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Mr. J. D. Brunton (Musselburgh) submitted an elaborate report on the heat treatment of wire, particularly wire for ropes. He showed that the usual methods of obtaining the best wire by means of torsion and tensile tests not altogether trustworthy for determining the best point for the wire to perform useful work. Annealing of the rod before the final annealing does not, in any way, produce better material, as it has been thought to do, and is, therefore, not necessary.

The research carried out by Messrs. E. G. L. Roberts and E. A. Wraight (London) comprised a series of 150 experiments and complete analyses, dealing with the constitution of ferromanganese and the efforts made to deprive this alloy of its carbon.

It was announced that the next meeting would be held in London at the end of July, when members of the American Institute of Mining Engineers would be the guests of the institute.

birge and slowly-cooled ingots in which the maximum 01 segregation has taken place.

Mr. P. Eyermann (Benoit, Wisconsin) submitted lengthy paper on the manufacture of solid rolled steel wheels and tyres. The average life of a cast-iron wheel is 59.000 miles in passenger service, while steel-tyred wheels tave a life of 205,000 miles. The author considers it probable that belore long the solid rolled steel wheel will replace the existing tyres in Great Britain.

Mr. E. Lelong (Couillet, Belgium) described a Tethod of manufacturing chains by machinery in which the successive convolutions of spiral links are continuous. Chains made by this process are 20 per cent. stronger than

se made by the usual methods. Mr. C. 0. Bannister (London) discussed the relation btween type of fracture and microstructure of steel testpeces, showing that valuable conclusions may be drawn from the examination of the fractured surface.

The effect of copper in steel was discussed by Mr. F. H. Higham (Wakefield). Copper is very difficult to alloy with srel so as to obtain a homogeneous mass containing more en 2 per cent.

even with the addition of aluminium. In steel containing 0.5 per cent. or more of carbon it is ut of practical value to use more than 0.6 per cent. of copper. The steel with 0.25 per cent. of copper and alloys we i0 o 25 per cent. of copper with high carbon (0.70 per ent.) give, with or without a high percentage of man329est, a good quality of wire. In fact, copper to the eatment of 0.25 per cent. is no disadvantage in the manuacture of the best classes of steel wire.

The reports of research work carried out during 1905-6 Hy hulders of Carnegie research scholarships, which were bnitted, represented a large amount of work of great ib'erest. An exhaustive study of quaternary steels was wiitted by Dr. L. Guillet (Paris). For the research 250 sarries of steel were prepared, including nickel-manganese ses, nickel-chromium steels, nickel-tungsten steels,

nel-molybdenum steels, nickel-vanadium steels, nickelSimon steels, nickel-aluminium steels, manganese-silicon was, manganese-chromium steels, and chromium-tungsten sirpis. The area for the commercial employment of these pels is considerably restricted, and is limited to the nickeltar adium steels, the nickel-tungsten steels, and the caromium-vanadium steels containing comparatively low proportions of foreig elements.

The report by Mr. W. Rosenhain (Birmingham) on the jehurmation and fracture of iron and mild steel constitutes continuation of his previous paper on the plastic yield

of iron and steel. He gives further observations on pbands, and deals with the modes of fracture under la Hus conditions. In tensile fractures the break runs dituose indifferently through ferrite and pearlite, owing l the fact that the previous extension of the metal has Plened, and in part even ruptured, the pearlite; in stra* fractures the pearlite is able to assert its superior Wirnyth and is avoided by the fracture, while fissures are 17ed in the ferrite. The features of bending fractures ar found to be of an intermediate character. The results

the examination of these fractures are discussed both Ina the point of view of the relative behaviour and interetan of ferrite and pearlite under breaking stresses and put the point of view of the general theory of deformation wr: fracture which is presented in the paper. In conlenia, the author points out the possibilities of practical sprication which his method of studying fractures opens

This detailed study of fractures makes it possible to alr acurately the causes of weakness and a given microstructure, and by comparing the behaviour ci che constituents when broken in different ways to gain

pre insight into their mutual interaction ; while the xu$ of " mysterious " fractures occurring in service-as *ptriased possible by this method-should make it easier to In the causes of fracture-if any–which are present in

mal Dr. H. C. Boynton (Harvard, U.S.A.) dealt with the tormination of the hardness of the constituents of iron of stral with the aid of Jaggar's microsclerometer. Redud to a common unit, the hardness of pure ferrite, the armproje hardness of the constituents was found to be as


INTELLIGENCE. OXFORD.—Prof. William Schlich, F.R.S., St. John's College, has been constituted by H.M. Secretary of State for India professor of forestry so long as he shall be continued in his present position and be resident within the University.

The first of two lectures on “ The Teaching of Science in Schools was given by Dr. Bevan Lean, headmaster of Sidcot School, on May 10 at the lecture room of the delegacy for the training of secondary teachers. The second lecture is to be delivered to-day.

Cambridge.—A Grace authorising the general board of studies to appoint, subject to confirmation by the special board for medicine, Mr. G. H. F. Nuttall, Christ's College, to be reader in hygiene in connection with the special board for medicine, the University lectureship in bacteriology and preventive medicine to terminate on his appointment as reader, will be offered to the Senate to-day.

Mr. W. J. Sell, Christ's College, has been approved by the general board of studies for the degree of Doctor in Science.

A university lectureship in mathematics will be vacant at Michaelmas, 1906, by the resignation of Mr. Whittaker. The general board of studies will shortly proceed to appoint a lecturer to hold office from Michaelmas, 1906, until Michaelmas, 1911. Candidates are requested to send their applications, with statements of the subjects on which they are prepared to lecture, and with testimonials if they think fit, to the Vice-Chancellor on or before May 31.

The Vice-Chancellor has been informed by the clerk to the Worshipful Company of Girdlers that the company is prepared to continue its grant of rool. a year towards the teaching of economics for a second period of three years. The board of economics is of opinion that this offer should be gratefully accepted.

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There seems every possibility of the Hamburg University being very quickly established. Three million marks have already been voluntarily subscribed, two millions of which have been given by Mr. Alfred Beit. It is proposed that only one-half of the lectures shall be given for direct preparation for any particular profession, while the other half are to be for the further extension of the general education of the inhabitants of the town.


Higher education is mostly left to take care of itself country, and the need for watching that money intended in this country, with the result that our statesmen and by Parliament for the maintenance of such work should not Governments do not know exactly where it is being carried be diverted for other work. He thought an appeal might on, or what provision has been made for it without their well be made to employers to contribute towards the cost assistance. On the principle that what is everybody's of technical education. Mr. Birrell, in reply, said that the business is nobody's business, no serious attempt has been deputation might rest assured that the Board has every made to take stock of our national resources as regards sympathy with the request put forward for increased grants higher education, so it comes about that the committee for work in day classes in technical institutes. The Board recently appointed by the Chancellor of the Exchequer to fully realises the importance of the work which is done. advise the Treasury as to the distribution of the sum voted Mr. Birrell, however, reminded the deputation that there by Parliament for grants in aid to university colleges has are many other important branches of education which are sent an intimation to the public Press with the object of in need of increased grants. In conclusion, he cordially bringing the conditions under which grants are made under supported what Sir William Mather said as to the importthe notice of colleges which have not as yet communicated ance of employers contributing to technical institutes. 'Mr. with the committee. It is obvious that if our higher F. G. Ogilvie dealt with the way in which the Board is education were properly organised by the State, the trying to include technical subjects as eligible for their Minister of Education would have detailed particulars of grants, and so far as possible at the same rate as science institutions devoted to it, and such an announcement as subjects. that just issued, suggesting that there are many colleges unknown to the official mind, would have been unnecessary. The grants are given only to those institutions which afford education of a university standard in great

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. centres of population in England. To qualify for a grant

LONDON. at present, a college is required to show that its local

Royal Society, April 5.-"On the Distribution of income for work of a university character is not less than

Radium in the Earth's Crust, and on the Earth's Internal 4000l., and that of this sum at least 1500l. is derived from

Heat." By the Hon. R. J. Strutt, F.R.S. fees. Any college wishing to be included in the list of

Summary of Conclusions.-(1) Radium can easily be dethose receiving grants should send in an application not

tected in all igneous rocks, Granites, as a rule, contain later than June 13. Applications should be addressed to

most radium, basic rocks the least. (2) This distribution the secretary to the committee, Mr. R. G. Hawtrey, at the

of radium is uniform enough to enable a fair estimate to Treasury, s.w.

be made of the total quantity in each mile of depth of the PRESENTATION Day was celebrated at the University of crust. (3) The result indicates that the crust cannot be London on May 9, when Sir Arthur Rücker, the principal, , much than forty-five miles deep, for otherwise read his annual report on the work of the University. An the outflow of heat would be greater than is observed to important event of the year was the recasting of the be the case. The interior must consist of some totally schemes of examination for the B.A. degree. Up to the different material. This agrees entirely with Prof. Milne's present the course of study from the matriculation stage conclusion drawn from a study of the velocity of propaonward has been, with the exception of mathematics, gation of earthquake shocks through the interior. (4) The entirely literary. The opinion that a mixed course of litera- moon probably consists for the most part of rock, and, if ture and science would be of the utmost value to many pass so, its internal temperature must be far greater than that students has, however, for long been gaining in strength, of the earth. This explains the great development of and effect has now been given to it in the following manner. volcanoes on the moon. (5) Iron meteorites contain little, In future either Greek or Latin, but not both, will be com- if any, radium. Stony ones contain about as much as the pulsory both in the intermediate and in the final examin- terrestrial rocks which they resemble. ations for the B.A. degree. Another language will also be

Challenger Society, April 25.—Mr. E. W. L. Holt in compulsory; while the other subjects required may be

the chair.-Exhibits.-Four species of Cephalodiscus, of chosen from a list of languages, pure and applied mathe

which three had recently been described by the author, who matics, and the more fundamental sciences. The examin

also referred to others from the Discovery and Antarctica exations in science will be identical with those for the corre

peditions : Dr. S. F. Harmer.--Charts of positions in the sponding subjects for the B.Sc. degree. It will thus be

North Sea, where, by means of a heavy conical dredge with possible for a candidate for a pass B.A. degree to take

canvas lining, samples of bottom deposits had been taken either an exclusively literary course

or a mixed course in

by the Marine Biological Association's steamer Huxley : cluding Latin and one other language. Sir Arthur Rücker

J. O. Borley. Mr. Borley showed in action a sifting announced that the Senate has invited the University of

machine, designed by Mr. Todd and himself, for grading Paris and the Collège de France to visit the University of

these deposits ; sieves of various mesh, hung in water, were London at Whitsuntide. This will be a unique event, no

made to vibrate horizontally at high speed by an excentric formal visit having hitherto been made by a French to an

worked by an ordinary whirling-table. There were also English university. A large number of distinguished guests

exhibited specimens of the gravel, fine sand, and silt mer are expected, and it is hoped that the occasion will bind

with, charts of their distribution showing the extreme closer the intellectual links which unite the two countries.

uniformity of bottom found over large areas in the eastern A DEPUTATION of the council of the Association of part of the North Sea, and diagrams indicating the very Technical Institutions was received by the President of the definite meaning attaching to fishermen's descriptive terms Board of Education on May 4. Sir William Anson, as for the bottom.-Preliminary paper on Medusæ collected president of the association, introduced the deputation, and in H.M.S. Research by Dr. Fowler in the Bay of Biscay : stated that its object was to bring before the Board the E. T. Browne. The Trachomedusæ predominated over importance of increasing the rate of grants to the day the other orders, three species forming about 85 per cent. technical institutions and for instruction in the

of the specimens collected (Aglantha rosea, 42 per cent. ; technical subjects in evening classes. Sir William Anson Aglaura hemistoma, 27 per cent. ; Rhopalonema coeruleum, referred to the importance of efficiently maintaining facili- 15 per cent.). These were chiefly taken between 50 fathoms ties for technical instruction, and pointed out the tendency and 100 fathoms. A few rather rare species were taken of local authorities to devote their funds chiefly below 100 fathoms; for example, Colobonema sericeum, one elementary education, to the possible detriment of higher of the new deep-sea Medusæ discovered by the Valdivia. work. Sir Philip Magnus urged the importance of techno- The most interesting find was a Narcomedusan, probably logical subjects in evening classes, and the great cost in- a new species of Cunoctacantha, which had a number of volved in their maintenance. Unless education authorities medusa-buds in all stages of development upon the stomachere encouraged to conduct such classes there is grave fear pouches; the buds were not parasitic, as in other species of their being neglected for subjects, not so important to of Cunoctacantha and Cunina, but develop directly from the industries of the country, which receive higher grants. outgrowths of the stomach-wall. This forms a straightSir William Mather spoke of the great importance of tech- forward case of asexual gemmation, such as occurs in some nical education for the maintenance of the industries of the Anthomedusa.



Geological Society, April 25.—Dr. J. E. Marr, F.R.S., work, is made in this paper, namely, that the longitudinal vice-president, in the chair.-Trilobites from Bolivia, col- force is not very great. Solutions are thus found for the lected by Dr. J. W. Evans in 1901-1902 : P. Lake. Several period of the fundamental or any harmonic. horizons are represented by these fossils. Descriptions are

Mathematical Society, May 10.- Prof. A. R. Forsyth, given of the new species and other forms mentioned. It is

president, in the chair.—The substitutional theory of classes worthy of remark that, while the earlier forms show affini

and relations : Hon. B. Russell. The object of the paper nes with the contemporaneous European fauna, the Devonian species are much more closely allied to those of

is to explain a solution of the contradictions discovered by

Burali-Forti and the author. South Africa and North America.-Graptolites from Bolivia,

The solution is sought in collected by Dr. J. W. Evans in 1901-1902 : Dr. Ethel

the substitutional theory, sketched in a previous paper by M. R. Wood. In black pyritic shales from three localities

the author, according to which statements apparently about several specimens of Didymograptus were collected : one

a class are significant only when they can be analysed

into statements about all or some of the members of the Trierable to bifidus, one of the type of affinis, and one of itie Nicholsoni type. Phyllograptus, Glossograptus, Crypto- and relations.--The expansion of polynomials in series of

class. The substitutional theory is extended to propositions graptus, and Diplograptus were also obtained. “A pale,

functions : Dr. L. N. G. Filon. The question is that of sik-grey shale shows also rare graptolites, belonging to a species comparable with Climacograptus confertus. These expanding a function f(x) in a series of functions of the forms indicate that both the black and the pale shales

form (km, x), where the numbers kj, kg, . . are the roots belang to horizons in the Upper Arenig rocks (Lower

of a transcendental equation. The method is analogous to Llanvirn of Hicks).—The Phosphatic Chalks of Winter

Cauchy's method of expansion of functions in Fourier's tourne and Boxford (Berkshire): H. J. Osborne White and

series, and depends upon the calculus of residues. In Llewellyn Treacher. Data collected in the district dealt

Cauchy's method a subsidiary function F(x) is introduced with in this paper suffice to show that the more or less

through a knowledge of the form of the coefficients of Phasphatic Chalks above the Vintacrinus-band lie in a

Fourier's series ; in the present paper a rule is given for trough or basin, the formation of which antedates the de

determining this subsidiary function a priori, and the rule position of the Reading beds. When the area of observ

is shown to be applicable to many classes of functions ation is extended, it is found that the Uintacrinus-Chalk

0(x,x) when the function f(x), of which the expansion is oi that tract itself lies in a structural depression. The

desired, is a polynomial. The subsidiary function Fix) Phosphatic Chalks of Winterbourne and Taplow evidently

being known, the coefficients in the expansion of f(x) can mark places on the sea-floor particularly liable to the

be obtained explicitly.-The motion of a swarm of particles impingement of strong currents, and may mark places above

the centre of gravity of which describes an elliptic orbit of which the water commonly had a gyratory motion. In any

small eccentricity round the sun : Dr. E. J. Routh. It Case, their zonal range argues a marked degree of stability

is proved that for a spherical swarm the period equation in the current-system of the body of water in which they

takes the Lagrangian determinantal form, and the con

ditions of stability can were laid down.

be completely exhibited. The

problem of a swarm of unequal thicknesses in different Physical Society, April 27.-Dr. C. Chree, F.R.S., vice

directions is illustrated by a discussion of the case in which president, in the chair.—Some simple questions on the

the boundary is ellipsoidal; and the changes of length of

two diameters in the plane of motion, one of which passes images of microscopes and telescopes : W. B. Croft. It mar have been noticed that when a microscope is focused

through the sun, are investigated in detail.--The theory visually, an image is formed on the focusing-glass of a

of integral equations : H. Bateman. The partial integral camera, into which the microscopic eye-piece is inserted

equation after removing the camera-lens. This image remains more or less in focus at variable positions of the camera-screen.

x) f(x, t) dx = f(s, x) h(x, t) dx Although it is not always perhaps true, yet it is surprising huw often the pencil emerging from a microscope eye-piece

is regarded as the characteristic equation of a transformturbares like a single concentrated line of light. Several

ation by which the properties of the function h(s, t) are pholographs of microscopic details exhibited

deducible from those of x(s, t). This transformation leaves numate how often the author had found, when projecting unaltered the numbers for which the homogeneous from an optical eye-piece, that no change can be detected equation in the definition of the image as the screen of the camera 15 moved. If a camera-lucida is placed on the eye-piece, tha ittigte of a stage-micrometer can be thrown on a scale 10 inches distance or at 40 inches distance. The parallel

possesses a solution different from zero. The numbers in rav: emerging from the eye-piece give the image of a point

are important in the theory of the potential and in conalong a direction, at no definite position. The image can

nection with a certain theory of the origin of spectral bue imagined at 40 inches distance as easily as 10 inches.

lines.—Linear differential equations of rank unity: E. Mr. Croft also showed some photographs taken from sec

Cunningham. The paper is concerned with an extension tions of the human eye; he indicated that a divergent pencil

of Laplace's method of solution of linear differential equafroin a small aperture or from a convex reflecting surface

tions by means of definite integrals. The proposed soluof large curvature will give the Purkinje figures as bright

tion takes the form of a double integral involving a subradiating lines, whereas the usual method of sending light

sidiary function which satisfies a certain partial differential through the side of the sclerotic gives them as shadows.

equation. Particular forms of this subsidiary function are Several difierent specimens were shown of magnetic oxide

developed, and the appropriate domains of integration of uron and magnetic sulphides of iron. The power of

determined. nickel and cobalt to receive permanent magnetism was

Paris. illustrated with a compass-needle of nickel.--The lateral Academy of Sciences, April 30.-M. H. Poincaré in the silication of bars subjected to forces in the direction of their chair.--Diphenyl alkylphenyl camphomethane and air : ). Morrow. Three cases of unloaded bars are dealt methylene : A. Haller and E. Bauer.—Simple relations with, namely, those under the following end-con- between the statical actions " of muscle with the energy ditions –" supported-supported," clamped-clamped," and which produces them : A. Chauveau.—The doubly infinite ** clamped-supported." Expressions are obtained from which varieties of points of a quadric in space of four dimensions the frequencies may be calculated, and the results are applicable to a plane : C. Guichard.-Contribution to the stated in a form such that the determination of stresses, study of the infra-red spectrum : Milan Stephanik. In ittominal couples, &c., may be easily made. The case of the study of the infra-red region of the spectrum three greatni interest is that of a stretched bar clamped at each methods have hitherto been used, the thermometric method, Frid. Approximate solutions of this problem have been the photographic method, and the utilisation of the phenoarrived at by both Serbeck and Donkin. These are on the mena of phosphorescence. In studying the eclipse of assumption that the vibration is but slightly affected by August 30, 1905, the author noticed that when a deep red the rigidity of the material. An assumption of a very screen was placed in front of the slit of the spectroscope lillepeat character, and one generally fulfilled in structural a portion of the infra-red spectrum became visible. This

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method has been followed up at the Meudon Observatory, various screens being tried. It was found that the best results were obtained when the screen absorbed nearly the whole of the luminous spectrum, leaving only the extreme red and infra-red rays. The ultra-red spectrum has been mapped out in this way down to I Hi and, in certain circumstances, a litt further with some difficulty.-A theorem of J. Clark : Maurice d'Ocagne.—The result of the experimental study of a centrifugal ventilator : Henri and Léon Bochet. A study of the Capell ventilator, for which an abnormal yield had been claimed by the inventor. The results generally support the inventor's views.-A galvanometer with movable needle for alternating currents : Henri Abraham. The instrument is of the d'Arsonval type, the permanent magnet being replaced by an electromagnet excited by an alternating current of the same frequency. In delicate measurements the best results are obtained by exciting the electromagnet by a small auxiliary transformer. Details are given of the sensibility obtainable.-The spectra of alloys : J. de Kowalski and P. B. Huber. Copper-magnesium and copper-zinc alloys were studied. By interposing self-induction in the discharge circuit a larger number of lines disappear from the spectrum when the electrodes consist of the pure metal than when an alloy is used. The lines which have disappeared in the spectra of the alloys are the same for the copper-magnesium and the copper-zinc alloys, and belong to copper. The results can be explained by Prof. J. J. Thomson's views, or by supposing that the mean temperature in the oscillating discharge between the electrodes is higher in the case of the alloy than with the pure metal.--The synthesis of BB-dimethyl- and BB-trimethylpimelic acids : G. Blanc. The starting point of this synthesis is the anhydride of BB-dimethylglutaric acid. This is reduced by sodium and absolute alcohol to a lactone, and the latter, treated by phosphorus pentabromide and alcohol consecutively, gives the ethyl ester of 8-bromoBB-dimethylvaleric acid. The condensation of this bromocompound with the sodium derivative of malonic ester leads to the desired BB-dimethylpimelic acid. The substitution of the sodium derivative of methyl-malonic ester in this condensation gives the trimethylpimelic acid.—The chemical composition of glauconite : Léon W. Collet and Gabriel W. Lee. The analysis of a fresh sample of glauconite from the collection of Sir John Murray, of the Challenger Office, showed that it is a ferric and not a ferrous silicato.--Overlapping strata in Sicily: Maurice Lugeon and Émile Argand. The existence of phenomena of drift earlier than the Stephanian in the region of SaintEtienne : P. Termier and G. Friedel.

SOCIETY OF CHEMICAL INDUSTRY, at 8.-The Problem of the Electro

chemical Fixation of Nitrogen : Prof. P. A. Guye. Victoria INSTITUTE, at 4:30.--Biblical Astronomy, part ii., The Morning Star: Colonel George Mackinlay.

TUESDAY, MAY 22. ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 5.-Glands and their Products : Prof. William

Stirling ANTHROPOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, at 8.15.-(1) Exbibition of Slides of Stone Monuments from India ; (2) The "Genna" in Assam: T. C. Hodson.


OP Arts, at 8:- The General Supply of Electricity for Power and other Purposes : J. N. Shoolbred. GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 8.-On the importance of Halimeda as a Reel

forming Organism, with a Description of the Halimeda-limestones of the New Hebrides: F. Chapman and Douglas Mawson.-Notes on the Genera Omospira, Lophospira, and Turritoma, with Descriptions of New Species : Miss Jane Donald.

THURSDAY, MAY 24, Royal Society, at 4.30.-Croonian Lecture : On the Presence of Special

Excitable Substances in Sulated Muscle and in Tissue Cells : Prof. J. N.

Langley, F.R.S. ROYAL INSTITUTIOx, at 5.-Man and the Glacial Period: Prof. W. J.

Sollas, F.R.S. UNIVERSITY OF LONDON, at 5.-The Atmospheric Circulation and its

Relation to Weather: Dr. W. N. Shaw, F.R.S. INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.-Annual General Meeting

-Report of Council and Election of the New Council.
SOCIETY OF ARTS, at 4.30.-- The Parsis of Persia : Major P. M. Sykes,

LINNEAN Society, at 3.-Anniversary Meeting.

ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 9.-Compressed Air and its Physiological Effects:

Leonard Hill, F.R.S. Physical Society, at 5.-Colour Phenomena in Photometry: J. S. Dow.

-Exhibition of an Automatic Arc Lamp: H. Tomlinson and Rer. G. T. Johnston.--The Theory of Moving Coil and other Kinds of Ballistic Galvanometers: Prof. H. A. Wilson, F.R.S.-Exhibition of a Bifilar Galvanometer free from Zero Creep: A. Campbell.

SATURDAY, MAY 26. ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 3.–The Old and the New Chenistry: Sir James

Dewar, F.R.S.

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PAGE The Mechanism of the Universe.

49 Prof. Ehlers's “ Festschrift." By Dr. F. W. Gamble 50 The Birds of Tunisia. By O. V. Aplin

51 Amæbæ and their Allies

52 Our Book Shelf:Physikalisch-chemisches Centralblatt"

53 Jones: “The Philosophy of Martineau in Relation to the Idealism of the Present Day

53 Wragge : “The Romance of the South Seas'

53 “The Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew."-R. L.

53 Findlay : “ Physical Chemistry, and its Applications in Medical and Biological Science"

53 Letters to the Editor:

Osmotic Pressure. – W. C. D. Whetham, F.R.S. ;
Earl of Berkeley and E. G. J. Hartley

Diurnal Variation of the Ionisation in Closed Vessels.
-Dr. O. W. Richardson

55 Defects in Ostrich Feathers in South Africa. (Illus trated.)- Prof. J. E. Duerden.

55 Origin of the Term "Metabatic.”-Robert E. Baynes 56 The Pearl Fisheries of Ceylon. (Illustrated.)

57 The Aborigines of Unexplored New Guinea. (Illus

trated.) By Dr. C. G. Seligmann . The Royal Society Conversazione

59 Notes

61 Our Astronomical Column:

Comets 19066 and 1906c
The Astronomical and Astrophysical Society of America 64
Solar Prominences during 1905

65 The Period of B Lyrå

65 The Sixth International Congress of Applied Che. mistry. ...

65 The Survey of India

67 The Iron and Steel Institute. University and Educational Intelligence

69 Societies and Academies

70 Diary of Societies . ..

THURSDAY, MAY 17. Royal Society, at 4.30.-Determinations of Wave-Length from Spectra

obtained at the Total Solar Eclipses of 1900, 1901 and 1905 : Prof. F. W. Dyson, F.R.S.-Some Stars with Peculiar Spectra : Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B.. F R.S., and F. E. Baxandall.-An Apparent Periodicity in the Vield of Wheat for Eastern England, 1885-1905: Dr. W. N. Shaw, F.R.S.--Some Physical Constants of Ammonia : a Study of the Effect of Change of Temperature and Pressure on an Easily Condensible Gas : Dr.

E. P. Perman and J. H. Davies, CHEMICAL SOCIETY, at 8.30.-The Relation between Absorption Spectra

and Chemical Constitution, part vi., The Phenvi Hydrazones of Simple Aldehydes and Ketones: E. C. C. Baly and W. B. Tuck.--Aromatic Compounds obtained from the Hydroaromatic Series, part ii., The Action of Phosphorus Pentachloride on Trimethyldihvdroresorcin : A. W. Crossley and J. S. Hills. -Studies of Dynamic Isumerism, part v., Isomeric Sulphonic-derivatives of Camphor': T. M. Lowry and E. H. Magson. --Studies on Basic Carbonates, part i., Magnesium Carbonates :

W. A. Davis. ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 5.-The Influence of Ptolemaic Egypt on Græco

Roman Civilisation : Rev. J. P. Mahatfy. INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.- Notes on Overbead Equipment of Tramways: R. N. Tweedy and H. Dudgeon.

FRIDAY, May 18. ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 9.- International Science : Prof. A. Schuster, F.R.S.

SATURDAY, MAY 19. ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 3.-The Old and New Chemistry: Sir James Dewar, F.R.S.

MONDAY, MAY 21. ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY, at 3. --Anniversary Meeting.-(1) Pre

sentation of Medals and Awards : (2) Address by the President ; (3) Annual Report and Election of President and Council.


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