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LONDON COUNTY COUNCIL. PADDINGTON TECHNICAL INSTITUTE,
SALTRAM CRESCENT, W.
ADVANCED & ELEMENTARY PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY,
MATHEMATICS, BOTANY AND ZOOLOGY. Well equipped Laboratories. Full Courses, Day and Evening, arranged for Intermediate and Final B.Sc. of London University, &c. PRINCIPAL
A. G. COOKE, M.A.
H. REYNOLDS, B.Sc., Ph.D.
|F. E. MATTHEWS, Ph.D., F.I.C.
J. H. VINCENT, M.A., D.Sc.
F. SLATOR, M.A., B.Sc.
T. LATTIMER, M.A. BOTANY & ZOOLOGY... W. CROSS. Prospectus can be obtained on application to the SECRETARY at the Institute.
G. L. GOMME,
Clerk of the London County Council. Education Offices,
Victoria Embankment, W.C.
BREAMS BUILDINGS, CHANCERY LANE, E.C.
FACULTY OF SCIENCE. DAY AND EVENING COURSES, under Recognised Teachers of
the University of London.
(ALEX. MCKENZIE, Ph.D., D.Sc., Chemistry
ALBERT GRIFFITHS, D.Sc.
D. OWEN, B.A., B.Sc.
B. W. CLACK, B.Sc. Mathematics
SE. H. SMART, M.d.
TC. V. COATES, M.A. Botany
V. H. BLACKMAN, M.A. Zoology ..
H. W. UNTHANK, B.A., B.Sc. Geology & Mineralogy J. W. EVANS, D.Sc. Assaying, Metallurgy & Mining. Geo. PATCHIN, A.R.S.M. RESEARCH in ('hemistry and Physics in well-equipped laboratories.
French, German, Spanish, and Italian Classes. EVENING CLASSES in Biology, Pbysiology, Practical Geometry, Building and Machine Construction. Theoretical Mechanics, Applied Mechanics and Mechanism, Land and Quantity Surveying.
Calendar 3d. (posi free 5d.), on application to the SECRETARY.
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Prospectus may be had post free from the Vice-PRINCIPAL, University Tutorial College, 32 Red Lion Square, Holborn, W.C.
ACTING IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE LONDON CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. WHITE ST., and ROPEMAKER ST., MOORFIELDS, E.C.
(Near Moorgate and Liverpool Street Stations.) PRINCIPAL: SIDNEY HUMPHRIES, B.A., LL.B. (Cantab.)
EVENING CLASSES in ALL BRANCHES of SCIENCE.
Well-equipped LABORATORIES for Practical Work in CHEMISTRY, BIOLOGY, BOTANY, GEOLOGY, and all branches of PHYSICS.
Special Courses for London University Matric., Inter., and Final B.A.. B.Sc., Conjoint Board, Pharmaceutical and other examinations. Classes are also held in all Commercial Subjects, in Languages, Literature and Art All Classes are open to both sexes. SATURDAY COURSES for Matric., Inter., and Final B.A., B.Sc DAY COMMERCIAL and HIGHER COMMERCIAL SCHOOLS. Prospectuses, and all other information, gratis on application.
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SHIPS, and PROFESSIONAL PRELIMINARIES Tuition in Latin, Greek, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Mathematis, Mechanics, Physics, Chemistry, Psychology, Logic, Political Ecunorry. Book-keeping.
The staff includes graduates of Oxford, Cambridge, London, and Royal Universities
Address Mr. J. CHARLESTON. E.A., Eurlington Correspondence College, Clapham Common, London, S. W'.
THE SIR JOHN CASS TECHNICAL
CHARLES A. KEANE, M.Sc., Ph.D., F.I.C.
Chief Metallurgist, Royal Gun strator
Factory, Woolwich Arsenal, Elementary, Intermediate and Advanced Metallurgy. forming a graded three years' curriculum. Special courses on Assaying. Metallography, including Pyrometry. The Metallurgy of Gold and silver. The Metallurgy of Iron and Steel.
The courses are suited to the requirements of those engaged in Metal. lurgical Industries, Assay Laboratories, and to those intending to take up Metallurgical work in the Colonies.
The Laboratories are open to students in the afternoons for practical work.
For details of the Classes apply at the Office of the Institute, or by letter to the PRINCIPAL.
W. H. DAVISON, M.A., Clerk to the Governing Body.
Close to Seaside and Lake District.
farms, dairy, and workshops,
BELFAST. MUNICIPAL TECHNICAL INSTITUTE. The Library and Technical Instruction Committee invite applicaties for the position of HEAD of the DEPARTMENT of PCRE and APPLIED CHEMISTRY. Salary, £350 per annum.
Forms of Application and Conditions of Appointment may be bad from the undersigned.
Applications must be lodged on or before MONDAY, November 5, at 12 (noon). Canvassing is prohibited and will disqualify.
FRAS. C. FORTH, Principal. Municipal Technical Institute, Belfast.
October 13, 1906.
(UNIVERSITY OF LONDON.) The Council invite applications for the post of DEMONSTRATOR of PHYSIOLOGY. Salary, 675. Applications should be sent is by November 26. For conditions apply
BALLIOL COLLEGE, CHRIST CHURCH, AND TRINITY COLLEGE,
OXFORD. A Combined Examination for Natural Science Scholarships and Exhibi. 11075 will be held by the above Colleges, beginning on TUESDAY, DECEMBER 4, 1906.
Three Scholarships and two Exhibitions will be offered ; with one exception the value of these endowments will be 480 a year.
The Subjects for Examination will be Physics, Chemistry, and Biology. Candidates will not be expected to offer more than two of these.
l'articulars may be obiained by application to D. H. NAGEL, Trinity Cilege, Oxford.
NOTICE. In January, 1907, the Senate will proceed to appoint a whole-time officer as RÉGISTRAR of the UNIVERSITY on a salary of Rs.800 per mensem, rising to Rs. 1000 in five years by four annual increments of Rs.50. Appli. cations for the post must reach the undersigned on or before December 17, 1906. ndidates are required to send printed copies of their testimonials. Canvassing will be considered a disqualification.
The Registrar will be appointed in the first instance for five years only, but at the end of every such term he may be re-appointed. He must be a graduate of position with experience of University affairs. He may be a member of the Senate, but not of the Syndicate. The duties of the Registrar will be as follows :(a) To be the custodian of the Records, Library, Common Seal, and
such other property of the University as the Syndicate will
commit to his charge. (6) To act as Secretary to the Syndicate and to attend all meetings of
the Senate, Faculties, Syndicate, Boards of Studies, Board of Accounts, Boards of Exaininers, and any Committees appointed by the Senate, the Faculties, the Syndicate, or any of the
Boards, and to keep Minutes thereof. () To conduct the official correspondence of the Syndicate and the
Syndicate, Boards of Studies, Board of Accounts, Boards of
Faculties, ihe Syndicate, or any of the Boards.
scribed by the Syndicate, and generally to render such assistance as may be desired by the Vice-Chancellor in the performance
of his official duties. It is competent to the Syndicate to grant to the Registrar, on full pay, leave of absence for one month in a year, or for an accumulated period not exceeding four months in five years. It is also competent to the Syndicate to grant him, on half pay, leave of absence which may be added to the period of leave on full pay for a period not exceeding eight months in five years.
It is competent to the Syndicate to grant to the Registrar a gratuity or pension regulated as follows:(a) Alter a service of less than ten years, a gratuity not exceeding one
month's salary for each completed year of service. (6) After a service of not less than ten years up to twenty-five years, a
pension not exceeding one-sixtieth of the average salary (1.c., the average calculated upon the last three years of service)
multiplied by the number of years of completed service. (c) The pension will, in no case, exceed Rs.5000 per annum. In case of misconduct or neglect of duty, the Registrar shall be liable to suspension by the Syndicate, and to dismissal by the Senate on the report of the Syndicate.
The selected candidate will be required to join his post by the middle of February, 1907. He will continue to hold office not later than March 31, 1912.
C. LITTLE, Registrar. Senate House,
September 7, 1906. UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF SOUTH
WALES AND MONMOUTHSHIRE, COLEG PRIFATHROFAOL DEHEUDIR CYMRU A Mynwy. The Council of the College invites applications for the post of DEMON. STRATOR and ASSISTANT LECTURER in GEOLOGY.
Further particulars may be obtained from the undersigned, to whom applications, with testimonials (which need not be printed), must be sent on or before Thursday, November 22, 1906.
J. AUSTIN JENKINS, B.A., Registrar. October 20, 1906. ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS
OF EDINBURGH. The office of SUPERINTENDENT of the Laboratory of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh is vacant. Applications for ihe position will be received until November 1, 1906.
For information regarding duties and emolument apply to the SECRETARY, Royal College of Physicians, 9 Queen Street, Edinburgh. TO SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICAL
MASTERS.-Immediate and January (1907) Vacancies. --Graduates in Science and other well qualified Masters seeking posts in Public and other Schools should apply at once, giving full details as to qualifica. tions, &c., to Messrs. GRIFFITHS, SMITH, POWELL & SMITH, Tutorial Agents (Estd. 1833), 34 Bedford Street, Strand, London. Immediate
notice of all the best vacancies will be sent. DEWSBURY TECHNICAL SCHOOL.
WANTED at once, an ASSISTANT SCIENCE MASTER to teach boys in Elementary Science, and to help in the Evening Classes (Chemistry and Physics). Must be a good disciplinarian. Salary, £100. Apply, with testimonials,, not later than Monday, October 29, 1906, to
. F. LEE, Secretary. A Teacher of Experimental Physics required
at once at the Woolwich Polytechnic. Experience of laboratory work essential. Remuneration until April, 1907, 6100.- Apply for further particulars to the PRINCIPAL, enclosing stamped addressed foolscap envelope.
NOTICE. In January, 1907, the Senate will proceed to appoint a salaried INSPEC. TOR for the purpose of inspecting Colleges affiliated to this Universiiy. Applications for the post are hereby invited, and they must reach the un. dersigned on or before December 17, 1906.' Candidates are required to send printed copies of their testimonials. Canvassing will be considered a disqualification. The appointment will be made by the Senate subject to the approval of Government.
The Inspector of Colleges will be appointed in the first instance for five years only, but at the end of every such term he may be re-appointed. He must be a person of high academic standing and one possessing some experience of Indian Colleges. He will be a whole-time officer of the University, and his salary will be Rs.800 per mensem, rising to Rs. 1000 in five years by four annual increments of Rs.50. He may be a Fellow of the University, but must not be a member of the Syndicate. The duties of the Inspector of Colleges will be :
(a) To report on Colleges applying for affiliation.
by the Syndicate. It is competent to the Syndicate to grant to the Inspector of Colleges, on full pay, leave of absence for one monih in a year, or for an accumulated period not exceeding four months in five years. It is also competent to the Syndicate to grant him, on half pay, leave of absence which may be added to the period of leave on full pay for a period not exceeding tight months in five years.
The Inspector of Colleges may, with the permission of the Syndicate, avail himself of the College vacations.
The Syndicate may grant to the Inspector of Colleges a gratuity or pension regulated as follows :(a) After a service of less than ten years, a gratuity not exceeding
one month's salary for each completed year of service. (6) After a service of not less than ten years, up to twenty five years,
a pension not exceeding one-sixtieth of ibe average salary (it., the average calculated upon the last three years of service)
multiplied by the number of years of completed service. (c) The pension will, however, in no case, exceed Rs.5000 per annum. In case of misconduct or neglect of duty, the Inspector of Colleges will be liable to suspension by the Syndicate and to dismissal by the Senate on the report of the Syndicate.
The selected candidate will be required to join his appointment by the middle of February, 1907.
He will continue to hold office not later tban the Annual Meeting of the Senate in January, 1912.
C. LITTLE, Registrar. Senate House,
September 7, 1906.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT. Applications are invited for the post of SENIOR LECTURER and DEMONSTRATOR. Applicants must have had a University education, must have been engaged for at least three years in a responsible capacity with a first-class electrical engineering firm, and for at least one year in scientific laboratory and teaching work at a University or Technical College.
Applicants must state age, course of study and practical experience, appointments held, and enclose copies of testimonials (not originals). If the applicant has published any scientific or technical papers, a list of these may be given.
The selected applicant will be required to act as the Professor's Assistant in preparing demonstrations, organising and supervising the laboratory work of the students, and generally attending to the technical work and the accounts of the Electrical Engineering Department under the direction of the Professor. He may also be required to give lectures.
The appointment to commence on January 1, 1907. The stipend to be 6250 per annum.
Applications to be sent on or before November 24 to the undersigned, from whom surther particulars may be obtained.
GEO. H. MORLEY, Secretary, Wanted, Mechanic for University Laboratory,
good all-round metal and wood worker with experience of electrical machines and installation. Knowledge of glass blowing a recommend
ation. - Apply, stating wages, to “ MECHANIC," c/o NATURE. PLATINUM.-£5 1os. per oz. now given for
old platinum crucibles, scrap, &c. 500 ozs. urgently needed during November.-R. OLPHERT, Jeweller, 19 Elm Grove Parade, Barnes, Surrey. Bankers : London, City and Midland (Barnes).
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Things which appear to contradict general experience or scientific principles, with popular explanations
of the how and why.
By W. HAMPSON, M.A. Oxon., L.S.A. Lond.
With 8 Full-page Plates and numerous other Illustrations. 6s.
This is a book for popular reading ; a book of puzzles drawn from nature and experiment, with the solutions given by science. The jinrikisha and the boomerang, the use of fire to produce water and of water to produce fire, a liquid that boils under 350 degrees of frost, a clock that never stops and never wants winding, evidence that the seeing eye is blind, and that the hand which feels the warmer is the colder—these and a hundred other apparent contradictions of commonsense and the laws of nature, have their difficulties clearly set forth, and receive explanations which, while strictly in accordance with the best and latest teaching, are intelligible to all.
CASSELL & CO., LTD., LONDON,
THURSDAY, OCTOBER 25, 1906.
It varies from causes which need only to be stated
to be accepted. The water is heaped up in places by THE GEOLOGICAL HISTORY OF SEA-LEVEL.
wind and rivers. Elsewhere it is lowered by rapid The Face of the Earth (Das Antlitz der Erde). By lower level by the greater weight of the salter water.
evaporation, and the surface is maintained at the Prof. Eduard Suess. Translated by Dr. Hertha
Thus the surface of the Mediterranean, according to B. C. Sollas, under the direction of Prof. W. J: Suess, is funnel-shaped, the lowest part of the funnel Sollas. Vol. ii. Pp. vi + 556; illustrated. (Oxford : being in the area of especially salt water in the neighClarendon Press, 1906.) Price 255. net.
bourhood of Crete. Variations in wind and rainfall THE 'HE first volume of this translation has been
or in the course of rivers; the reduction in the lateral previously reviewed in NATURE, and we
attraction of the land, in consequence of its denudarenew our congratulations to the translator on her tion; the retardation of an on-shore current by inadmirable rendering of this great work. Prof. Suess's creased friction due to shoaling, may all lead to a eloquence depends on his ideas and his poetical local retreat of the sea. Thus Suess attributes a raised imagery, and thus his writings suffer less by transla- beach near Bombay to sedimentation having checked tion than those of most men. Doubt may be felt the incoming tide, and thus caused a local depression whether some of the proposed equivalents of technical of sea-level. The apparent effect of these causes on terms, and such words as quer-Andian, will be gener- the shore-line would be the same as that produced by ally adopted in English. In reading the volume it is
an actual uplift of the land. As the retreat or necessary to remember that the original was pub-advance of the shore-line may be produced by the lished eighteen years ago. The French translation, oscillation either of the land or of the sea, Suess edited by M. de Margerie, was brought up to date objects to the usual terminology, which always speaks and illustrated by additional maps; but this edition
of the uplift or subsidence of the land. To avoid exactly follows the original, and does not even add unproved assumptions he speaks of negative and the date of its first publication. We are, however, positive movements, according as the sea-level falls frequently reminded of its age by such statements as
or rises relatively to the adjacent land. Sir Archithat the Arctic Ocean is “ of very trifling depth,” or bald Geikie has suggested terms—the emergence and that the author cannot hazard a guess as to the struc- submergence of the land—which are equally nonture of the Celebes. In many cases the facts stated committal, and have the advantage of being selfare now known to be incorrect; but later research has explanatory. The encroachment or retreat of the sea removed Prof. Suess's difficulties probably more often may be a merely local incident or it may be a worldthan it has added to them.
wide phenomenon; in the latter case, Suess speaks of The main purpose of this volume is the statement it as a eustatic movement, and explains it as due to of the evidence for Suess's contention that continents
an increase or reduction in the capacity of the ocean are never uplifted in mass, and that the occurrence of basins. A negative movement, i.e. an emergence of raised shore lines and horizontal sheets of marine
the land, would be caused by an increase in the depth rocks is due to the lowering of sea-level, and not to of the oceans by a subsidence of their floor, which lets the raising of the land. Suess, therefore, returns to
the water fall away from the land. pre-Playfairian geology, for Playfair maintained that
This volume may be considered in two sections; in the level of the land is less stable than that of the sea.
the first chapters Prof. Suess states his heterodox docThis apparently improbable conclusion became, owing trine, and the mass of stratigraphical evidence in its to the brilliant advocacy of Lyell, the fundamental support. In the second section he examines the leadprinciple of the Uniformitarian school of geology. ing cases relied on by the champions of secular eleva
The contrary view dismissed by Herbert tion of the land. These two sections of the book Spencer as one of the gratuitous assumptions of what
appear of unequal value, for they deal with movements he called “illogical geology." Nevertheless, it is of probably different character and origin. The first now advocated by the geologist who has probably part describes the great movements of emergence and the widest general acquaintance with geological litera- submergence which are world-wide in their range; ture, and is gifted with a scientific insight that has Suess's greatest service to geology has been his rematerially advanced each of the many branches of cognition of this fundamental fact and its consegeology to which he has given his attention.
quences. It is a most helpful discovery, and Prof. Prof. Suess's argument is that a continental uplift Suess offers us the only reasonable explanation yet is impossible. A continent may subside, but it cannot advanced. The evidence is summarised by Suess in be uplifted in mass. Rocks may be raised locally chapters ii. to vi. of this volume. Therein he describes uhen uptilted during the formation of a mountain
and compares in detail the coasts of the Atlantic and chain; but he denies the possibility of the uniform the Pacific, and gives a summary of the geological uplist of widespread masses composed of irregular history of the oceans. The striking resemblance in materials. The sea has certainly encroached at times the lithological succession in some of the geological upon the land, and has at others receded; but instead systems in remote parts of the world can only be exof these changes being due to the sinking and rising plained on the assumption that they are controlled by of the land, Suess maintains that they are due to some world-wide agency; this, Suess's fundamental variations in sea-level.
proposition, seems to be supported by the general That the sea-level is not uniform is indisputable. evidence of stratigraphical geology.
The second division of the subject is the discussion
REFUSE DESTRUCTORS. of the leading cases which have been used to prove i (1) The Disposal of Municipal Refuse. By H. de B. the actual uplift and subsidence of the land, such as Parsons. Pp. x+ 186. (New York: John Wiley the raised shore lines of Norway and northern Europe, and Sons; London : Chapman and Hall, Ltd., 1906.) the bored pillars of the Temple of Serapis, near Naples,
Price 8s. d. net. the raised beaches around the Baltic, and the sub-|() Garbage Crematories in America. By W. M. merged peat bogs and forests on the British coasts. Venable, M.S. Pp. x+ 200. (New York: John Suess examines these cases in detail, and denies that Wiley and Sons; London : Chapman and Hall, Lid., they give any evidence of secular uplift. He rejects 1906.) Price 8s. 6d. net. what are generally considered some of the best estaba (1) THE cauthor has not attempted in this book to lished of
with designtilting of Scandinavia. Suess denies these popular ing of the details for the final disposal of city refuse, conclusions, and during his argument claims that both but rather to set forth clearly the principles underLyell and Darwin mistook kitchen middens for raised | lying the sanitary and economic handling and desea beaches. Suess examines the evidence in detail struction of such material. The book owed its origin for each case, and maintains that the inferences based to certain designs which Mr. Parsons was engaged on it are invalid. The shore-lines of Norway he upon in connection with the disposal of the refuse of claims to have been formed along the shores of glacier- the city of New York, and as a result the bulk of the dammed lakes. The Temple of Serapis, he maintains, appliances and plant which the author describes are has no connection with secular movements, because it those which are employed in the Empire City, and is actually in the breached crater of a volcano. Sub- there is a number of excellent reproductions of photomerged forests, he points out, may be due to growth graphs of the methods adopted in that city both for behind storm beaches, or on land along a low shore collecting and for disposing of the refuse'. which has sunk by the shrinkage of an underlying In chapter iii. it is shown that the general refuse water-logged bed. The raised beaches around the for which a method of collection and disposal must inner Baltic he explains by the gradual lowering of be provided can be divided into five classes: the water by the emptying of that sea. The slow (1) ashes; (2) garbage; (3) rubbish; (4) street steepemergence of the north Baltic shore is, therefore, ings; and (5) snow; and tables are given to show according to Suess, the consequence of a climatic the average composition of the first four of these, and change, not of earth movement; and Suess the weight which has to be collected annually advances evidence to prove that the level of the a number of selected American cities; in New York southern Baltic has been constant throughout historic the refuse varies from 2.6 lb. to 4.9 lb. per head per times.
diem. The methods of collecting the various classes The latter part of this volume is perhaps of most of refuse are then dealt with, and the author rightly popular interest, but it is the least convincing part lays stress on the absolute need of arranging the of the “Antlitz,” and perhaps the least essential to collections at regular intervals, and of the use of Prof. Suess's main position. Suess admits some cases properly designed, covered, and water-tight carts; the of uplift, as at the Temple of Serapis, and he admits important problem of cleansing streets crowded with that some of the lower Norwegian shore-lines are true vehicular traffic is also briefly discussed. sea beaches We may accept Dr. Günther's evidence In the next two chapters the methods of disposal showing that the uplift near Naples was somewhat are taken up, and the various systems in use conwider than Suess adınitted, or accept a slow uprise trasted and compared; such processes as those of of the land near the great lakes of America, without dumping on land or dumping in water should never rejecting the doctrine that the major changes in the be permitted; they are hopelessly insanitary; one of range of the sea are due to changes in its level. Suess the illustrations—" Disfigurement of Beach by Dumponly briefly refers to the phenomenon of isostasy; and ing at Sea ”-is a striking instance of the abominthe work of Colonel Burrard in India shows that the able results which may arise from such cheap and plumb-line agrees with the pendulum as to the un- nasty methods. Mr. Parsons is evidently of opinion equal density of the blocks in the earth's crust; and that the reduction process (only applicable when the therefore some areas may have been uplifted to restore garbage is separately collected), by which oil and that hydrostatic equilibrium at which others are still grease are extracted and sold, can never be made a upheld.
paying process, and it seems, therefore, highly unThe second division of this volume shows that the desirable to put up plants of this nature, when they easy inference that every submerged forest and every are liable to produce such serious nuisance from foul raised beach involves a movement of the land is not smells. It is pointed out that the incineration process, justified. Suess shows that they can be explained which has been such a success in the cities of England without any assumption of earth movements. Each and Germany, has so far not been adopted on a large case must be judged on its merits. We can accept scale in the L’nited States, but the author considers either the explanation of a limited emergence or sub-that this method is bound to become more and more mergence of the land without rejecting Prof. Suess's common in the States; where it has been a failure it main proposition that, in the geological past, the is entirely due to faulty design of the destructors, major changes in the range of the sea have been due and to the desire unduly to cheapen first cost. to variations in its level.
J. W. G. ('ndoubtedly the form of civic government in