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Large and slowly-cooled ingots in which the maximum of segregation has taken place.
Mr. P. Eyermann (Benoit, Wisconsin) submitted a lengthy paper on the manufacture of solid rolled steel wheels and tyres. The average life of a cast-iron wheel is 56,000 miles in passenger service, while steel-tyred wheels have a life of 265,000 miles. The author considers it probable that before long the solid rolled steel wheel will replace the existing tyres in Great Britain.
Mr. E. Lelong (Couillet, Belgium) described a Tethod of manufacturing chains by machinery in which the successive convolutions of spiral links are continuous. Chains made by this process are 20 per cent. stronger than thuse made by the usual methods.
Average of all'unhardened samples Commercial wrought irons
Mr. C. O. Bannister (London) discussed the relation between type of fracture and microstructure of steel testpeces, showing that valuable conclusions may be drawn from the examination of the fractured surface.
The effect of copper in steel was discussed by Mr. F. H. Wigham (Wakefield). Copper is very difficult to alloy with steel so as to obtain a homogeneous mass containing more than 2 per cent. even with the addition of aluminium. In steel containing 0-5 per cent. or more of carbon it is not of practical value to use more than 0.6 per cent. of copper. The steel with 0-25 per cent. of copper and alloys -p to 0 25 per cent. of copper with high carbon (0.70 per ent.) give, with or without a high percentage of manganese, a good quality of wire. In fact, copper to the extent of 025 per cent. is no disadvantage in the manufacture of the best classes of steel wire.
The reports of research work carried out during 1905-6 by holders of Carnegie research scholarships, which were submitted, represented a large amount of work of great interest. An exhaustive study of quaternary steels was san.tted by Dr. L. Guillet (Paris). For the research 250 sar eties of steel were prepared, including nickel-manganese nickel-chromium steels, nickel-tungsten steels, Axel-molybdenum steels, nickel-vanadium steels, nickelsixon steels, nickel-aluminium steels, manganese-silicon stees, manganese-chromium steels, and chromium-tungsten steps. The area for the commercial employment of these steels is considerably restricted, and is limited to the nickelvanadium steels, the nickel-tungsten steels, and the chromium-vanadium steels containing comparatively low proportions of foreign elements.
The report by Mr. W. Rosenhain (Birmingham) on the jeformation and fracture of iron and mild steel constitutes a continuation of his previous paper on the plastic yieldng of iron and steel. He gives further observations on p-bands, and deals with the modes of fracture under tativus conditions. In tensile fractures the break runs autost indifferently through ferrite and pearlite, owing to the fact that the previous extension of the metal has weakened, and in part even ruptured, the pearlite; in stock fractures the pearlite is able to assert its superior strength and is avoided by the fracture, while fissures are rmed in the ferrite. The features of bending fractures are found to be of an intermediate character. The results the examination of these fractures are discussed both Irum the point of view of the relative behaviour and interarton of ferrite and pearlite under breaking stresses and from the point of view of the general theory of deformation aral fracture which is presented in the paper. In conon, the author points out the possibilities of practical pplication which his method of studying fractures opens 10 This detailed study of fractures makes it possible to arate accurately the causes of weakness and strength.in a given microstructure, and by comparing the behaviour of the constituents when broken in different ways to gain • teper insight into their mutual interaction; while the study of "mysterious" fractures occurring in service-as dered possible by this method-should make it easier to the causes of fracture-if any-which are present in
Dr. H. C. Boynton (Harvard, U.S.A.) dealt with the termination of the hardness of the constituents of iron " steel with the aid of Jaggar's microsclerometer. Retured to a common unit, the hardness of pure ferrite, the verige hardness of the constituents was found to be as
2400-24,650 5'2-536 40,564
Series o'13-1'52 per cent. carbon
Cementite. White cast iron (3'24 per cent.
17,896-120,330 38 9-2616
Mr. J. D. Brunton (Musselburgh) submitted an elaborate report on the heat treatment of wire, particularly wire for ropes. He showed that the usual methods of obtaining the best wire by means of torsion and tensile tests are not altogether trustworthy for determining the best point for the wire to perform useful work. Annealing of the rod before the final annealing does not, in any way, produce better material, as it has been thought to do, and is, therefore, not necessary.
The research carried out by Messrs. E. G. L. Roberts and E. A. Wraight (London) comprised a series of 150 experiments and complete analyses, dealing with the constitution of ferromanganese and the efforts made to deprive this alloy of its carbon.
It was announced that the next meeting would be held in London at the end of July, when members of the American Institute of Mining Engineers would be the guests of the institute.
UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL
OXFORD.-Prof. William Schlich, F.R.S., St. John's College, has been constituted by H.M. Secretary of State for India professor of forestry so long as he shall be continued in his present position and be resident within the University.
The first of two lectures on "The Teaching of Science in Schools " was given by Dr. Bevan Lean, headmaster of Sidcot School, on May 10 at the lecture room of the delegacy for the training of secondary teachers. The second lecture is to be delivered to-day.
CAMBRIDGE. A Grace authorising the general board of studies to appoint, subject to confirmation by the special board for medicine, Mr. G. H. F. Nuttall, Christ's College, to be reader in hygiene in connection with the special board for medicine, the University lectureship in bacteriology and preventive medicine to terminate on his appointment as reader, will be offered to the Senate to-day.
Mr. W. J. Sell, Christ's College, has been approved by the general board of studies for the degree of Doctor in Science.
A university lectureship in mathematics will be vacant at Michaelmas, 1906, by the resignation of Mr. Whittaker. The general board of studies will shortly proceed to appoint a lecturer to hold office from Michaelmas, 1906, until Michaelmas, 1911. Candidates are requested to send their applications, with statements of the subjects on which they are prepared to lecture, and with testimonials if they think fit, to the Vice-Chancellor on or before May 31.
The Vice-Chancellor has been informed by the clerk to the Worshipful Company of Girdlers that the company is prepared to continue its grant of 100l. a year towards the teaching of economics for a second period of three years. The board of economics is of opinion that this offer should be gratefully accepted.
THERE seems every possibility of the Hamburg University being very quickly established. Three million marks have already been voluntarily subscribed, two millions of which have been given by Mr. Alfred Beit. It is proposed that only one-half of the lectures shall be given for direct preparation for any particular profession, while the other half are to be for the further extension of the general education of the inhabitants of the town.
HIGHER education is mostly left to take care of itself in this country, with the result that our statesmen and Governments do not know exactly where it is being carried on, or what provision has been made for it without their assistance. On the principle that what is everybody's business is nobody's business, no serious attempt has been made to take stock of our national resources as regards higher education, so it comes about that the committee recently appointed by the Chancellor of the Exchequer to advise the Treasury as to the distribution of the sum voted by Parliament for grants in aid to university colleges has sent an intimation to the public Press with the object of bringing the conditions under which grants are made under the notice of colleges which have not as yet communicated with the committee. It is obvious that if our higher education were properly organised by the State, the Minister of Education would have detailed particulars of institutions devoted to it, and such an announcement as that just issued, suggesting that there are many colleges unknown to the official mind, would have been unnecessary. The grants are given only to those institutions which afford education of a university standard in great centres of population in England. To qualify for a grant at present, a college is required to show that its local income for work of a university character is not less than 4000l., and that of this sum at least 1500l. is derived from fees. Any college wishing to be included in the list of those receiving grants should send in an application not later than June 13. Applications should be addressed to the secretary to the committee, Mr. R. G. Hawtrey, at the Treasury, S.W.
PRESENTATION DAY was celebrated at the University of London on May 9, when Sir Arthur Rücker, the principal, read his annual report on the work of the University. An important event of the year was the recasting of the schemes of examination for the B.A. degree. Up to the present the course of study from the matriculation stage onward has been, with the exception of mathematics, entirely literary. The opinion that a mixed course of literature and science would be of the utmost value to many pass students has, however, for long been gaining in strength, and effect has now been given to it in the following manner. In future either Greek or Latin, but not both, will be compulsory both in the intermediate and in the final examinations for the B.A. degree. Another language will also be compulsory; while the other subjects required may be chosen from a list of languages, pure and applied mathematics, and the more fundamental sciences. The examinations in science will be identical with those for the corresponding subjects for the B.Sc. degree. It will thus be possible for a candidate for a pass B.A. degree to take either an exclusively literary course or a mixed course including Latin and one other language. Sir Arthur Rücker announced that the Senate has invited the University of Paris and the Collège de France to visit the University of London at Whitsuntide. This will be a unique event, no formal visit having hitherto been made by a French to an English university. A large number of distinguished guests are expected, and it is hoped that the occasion will bind closer the intellectual links which unite the two countries.
A DEPUTATION of the council of the Association of Technical Institutions was received by the President of the Board of Education on May 4. Sir William Anson, as president of the association, introduced the deputation, and stated that its object was to bring before the Board the importance of increasing the rate of grants to the day technical institutions and for instruction in the more technical subjects in evening classes. Sir William Anson referred to the importance of efficiently maintaining facilities for technical instruction, and pointed out the tendency of local authorities to devote their funds chiefly to elementary education, to the possible detriment of higher work. Sir Philip Magnus urged the importance of technological subjects in evening classes, and the great cost involved in their maintenance. Unless education authorities are encouraged to conduct such classes there is grave fear of their being neglected for subjects, not so important to the industries of the country, which receive higher grants. Sir William Mather spoke of the great importance of technical education for the maintenance of the industries of the
country, and the need for watching that money intended by Parliament for the maintenance of such work should not be diverted for other work. He thought an appeal might well be made to employers to contribute towards the cost of technical education. Mr. Birrell, in reply, said that the deputation might rest assured that the Board has every sympathy with the request put forward for increased grants for work in day classes in technical institutes. The Board fully realises the importance of the work which is done. Mr. Birrell, however, reminded the deputation that there are many other important branches of education which are in need of increased grants. In conclusion, he cordially supported what Sir William Mather said as to the importance of employers contributing to technical institutes. Mr. F. G. Ogilvie dealt with the way in which the Board is trying to include technical subjects as eligible for their grants, and so far as possible at the same rate as science subjects.
Royal Society, April 5.-"On the Distribution of Radium in the Earth's Crust, and on the Earth's Internal Heat. By the Hon. R. J. Strutt, F.R.S.
Summary of Conclusions.-(1) Radium can easily be detected in all igneous rocks. Granites, as a rule, contain most radium, basic rocks the least. (2) This distribution of radium is uniform enough to enable a fair estimate to be made of the total quantity in each mile of depth of the crust. (3) The result indicates that the crust cannot be much more than forty-five miles deep, for otherwise the outflow of heat would be greater than is observed to be the case. The interior must consist of some totally different material. This agrees entirely with Prof. Milne's conclusion drawn from a study of the velocity of propagation of earthquake shocks through the interior. (4) The moon probably consists for the most part of rock, and, if its internal temperature must be far greater than that of the earth. This explains the great development of volcanoes on the moon. (5) Iron meteorites contain little, if any, radium. Stony ones contain about as much as the terrestrial rocks which they resemble.
Challenger Society, April 25.-Mr. E. W. L. Holt in the chair. Exhibits.-Four species of Cephalodiscus, of which three had recently been described by the author, who also referred to others from the Discovery and Antarctica expeditions: Dr. S. F. Harmer.-Charts of positions in the North Sea, where, by means of a heavy conical dredge with canvas lining, samples of bottom deposits had been taken by the Marine Biological Association's steamer Huxley: J. O. Borley. Mr. Borley showed in action a sifting machine, designed by Mr. Todd and himself, for grading these deposits; sieves of various mesh, hung in water, were made to vibrate horizontally at high speed by an excentric worked by an ordinary whirling-table. There were also exhibited specimens of the gravel, fine sand, and silt met with, charts of their distribution showing the extreme uniformity of bottom found over large areas in the eastern part of the North Sea, and diagrams indicating the very definite meaning attaching to fishermen's descriptive terms for the bottom.-Preliminary paper on Medusa collected in H.M.S. Research by Dr. Fowler in the Bay of Biscay: E. T. Browne. The Trachomedusæ predominated over the other orders, three species forming about 85 per cent. of the specimens collected (Aglantha rosea, 42 per cent. ; Aglaura hemistoma, 27 per cent.; Rhopalonema coeruleum, 15 per cent.). These were chiefly taken between so fathoms and 100 fathoms. A few rather rare species were taken below 100 fathoms; for example, Colobonema sericeum, one of the new deep-sea Medusæ discovered by the Valdivia, The most interesting find was a Narcomedusan, probably a new species of Cunoctacantha, which had a number of medusa-buds in all stages of development upon the stomachpouches; the buds were not parasitic, as in other species of Cunoctacantha and Cunina, but develop directly from outgrowths of the stomach-wall. This forms a straightforward case of asexual gemmation, such as occurs in some Anthomedusæ.
Geological Society, April 25.-Dr. J. E. Marr, F.R.S., vice-president, in the chair.-Trilobites from Bolivia, collected by Dr. J. W. Evans in 1901-1902: P. Lake. Several horizons are represented by these fossils. Descriptions are given of the new species and other forms mentioned. It is worthy of remark that, while the earlier forms show affinities with the contemporaneous European fauna, the Devonian species are much more closely allied to those of South Africa and North America.-Graptolites from Bolivia, collected by Dr. J. W. Evans in 1901-1902: Dr. Ethel M. R. Wood. In black pyritic shales from three localities several specimens of Didymograptus were collected: one referable to bifidus, one of the type of affinis, and one of the Nicholson type. Phyllograptus, Glossograptus, Cryptograptus, and Diplograptus were also obtained. A pale, silky-grey shale shows also rare graptolites, belonging to a species comparable with Climacograptus confertus. These forms indicate that both the black and the pale shales belong to horizons in the Upper Arenig rocks (Lower Llanvirn of Hicks).-The Phosphatic Chalks of Winterbourne and Boxford (Berkshire): H. J. Osborne White and Liewellyn Treacher. Data collected in the district dealt with in this paper suffice to show that the more or less Phosphatic Chalks above the Uintacrinus-band lie in a trough or basin, the formation of which antedates the deposition of the Reading beds. When the area of observation is extended, it is found that the Uintacrinus-Chalk of that tract itself lies in a structural depression. Phosphatic Chalks of Winterbourne and Taplow evidently mark places on the sea-floor particularly liable to the Impingement of strong currents, and may mark places above which the water commonly had a gyratory motion. In any case, their zonal range argues a marked degree of stability in the current-system of the body of water in which they were laid down.
Physical Society, April 27.-Dr. C. Chree, F. R.S., vicepresident, in the chair.-Some simple questions on the images of microscopes and telescopes: W. B. Croft. It may have been noticed that when a microscope is focused visually, an image is formed on the focusing-glass of a camera, into which the microscopic eye-piece is inserted after removing the camera-lens. This image remains more or less in focus at variable positions of the camera-screen. Although it is not always perhaps true, yet it is surprising how often the pencil emerging from a microscope eye-piece behaves like a single concentrated line of light. Several photographs of microscopic details were exhibited intimate how often the author had found, when projecting from an optical eye-piece, that no change can be detected in the definition of the image as the screen of the camera is moved. If a camera-lucida is placed on the eye-piece, the image of a stage-micrometer can be thrown on a scale at 10 inches distance or at 40 inches distance. The parallel rays emerging from the eye-piece give the image of a point along a direction, at no definite position. The image can be imagined at 40 inches distance as easily as 10 inches. Mr. Croft also showed some photographs taken from sections of the human eye; he indicated that a divergent pencil from a small aperture or from a convex reflecting surface of large curvature will give the Purkinje figures as bright radiating lines, whereas the usual method of sending light through the side of the sclerotic gives them as shadows. Several different specimens were shown of magnetic oxide of iron and magnetic sulphides of iron. The power of nickel and cobalt to receive permanent magnetism was illustrated with a compass-needle of nickel.-The lateral vilization of bars subjected to forces in the direction of their atrs: J. Morrow. Three cases of unloaded bars are dealt with, namely, those under the following end-conditions supported-supported," "clamped-clamped," and clamped-supported." Expressions are obtained from which the frequencies may be calculated, and the results are stated in a form such that the determination of stresses, terminal couples, &c., may be easily made. The case of greatest interest is that of a stretched bar clamped at each end. Approximate solutions of this problem have been arrived at by both Seebeck and Donkin. These are on the assumption that the vibration is but slightly affected by the rigidity of the material. An assumption of a very different character, and one generally fulfilled in structural
work, is made in this paper, namely, that the longitudinal force is not very great. Solutions are thus found for the period of the fundamental or any harmonic.
Mathematical Society, May 10.-Prof. A. R. Forsyth, president, in the chair.-The substitutional theory of classes and relations: Hon. B. Russell. The object of the paper
is to explain a solution of the contradictions discovered by Burali-Forti and the author. The solution is sought in the substitutional theory, sketched in a previous paper by the author, according to which statements apparently about a class are significant only when they can be analysed into statements about all or some of the members of the class. The substitutional theory is extended to propositions and relations.--The expansion of polynomials in series of functions: Dr. L. N. G. Filon. The question is that of expanding a function f(x) in a series of functions of the form (K, x), where the numbers K1, K2, .. are the roots of a transcendental equation. The method is analogous to Cauchy's method of expansion of functions in Fourier's series, and depends upon the calculus of residues. Cauchy's method a subsidiary function F(x) is introduced through a knowledge of the form of the coefficients of Fourier's series; in the present paper a rule is given for determining this subsidiary function a priori, and the rule is shown to be applicable to many classes of functions p(x, x) when the function f(x), of which the expansion is desired, is a polynomial. The subsidiary function F(x) being known, the coefficients in the expansion of f(x) can be obtained explicitly. The motion of a swarm of particles the centre of gravity of which describes an elliptic orbit of small eccentricity round the sun: Dr. E. J. Routh. It is proved that for a spherical swarm the period equation takes the Lagrangian determinantal form, and the conditions of stability can be completely exhibited. The problem of a swarm of unequal thicknesses in different directions is illustrated by a discussion of the case in which the boundary is ellipsoidal; and the changes of length of two diameters in the plane of motion, one of which passes through the sun, are investigated in detail. The theory of integral equations: H. Bateman. The partial integral equation
[•x(5, x) f(x, t) dx = ['f(s,
f(s, x) h(x, t) dx
possesses a solution different from zero. The numbers An are important in the theory of the potential and in connection with a certain theory of the origin of spectral lines.-Linear differential equations of rank unity: E. Cunningham. The paper is concerned with an extension of Laplace's method of solution of linear differential equations by means of definite integrals. The proposed solution takes the form of a double integral involving a subsidiary function which satisfies a certain partial differential equation. Particular forms of this subsidiary function are developed, and the appropriate domains of integration determined.
Academy of Sciences, April 30.-M. H. Poincaré in the chair.-Diphenyl or alkylphenyl camphomethane and methylene A. Haller and E. Bauer.-Simple relations between the "statical actions" of muscle with the energy which produces them: A. Chauveau. The doubly infinite varieties of points of a quadric in space of four dimensions applicable to a plane: C. Guichard.-Contribution to the study of the infra-red spectrum: Milan Stephanik. In the study of the infra-red region of the spectrum three methods have hitherto been used, the thermometric method, the photographic method, and the utilisation of the phenomena of phosphorescence. In studying the eclipse of August 30, 1905, the author noticed that when a deep red screen was placed in front of the slit of the spectroscope a portion of the infra-red spectrum became visible.
SOCIETY OF CHEMICAL INDUSTRY, at 8.-The Problem of the Electrs
TUESDAY, MAY 22.
ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 5.-Glands and their Products: Prof. William
WEDNESDAY, MAY 23.
SOCIETY OF ARTS, at 8.-The General Supply of Electricity for Power and other Purposes: J. N. Shoolbred. GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 8.-On the Importance of Halimeda as a Reef forming Organism, with a Description of the Halimeda-limestones of the New Hebrides: F. Chapman and Douglas Mawson.-Notes on Ite Genera Omospira, Lophospira, and Turritoma, with Descriptions of Nes Species: Miss Jane Donald.
THURSDAY, MAY 24.
ROVAL SOCIETY, at 4.30.-Croonian Lecture: On the Presence of Special Excitable Substances in Striated Muscle and in Tissue Cells: Prof. J. X Langley, F.R.S.
ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 5.-Man and the Glacial Period: Prof. W. J Sollas, F.R.S.
UNIVERSITY OF LONDON, at 5.-The Atmospheric Circulation and i
INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.-Annual General Meeting
FRIDAY, MAY 25.
ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 9.-Compressed Air and its Physiological Effects. Leonard Hill, F.R.S.
PHYSICAL SOCIETY, at 5.-Colour Phenomena in Photometry: J. S. Dow. -Exhibition of an Automatic Arc Lamp: H. Tomlinson and Rev G. T. Johnston.-The Theory of Moving Coil and other Kinds of Ballistic Galvanometers: Prof. H. A. Wilson, F.R.S-Exhibition of a Bifilar Galvanometer free from Zero Creep: A. Campbell.
SATURDAY, MAY 26.
ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 3.-The Old and the New Chemistry: Sir Jamm Dewar, F.R.S.
The Mechanism of the Universe.
Our Book Shelf:
Prof. Ehlers's "Festschrift.” By Dr. F. W. Gamble 50 The Birds of Tunisia. By O. V. Aplin 51 Amabæ and their Allies
Jones: The Philosophy of Martineau in Relation to the Idealism of the Present Day"
Wragge: "The Romance of the South Seas " "The Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew."-R. L.
Physical Chemistry, and its Applications in Medical and Biological Science'
method has been followed up at the Meudon Observatory,
DIARY OF SOCIETIES.
THURSDAY, MAY 17.
ROYAL SOCIETY, at 4.30.-Determinations of Wave-Length from Spectra
ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 5.-The Influence of Ptolemaic Egypt on Græco-
INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.-Notes on Overhead
FRIDAY, May 18.
ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 9.-International Science: Prof. A. Schuster,
SATURDAY, MAY 19.
ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 3.-The Old and New Chemistry: Sir James The Survey of India Dewar, F.R.S.
MONDAY, MAY 21.
ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY, at 3.-Anniversary Meeting.-(1) Presentation of Medals and Awards (2) Address by the President; (3) Annual Report and Election of President and Council.
Diary of Societies . .
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