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GEOLOGICAL STUDIES IN SOUTH AFRICA. the glacial Dwyka conglomerate were traversed (Fig. 2). THE Report of the Geological Survey of the Transvaal The boulder-bed, as described in supplementary notes by

Mines Department for 1904 (Pretoria, 1905, price | Mr. Mellor, does not seem more than 50 feet thick, and 75. 6d.) is a folio volume, issued at a very moderate is associated with sandstones. It was laid down, as in price. It contains twenty-three plates, from which our other cases, on a land-surface eroded by streams, and the figures are reductions, and two large coloured maps, original topography is now being revealed by the denuding the latter being conveniently placed in envelope action of the Elands River and other agents.

Mr. A. L. Hall (p. 37) describes the geology of the tin fields north-east of Pretoria, where the ore occurs promisingly in a rock of greisen type; and Mr. Mellor (p. 45) deals with the picturesque area of Rhenoster Kop. The Permian glacial striation in this district, seen on the uptilted Waterberg Sandstones, has an almost constant direction of S. 33° E. After other papers on special districts, Mr. S. M. Tweddill describes some of the rocks collected, and has been allowed a handsome series of photographic plates, showing his thin slices in ordinary light and with crossed nicols. The latter figures are produced by the three-colour process, but it is questionable if much is gained by them. Colour-photographs of the sections in ordinary light would probably be more effective, and would equally serve to confirm the author's determinations. The “ acicular crystals of Clay-slate" in the description of Plate XV.a puzzle us not a little, especially as in the text on p. 76 the “ stellate forms are similarly said to be clay-slate."

country Fig. 1.-Weathering of granite on characieristic kopje near Chuniespoort, N. Transvaal.

where everything depends on fieldrelations, where the scale of pheno

is large, where the mention at the end. The cessation of topographical work in the of new discovery suggests comparison with somecountry must in future hamper systematic geological thing else a thousand miles away, one probably exmapping, and the Geological Society of South Africa has pects too much from the petrographer. One can imagine already approached the Colonial Secretary in Pretoria on the prospector, who has returned bronzed and muscular the subject (Proc. Geol. Soc., S. Africa, 1906, p. liv). It after his days upon the veld, reading the bare descriptions might be thought that military considerations alone would be sufficient to place an accurate map among the first requirements of the colony.

The director of the Survey, Mr. Kynaston, describes a traverse of the country between Pretoria and Pietersburg, during which he visited the remarkable Salt Pan, some twenty-five miles N.N.W. of Pretoria. This lake, which is about as salt as the Dead Sea, lies in a circle of granite hills, 250 feet below their crest, and about 200 feet below the general level of the country on their outer side. Its salts include 72.70 per cent. of sodium chloride and 27.25 per cent. of sodium carbonate. Except that an explosive origin has been suggested by Cohen, no adequate explanation of the hollow is as yet forthcoming. Considering, moreover, the antiquity of the last volcanic eruptions in this area, a crater of explosion ought to have become long ago filled up by products of denudation. One feels tempted to ask if it is possible for the materials filling an igneous neck to sink back long after they have solidified. Could the fragmental materials so common in South African Fig. 2.-Weathering of Permian glacial conglomerate, showing the original boulders, Toitskraal, pipes behave in this way? Mr. A. W.

Elands River. Rogers has cited

where the weathering of these necks has caused hollows at the of rocks with a certain irritation. If they could be inserted surface; but the Salt Pan near Pretoria is 200 feet to in connection with the account of the masses in the field, 250 feet in depth.

their true interest would at once appear, for the South On Mr. Kynaston's return journey from the mouth of African of all men has a pleasurable keenness for geology. the Elands River, the most northerly known outliers of This fact is well attested by the publication of the dis

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cussions that take place at the meetings of the Geological | evening the committee of the exhibition entertained the Society of South Africa (Proceedings of the Society for members of the conference at dinner. 1905), and by the considerable space given to written On October 2 the members went to Pavia, where M. criticisms and replies. The Transactions would be very Gamba showed them over the observatory, and liberated incomplete without these additions, which may be com

ballons-sondes. After visiting the university the mended to the notice of many publishing societies in our members were entertained at luncheon by the municipality islands. Dr. F. W. Voit, for instance, read a paper

of the town. (Trans. Geol. Soc., S. Africa, vol. viii., p. 106) on The second meeting was held on October 3 under the September 4: 1905, entitled “ Preliminary Notes presidency of Prof. Assmann and M. Teisserenc de Bort.

Fundamental Gneiss Formation in South Africa,” in Dr. Erk urged the necessity of making ascents in the which he claimed that the gneisses of the Limpopo Flats ' neighbourhood of the Alps for studying local phenomena, correspond to the fundamental formation of the continent such as the Föhn. M. de Quervain explained a method of Europe. At the meeting three members contributed of using small pilot balloons for determining the winds at structural and mineralogical details from their own note- , different altitudes; small india-rubber balloons books (Proc. for 1905, p. lvii), recorded with an altogether liberated and watched with a theodolite; assuming that admirable clearness of expression. The full paper was the balloon ascended with uniform velocity, it was possible read on October 30, 1905 (Trans., p. 141). Dr. Voit to determine its course from one station. Prof. Hergesell points out, in agreement with his predecessors, that the spoke very highly of the method which he had used at main granite is intrusive in the Swaziland beds,“ long Strasburg and elsewhere, and mentioned that in Spitsdrawn out lenses of quartzite, chlorite, actinolite, and bergen he had watched the balloon to a distance of 80 kiloother schists, swimming, as it were, in a granite magma.' metres. M. Ebert explained his method of determining But the Limpopo gneisses are, for him, still older, and the deformation of the electrical equipotential surfaces in he looks forward to finding the granite intrusive in them the neighbourhood of a balloon, and exhibited a also. By the way, we must object to his using, on p. 145, apparatus for measuring the ionisation of the air. the term “interbedded igneous sheets" for intrusive The third meeting was held in the afternoon of October 3 masses that have come up along planes of fracture in the under the presidency of Colonel Vives y Vich and Mr. granitoid mass. On November 20 (Proc. for 1905, p. Ixv) | Cave. General Rykatchew and M. Riabouschinsky read the author sent in a letter in which he supported his views the reports of the work of their observatories. M. de by quoting Mr. Anderson's observations in Natal, and on Quervain read a paper on the thermal inertia of thermoDecember 18 Messrs. Sandberg and Jorissen made a reply meters used in kite and balloon ascents. In connection to Dr. Voit, in which Credner is cited as their authority, with this an important discussion took place on the relative in a manner that almost recalls the Wernerian discussions value of ballons-sondes and kites for the study of the air of a hundred years ago. The bottom, if we may speak up to 5000 metres or so. Prof. Hergesell strongly advoirreverently, is here knocked out of the “Urgneissform- cated the use of balloons in preference to kites; General ation" with considerable vigour, and the references to Rykatchew and M. Berson thought that kites were far European literature, though disfigured by a few misprinted more suitable. place-names, add zest to a spirited discussion.

Mr. Rotch read a paper on the ascents of ballons-sondes Dr. Hatch, in his presidential address (Proc. for 1906, in America, and General Rykatchew read a paper on the P. xxv), refers to Dr. Voit's suggestion, and remarks that temperature gradient as observed at Pavlovsk. the Limpopo gneiss may be only “a sheared or meta- Prof. Hergesell explained a method of recording, vertical morphic portion of the granite.” The address, on the movements in the atmosphere by attaching a log geological history of the South African formations, covers balloons. M. de Quervain gave proofs of the reality of ground on which much has been written, and on which the isothermic zone. silence might now conveniently be preserved, until some In the morning of October 4 the members visited the of the critical questions touched on can be decided by aëronautical section of the exhibition, and ballons-sondes new and indubitable evidence.

were liberated by M. Gamba, M. Teisserenc de Bort, and Mr. J. P. Johnson (Trans. Geol. Soc., S. Africa, vol. Prof. Hergesell. In the afternoon the fourth meeting was viii., p. 135) describes and illustrates primitive stone held under the presidency of Mr. Rotch and M. Scheimpflug: implements from the plateau of the Victoria Falls. Mr. General Rykatchew described M. Kouznetzow's method Lamplugh directed attention to these (Report of Brit. of determining the height of clouds at night by means of Association for 1905. p. 300) as being possibly older than a search-light, and gave some of the results obtained at the excavation of the Batoka Gorge, and Colonel Feilden Pavlovsk. M. Köppen, M. Teisserenc de Bort, and Mr. has already urged their importance upon the readers of Rotch observed that the method had been used at Hamthis Journal (NATURE, vol. lxxiii., p. 77). We trust that burg, in France, and in America. Mr. Alexander read a we have said enough to show that geology in the best communication the forms of propellers for flying sense, as a critical and comparative science, flourishes in machines. the dusty and inchoate city of Johannesburg. Probably M. Moedebeck urged the necessity of having descriptive there is no part of the world where geological phenomena charts for aëronautical purposes that would show, for plar so large a part in the thoughts of cultivated men. exampie, dangerous places such as those where there were

GRENTIILE 1. J. COLE. wires carrying currents at a high potential. M. Scheim

pflug gave an account of his method of making maps from

photographs taken from balloons. M. Teisserenc de Bort TËRONJITICS AND METEOROLOGY. read a report on the necessity of extending the number of

stations at which ascents are made, and Prof. Hergesell

said he would make every effort to carry out this suggesof Scientific Aëronautics was held at Milan, and com- tion. Prof. Palazzo said he hoped that he would shortly menced its sittings on October 1. The conference was be able to establish a kite station on Mount Etna. M. formally opened by Prof. Celoria, representing the com- Hinterstoisser then gave a lecture on aëronautics from the mittee of the Milan Exhibition, M. Gavazzi, representing points of view of science and sport, and illustrated it with the municipality, Prof. Palazzo, and Prof. Hergesell, lantern-slides. president of the commission.

On Friday, October 5, M. Mangili, president of the A large number of representatives attended the committee of the exhibition, entertained the members in ference; Mr. Dines represented the Meteorological Office, an excursion by steamboat on the Lago Maggiore. It had and the other English meinbers were Major Baden-Powell, been proposed to make kite ascents, but this proved Mr. Patrick Alexander, and Mr. Charles Cave.

impossible owing to want of wind. Prof. Hergesell The first meeting for the discussion of scientific ques. . attempted to demonstrate his method of dropping ballonstions was held in the afternoon of October i under the sondes at

Unfortunately his apparatus had not presidency of General Rvkatchew and Prof. Palazzo. Prof. arrived, and the ballon-sonde sent up did not come down as Hergesell read his report, and various questions were dis- / soon as was intended, and was last seen at a great height cussed relating to the business of the conference. In the and still ascending.

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The fifth meeting was held on October 6 under the schools as we are to-day to open for Edinburgh. We all presidency of M. Köppen and Mr. Dines. Prof. Hergesell know where Glasgow stands in modern branches of educa. explained his method of making balloon ascents at sea. tion. Aberdeen has just been supplied with new buildings 'Two balloons are used, one being held by a fastening that efficiently equipped for the study of science and medicine. can be opened electrically; a small battery is sent up with No less than eleven new chambers have been assigned to the instruments, and the electromagnetic release can be modern studies, to meet pressing demands. The University worked by a contact actuated by the barometer, or by a of London recently separated economics and enginers. contact on the recording drum of the instruments; the ing from arts, and established separate faculties. It is latter has been found the better method in practice. One also announced that owing to the unrivalled facilities found balloon being released, the system slowly falls, until a in the metropolis, it has to be prepared for the advent of float hanging below the instruments touches the water; new schools of practical study, or research. In the new the balloon is inflated so as to hold the instruments above Universities of Liverpool, Manchester, Birmingham, Lerds, the sea, the foat alone touching the water. Both M. and Sheffield, modern studies are to be paramount. They Teisserenc de Bort and Prof. Hergesell stated that they are to resemble the American type. Harvard University are designing a method by which instruments may be has just been left 800,oool. sterling for an institute of dropped from ballons-sondes by wireless telegraphy; the technology, but as one of the foremost of such schools is former also hopes to be able to detach kites by the same in Boston, she has proposed union with that, and offered method. M. Teisserenc de Bort thought that for work on if needed new buildings, part of the University. land, when for any reason the height of the ascent had McGill University. Montreal, has just had handed over to be limited, his method of using paper balloons was to to her the agricultural college built by Sir Wm. Macdonald be preferred.

at a cost of 600,000l. Thus the millions are nox being Baron von Bassus exhibited an instrument for reading devoted to science and practical studies, theology and the records of kite and balloon ascents. He claimed that classics being in the opinion of donors already amply prohis instrument would give readings with great accuracy, vided for. This betokens a steady march forward front and that simultaneous points on the different curves could the policy of the past, not that it is desirable to exclude be obtained easily. He thought that by its use small any of the former university courses, but there should inversions of temperature could be detected that were often be added others needed to guide and advance the new overlooked.

knowledge which is creating new conditions. M. Teisserenc de Bort then gave an account of the ex- I judge Scotland to be as far and as happily advanied pedition to the equatorial regions of the Atlantic organised beyond England in university as she is in elementary by Mr. Rotch and himself. Extremely good results had public-school education. Her universities are not for 3 been obtained, and, contrary to expectation, it was found class, but for the people, stirring hives of Democracy. But that in the upper air far lower temperatures were recorded Scotland may expect the new universities of the five prime over the equator than at corresponding heights in temperatecipal English cities to approach nearer to American institulatitudes. Over the equator the isothermal zone did not tions in character, for their educational atmosphere and seem to exist, but the temperature went on decreasing up aims are very different indeed from those of Oxford and to the highest points reached. At heights of 13 to 14 kilo- Cambridge, and similar to those of the great American metres temperatures had been found as low as – 80° C.

cities. They will be modern universities, fully equippa il At the concluding meeting, held on the afternoon of for the work of to-day. Scotland has to keep marching October 6, various resolutions were passed relating to The progress of scientific departments in British unifuture conferences. It was resolved that in future the versities, considerable as it has recently been, of which meetings should be held every three years, and that, so the schools we are about to open here to-day are grarit. far

possible, they should be restricted three | ing evidence, vet has not kept pace with the starting days. Papers relating to instruments and to methods of

progress of science itself and the wonderful discoveries observation should have precedence over those dealing which threaten to revolutionise human conceptions. The with the results of observations. It was also agreed that, discovery of argon by Rayleigh, Becquerel's rays, Rentgen instead of the present arrangement of having one inter

rays, uranium, and, finally, the Curies' radium, threatens national day each month, there should be three days

to relegate the old atomic theory itself to the list of dis. together four times a year for the purpose of the inter- carded creeds outworn,” except that science has national This arrangement should come into

creeds. She has only theories and opinions based upon force in March, 1907.

phenomena, all held lightly because subject to progressise The president then read telegrams that it was proposed | discoveries that may be revealed through her unceasing to send to the King and Queen of Italy, to the Spanish search for knowledge. Science has

preconread Minister of War and others, who had taken an interest

dogmas; she has but one end, the pursuit of truth. 11 in the work of the commission. After several speeches the was long claimed for the classics that they alone appealia conference then closed.

to the imagination, while dry, prosaic science was incapahir On Sunday, October 7, an aëronautic fête was held in

of doing so. This is a grievous mistake. The recent dirthe grounds of the exhibition, and eight balloons made coveries that have startled the world are sublime, ani ascents, several members of the

conference, being appeal with intense force to the imaginative faculties of passengers. The majority of the balloons descended in the

The scientific man of to-day lives in an atmosphrer neighbourhood of Pavia.

of wonder, arousing all his higher powers and compelling

At each startling revelation he feels " 3s son

watcher of the skies when a new comet swims into his MODERN NEEDS IN UNIVERSITIES.1 UNIVERSITIES in America and Canada are paying

The older branches of learning in our universities in more and more attention to our own language and

well welcome the newer branch, cap in hand, not onls # classics, and less and less to Latin and Greek. Not that the

the foundation of material progress, but also as ons i latter are excluded, but they no longer outrank other

the very highest agencies in the imaginative domain. It branches of study. Their doors are open to the new forces

is the man of science in our day of the day, and they have at their heads a body of remark

" Who can extract each particular virtue from the sun, ably able and zealous men who not only keep the universi

And teach dull nature what her forces are." ties foremost as progressive educative agencies, but whose This mighty force of our day-science—has hitherto tem potent voices are heard upon public questions, as leaders the Cinderella of the sisterhood of knowledge, but the of the higher ideals in politics and national affairs. Much Prince has appeared at last and taken her by the hard can also be said of those occupying similar positions in It is now the turn of the elder sisters to greet the osre Scotland. St. Andrews has just erected a new chemical neglected princess. She will more than justify the millon laboratory for research, Dundee is about to erect such which are now being showered upon her in the most pro 1. From an address delivered by Dr. Andrew Carnegie at the opening of

gressive lands. Thus has the university developed to me new buildings for the natural philoscphy and engineering departments of

present all-embracing type through the successive reigra the University of Edinburgh on October 16.

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behind the age, conservative in the highest degree. Science plague centres from which the young leaves are infected has arisen and established her claim to equality. We have as the buds open. The only thoroughly effective remedy long had the Republic of Letters; we now hail the Re- is the collection and burning of dead leaves; it is a costly public of Knowledge. The ceremony of to-day bears testi- process, but by this means the disease was banished by mony to the growing power of Edinburgh University; her Prussian fruit growers after it had devastated some of prominence as a teacher of one of the noblest of all pro- their best orchards. Mr. Salmon also recommends the use fessions, perhaps the one in which those who practise it de- of Bordeaux mixture in spring to render the young leaves vote gratuitously a greater part of their time and attention proof against infection, and he is experimenting with this than the members of any other profession, is not likely to be mixture in orchards near Pluckley ; but he remarks that lost. On the contrary, all evidence to-day leads to the oppo- unless growers cooperate in fighting the disease there is site conclusion. She is to remain famous for her medical little chance of getting rid of it. school, and is now also destined to increase her reputation Prussic Acid in Fodder Plants.-In vol. i., part iii., of as a scientific instructor through the possession of the the Agricultural Journal of India, Dr. J. W. Leather gives increased facilities now provided. The physical laboratory some particulars about the occurrence of prussic acid in and engineering school, which, with the cordial cooper- fodder plants. It is well known to the Indian ryot that a ation of the municipal authorities, have been so ably feed of green jowari (Andropogon Sorghum) occasionally secured by the principal and the University Court, are the proves fatal to cattle, while in recent years stock-owners necessary tools which will enable her to extend her work in this country have now and again been startled by cases in these important branches of knowledge. They mark of poisoning arising from the use of imported beans. It an epoch in her long career, and are to testify to future is only within the past year or two that the cause of such generations that the officials in charge of her work in the mysterious cases of poisoning has been explained. Certain beginning of the twentieth century were alive to the duty plants contain glucosides which, when acted upon by a of keeping her abreast of the new knowledge, of enlarging particular enzyme, produce prussic acid. Of such plants the field of her activities, and of welcoming the develop- Dr. Leather mentions, in addition to Andropogon, flax, the ment of the scientific and so-called practical courses, thus two common beans Dolichos lablab or val and Phaseolus keeping her, true to her high mission, in the front rank lunatus, the Rangoon bean, and the tapioca plant. The ferin all branches. I heartily congratulate the University of ment is present in the plant, but, except conditions favourEdinburgh upon to-day's acquisitions, from which I hope able to its activity occur, no prussic acid is formed. Hence are to come worthy successors of Faraday, Lockyer, it happens that a food, which is usually quite wholesome, Becquerel, Curie, Rutherford, Rayleigh, Ramsay, may suddenly develop poisonous qualities. Dr. Leather Mendeléeff, Kelvin, Tait, and others, to give her such analysed some green jowari, which had been fed to cattle fame in science as the names of Hume, Carlyle, Dugald with fatal results, and found in it 1-25 grains of prussic Stewart, Hamilton, Chalmers, Simpson, and others have acid per lb. of green fodder. Analysing the same crop a already conferred upon her in other fields of knowledge. month later, he found that the poison had diminished to

0.75 grain. This is in accordance with the ryot's experiAGRICULTURAL NOTES.

ence; he is most afraid of young jowari. The leaves

were found to contain much more prussic acid than the CO CONDENSED Vegetable Milk.-Mr. T. Katayama, a stalks, and ten times as much as the inflorescence.

writer in a recent issue of the Bulletin of the Agri- Artificial Manures for India.-In connection with the cultural College, Tokyo (Bulletin, College of Agriculture, possible introduction of a sulphuric acid industry into Tokyo Imperial Cniversity, vol. vii., 1, April, 1906), de- India, Mr. F. G. Sly, I.C.S., contributes a note on mineral scribes the preparation of condensed vegetable milk, a fertilisers to the Agricultural Journal of India. He quotes product which, though not yet in commerce, would appear experiments which show that soluble phosphatic manures io have possibilities for tropical countries. The Japanese would be of great value in Bengal, and he indicates that prepare vegetable milk from soy beans by soaking, crush- a demand for such manures may arise in India before very ing, and boiling in water. The liquid obtained is said to long. The native sources of mineral phosphates are not be very similar in appearance to cows' milk, but it differs particularly promising, but it is suggested that Christmas widely in composition. The average composition of soy Island phosphate, which can be landed in Calcutta for milk is given as :-water, 92.5 per cent. ; protein, 3.02 per about 50s. per ton, would supply suitable raw material cent. ; fat, 2.13 per cent. ; fibre, 0.03 per cent. ; nitrogen- for the Indian manufacturer of superphosphate of lime. free extract, 1.88 per cent. ; ash, 0:41 per cent. To this Agriculture in Egypt.-The bi-monthly Journal of the material Mr. Katayama added sugar and a little dipotassium Khedivial Agricultural Society of Egypt has given place phosphate, the latter to prevent protein separating out; he a year-book, and if subsequent issues maintain the then evaporated the mixture, and obtained a condensed promise of the first number former readers of the journal milk. This product is described as having a yellowish will appreciate the change. The first (1905) volume of the colour, an agreeable taste like cows' milk, but a slight year-book, which has recently reached us, is a wellodour of beans. It is recommended for culinary purposes printed, well-illustrated royal octavo book of 277 pages. It as a cheap substitute for ordinary condensed milk.

comprises two sections, the first contributed by officers of Cherry Leaf Scorch.-Mr. E. S. Salmon, mycologist at the society, the second by members of the staff of the the South-Eastern Agricultural College, Wye, directs atten- Khedivial School of Agriculture. The greater part of the tion (Journal, South-Eastern Agricultural College, Wye, volume is devoted to the cotton crop. The first paper, by No. 15, July) to a danger which threatens the cherry Mr. F. C. Willcocks, deals in detail with the cotton-worm, growers of Kent. For the past few years the cherry leaf the larva of the moth Prodenia littoralis, which appeared scorch (Gnomonia erythrostoma) has been gradually obtain- in Egypt about forty years ago, and for thirty years has ing a footing in the county. In 1901 Dr. Carruthers done serious damage. The Government has now adopted pointed out the dangerous character of this disease, but stringent measures in the hope of ridding Egypt of this his warning. we are informed, was wholly disregarded.' plague. All cultivators are required to notify its appearDuring the past spring Mr. Salmon visited all the districts ance, and to collect and destroy the eggs at once. The in which diseased trees were reported, and he publishes larva damages the plant chiefly by feeding on the undera map showing that leaf scorch now occurs in many surfaces of the leaves, but it also attacks the buds and orchards from Sevenoaks on the west to Selling on the young bolls. This insect is very prolific, and there may be past, and from Tunstall on the north to Pluckley on the seven generations in a

In a second paper Mr. south. It has thus already reached the borders of the Willcocks gives a very complete account of the cotton bollSittingbourne and Faversham districts, and with the next worm Earias insulana, which is the destructive boll-worm lavourable season it will probably invade the valuable of Egypt as well as of India. For this pest no effective orchards in these important cherry-growing centres. The remedy has yet been found. The cotton cut-worm Agrotis disease is easily detected. The young leaves are infected ypsilon is also described and figured. The secretary of the in spring, and in summer the leaves shrivel up and look society, Mr. G. P. Foaden, writes a general article on the as if they had been scorched. They do not fall off in selection of cotton seed, and directs attention to the winter, but persist until the following season, forming methods in use in the United States of America. Of the

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other contributions, the most important are those con- The annual general meeting of the Association of tributed by the society's botanist, Mr. W. L. Balls, on Teachers in Technical Institutes will be held at the Birkthe physiology of a simple parasite, and the sexuality of beck College, London, on Saturday, October 27, com cotton. The first paper gives an account of a damping-off mencing at 3 p.m. The chair will be taken by Mr. W. J. fungus which produces a disease among seedlings known Lineham, president of the association. to the American cotton grower as sore-shin." Mr. Balls attributes the failure of seedling cottons in Egypt chiefly of October 21, announces the abolition of the old system

The Peking correspondent of the Times, in a telegram to the attacks of this fungus. The actual damage done of examinations in China. In partial substitution there varies greatly in different seasons. Weather which is too

will be held an annual examination in Peking of Chinese cold for the young cotton plant is favourable to the para- graduates educated abroad. This year all Chinese hulding site, and sore-shin is largely a question of tempera- foreign diplomas were invited by the Board of Education Remedies are now being sought for, and it is

to submit themselves for examination in the subjects they suggested that careful attention to the seed-bed might studied abroad. About fifty responded, of whom forty-two prevent, or at least mitigate the disease. Mr. Balls's

were admitted, twenty-three with Japanese degrees, sevensecond paper describes some cytological work undertaken

teen with American, and one each with German and as a preliminary to investigations on questions of heredity: English. At the examinations nine were granted the The descriptions and drawings of the sex cells, of fertil.

Chinese doctorate, twenty-three the degree of Master of isation, and of the seed should prove of interest and value

Arts, and ten were rejected. to economic botanists engaged upon the improvement of the cotton plant.

THE Bristol Education Committee has placed the Castle Council Schools, embracing large buildings which accom

modated more than a thousand children, at the disposal of L'NIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL

the governors and principal of the Merchant Venturers INTELLIGENCE.

Technical College, Bristol, which was recently damaged CAMBRIDGE.—Combined examinations for sixty-six entrance seriously by fire. These schools are being fitted with the scholarships and various exhibitions at Pembroke, Gonville necessary lecture theatres, laboratories, and workshops and Caius, King's, Jesus, Christ's, St. John's, and with all possible speed, and, meanwhile, other institutions Emmanuel Colleges will be held on Tuesday, December 4, in Bristol are lending their lecture theatres and laboratories and following days. Mathematics, classics, and natural Fortunately a large part of the newest machinery of the sciences will be the subjects of examination at all these engineering department of the college, especially the expeti. colleges. Forms of application for admission to the examin- mental engines and dynamos, which cost more than 25ool., ation at the respective colleges may be obtained have been saved, as they were placed in a separate buildfollows :-Pembroke College, W. S. Hadley ; Gonville and ing containing many of the college workshops, and situated Caius College, the Master ; King's College, W. H. at some distance from the one injured by the fire; moreMacaulay; Jesus College, A. Gray; Christ's College, Rev. over, the basement of the main building has sufierro J. W. Cartmell; St. John's College, Dr. J. R. Tanner ; comparatively little, and in this are the mechanical and Emmanuel College, the Master, from any of whom further electrical engineering laboratories and the engineering information respecting the scholarships and other matters workshop. connected with the several colleges may be obtained.

The new agricultural college and research institute for At a meeting of the master and fellows of Pembroke

Madras is now in course of erection. In 1905 a grant to College, held on October 10, Mr. C. F. Russell, formerly scholar of the college, was elected to a fellowship. Mr.

the Presidency by the Government of India of 10,000l. per Russell was Bell scholar in 1902, and

annum, which was subsequently increased to 20,0001.,

was bracketed fourteenth wrangler in th mathematical tripos, part i.,

added to the allotments made by the Government of

Madras, removed all financial difficulty experienced by the 1904; he was placed in the second division of the first class in the mathematical tripos, part ii., 1905, and was Smith's

Madras Agricultural Department, and will in time provide prizeman in 1906.

the necessary staff. The result of this improved financial The Gedge prize has been awarded to P. P. Laidlaw, position was the decision of Government to close the of St. John's College, for his essay entitled Some Observ

agricultural college at Saidapet, and establish a ner ations on Blood Pigments.”

college and research institute adequately equipped with

laboratories and class-rooms with a suitable farm near Dr. Hobson, Prof. Larmor, Prof. H. Lamb, Trinity

Coimbatore. The staff will consist of an expert agr. College, professor of mathematics at Victoria University, Manchester, and E. W. Barnes, Trinity College, have been

culturist as the principal of the college, a superintenden! nominated examiners for part ii. of the mathematical tripos of the central farm, a Government botanist, and an agri

cultural chemist. Ultimately an entomologist and inverin 1907, and Prof. Hopkinson and W. H. Macaulay, of King's College, examiners for the qualifying examination logist may be added to the staff

, which will combine teachfor the mechanical sciences tripos in the current academical ing with research work. The institution is to fulfil

two-fold purpose. Problems connected with the agricultur year.

of the presidency will be studied in the laboratory and the W. E. Dixon, of Downing College, and R. Stockman (Edinburgh), professor of materia medica and therapeutics field, while students will be given a general education in

all branches of agricultural science. The farm will afiord in the University of Glasgow, have been nominated ex

a field for experience and for a test of laboratory research aminers in pharmacology, and T. S. P. Strangeways, St.

as well as a training ground for students, in the practical John's College, and T. Ritchie (Edinburgh), examiners in general pathology for the first part of the third examin- application of science to agriculture. ation for the degree of M.B. in the current academical An addition to the University of Edinburgh Union 2 year.

opened on October 19 by Mr. Haldane, the Lord Rector. Prof. J. A. Ewing, King's College, has been nominated Mr. Balfour, the Chancellor of the University, presided an elector to the John Winbolt prize in civil engineering the ceremony, and in the course of a speech delivered in to be awarded in the year 1907 ; and Dr. Marr and Dr. calling upon the Lord Rector, directed attention to the J. W. Judd examiners for the Sedgwick prize.

true functions of a university. No university, he said, Mr. J. J. Lister, fellow of St. John's College, has been be described as properly equipped which merely ronsis** nominated a member of the board of electors to the pro- of an adequate professoriate, adequate lecture-rizorra fessorship of zoology and comparative anatomy until adequate scientific apparatus, which only satisfies the needs February 20, 1913, in succession to the late Prof. W. F. R. exacting though they are, of modern science and med Weldon.

education. Something more than that is required if

university is to do all that it is capable of doing for ti MR. J. E. M. DRUMMOND, Caius College, Cambridge, education of the young men of this country. A univerzin formerly Frank Smart student in botany, has been appointed | life which consists only of the relation between the teacher lecturer in botany at Armstrong College, Newcastle-upon- and the taught, between the professor and the student, is Tyne.

but half a university life. The other half consists of de

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