their Use in Building Construction" . Óos acid has been obtained. The earlier experiments have also

James and Sands : “ Elementary Electrical Calcula. been made quantitative, and it has been found that the

tions”

60S amounts of the acid obtainable depend on the age of the organs of the plant. The leaves nearly always furnish the Letters to the Editor : highest proportion of prussic acid, and in certain cases Biometry and Biology: A Rejoinder.-Prof. Karl the proportion is nearly as high as that given by the leaves Pearson, F.R.S.

60$ of the cherry laurel.---The ravages of Loxostega

Radium and Geology.--Hon. R. J. Strutt, F.R.S. 610 (Eurycreon) sticticalis in the cultivation of beet-root of the Central Plateau : Alfred Giard. For some vears this

The Rusting of Iron.-J. Newton Friend

610 parasite has been well known in North America as

Optical Illusions. — Douglas Carnegie

610 dangerous enemy of the beet. More recently it has caused Ethnology of Southern India. (Illustrated.)

611 great damage to beet culture in Russia, but France has

Medical Science and Army Efficiency. By Lieut.. hitherto escaped this pest. This year, possibly owing to Colonel R. H. Firth

612 the unusual dryness, it has taken firm hold of some regions of the Midi, in some districts more than 90 per cent. of

The Metric System of Weights and Measures in the roots being affected. The author describes in detail

the Colonies

614 the measures necessary to eradicate the parasite.—The Notes ...

613 periodic trajectories of electric corpuscles in space under Our Astronomical Column:the influence of terrestrial magnetism, with application to Comet 1906e (Kopi)

org the magnetic perturbations : Carl Störmer.-The constituents of the alloys of manganese and molybdenum :

Jupiter's Seventh Satellite

619

010 G. Arrivaut. The preparation of alloys rich in molyb- Observations of Variable Stars denum is difficult in the furnace, but easy when a suitable Sun-spot Spectra Observations

619 mixture of the oxides is reduced with aluminium. From Condensation Nuclei. By C. T. R. Wilson, F.R.S. 019 the ingots thus obtained the compounds Mn, Mo, Mn Mo, Botanical Congress at Hamburg. By T. J.

6:1 and Mn Mo, have been isolated.–Syntheses in the quinoline series. Dihydrophenylnaphthoquinoline

Meteorological Observations carboxylic ester and its derivatives : L. J. Simon and Diseases of Sheep. (Illustrated.) By Prof. R. T. Ch. Mauguin.-The existence of stable veast forms in Hewlett Sterigmatocystis versicolor and in Aspergillus fumigatus, The New Muspratt Laboratory of Physical and and the pathogenic nature of the yeast derived from

Electrochemistry at the University of Liverpool. 624 the latter type : G. Odin.-The fenétre” of the Plan University and Educational latelligeace . . .. 633 du-Vette and the geology of Haute-Tarentaise : Kilian.-A leakage between impermeable zones in cal

Societies and Academies . careous subsoils : E. A. Martel.

Diary of Societies

628

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