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simple comparison of positions at the extreme limits of

ANTI-TYPHOID VACCINE. time it is not made clear why observations at interTilattiate dates, such as those of the Radcliffe Observatory,

On the Standardisation of Anti-typhoid have not been used. The plan adopted seems the more

Vaccine, by Captain George Lamb and Captain strange, since the precessional variation has been applied of the Government of India, No. 21.

W. B. C. Forster, has just appeared (Scientific Memoirs

Calcutta: The and a comparison has been instituted. Considering the important part these proper motions were to play in the

Government Printing Office, 1906. Pp. 15. Price 7d.). subsequent discussion, it would seem that too much care

After reviewing the various methods which have been procould not be exercised in their determination. These proper

posed for the standardisation of Wright's anti-typhoid motions have been arranged in tables according to their

vaccine, Captains Lamb and Forster come to the conclusion mount, or the magnitude of the stars, or the character

that the virulence of the organisms used in the preparation

of the vaccines must be taken into account. Since it of spectrum, and, indeed, in every way that ingenuity tould suggest as likely to be useful. This method of dis

appears that virulence is in direct proportion to the number, tribution cannot but be of essential service to those who

or avidity for immune body, of the receptors, an estimation wish to make further use of the material.

of these latter in any vaccine will take cognisance of the Next we have a determination of the precessional con

virulence of the organism from which it was prepared. stanta. The final result may not possess more than an

Admitting this as a basis, the method of standardisation araulemic interest, but the research is thorough and

suggested by Captains Lamb and Forster is to estimate valuable. It would serve no useful purpose to enter into

what dilution of the various vaccines when mixed in equal details since those who are interested in such recondite

parts with serum is able to remove completely the bacteriquestions must refer to the original sources for inform

cidal power of that serum ; in other words, to determine in ation but the numerical results may be quoted, since they

what dilution of vaccine the receptors completely neutralise

the amboceptor content of the serum. This is carried out by differ from Newcomb's values by a greater amount than would have been anticipated. For the centennial values

preparing a number of different dilutions of the vaccine, of m and , we have :

which are each mixed with the same amount (100 of fresh goat serum, and left in contact for an hour at

37° C. At the end of this period a small quantum of living Newcomb 4607". II 2005". 11

typhoid culture is added to each tube, the several tubes are Dyson and Thackeray 4607":57 2005"-31 incubated for about twenty-four hours, and then sterile

broth is added to each tube in order to ascertain whether Another result which follows incidentally from the method the bacilli have been killed or no, and in this way various of discussion is to show that, so far as this material is vaccines may be compared. The memoir must be consulted available, there is no reason to suspect any rotation of the for the details of the method.

R. T. HEWLETT. anghter stars, as a whole, relatively to the fainter stars.

Lastly, the authors assign a direction to the solar motion, ut rather many directions, for the material is discussed in

UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL many ways, all interesting. Here, again, we must content

INTELLIGENCE. ourselves with the final result, which places the apex of the sun's motion in right ascension 2750 and north declin

OXFORD.—The thirteenth “ Robert Boyle" lecture of the ation 37, referred, presumably, to the equinox of 1850.

Junior Scientific Club will be delivered by Prof. J. H. In tendering our congratulations to Messrs. Dyson and Poynting, F.R.S., on Wednesday, May 30, upon the subThackeray, and all who have been engaged in this work, ject of The Pressure of Light. up cannot help remarking that, as in the past, the Royal

Mr. J. S. C. Douglas, Christ Church, has been elected Observatory has distinguished itself by its energy in

to the Radcliffe travelling fellowship for 1906. laboriously piling up observations, so in this instance, it

Prof. Ritchie, fellow of New College, has been nominated demonstrates equally happily its power to make the accu

as an examiner in preventive medicine for 1906, 1907, and mulated material available for the advance of philosophical

1908. astronomy.

The 284th meeting of the Junior Scientific Club was The title of the second book reminds us how loyally

held on May 16, when Mr. P. W. Robertson read a paper the Greenwich Observatory has served the purposes of its

"A New Method of Estimating Quinine," and Prof. foundation. To determine, or to supply the means for

E. G. Hill one on Chemistry in India." determining the longitude has constantly figured in its CAMBRIDGE.—The museums and lecture rooms syndicate programme of work. The times have altered, the conditions has reported that the chemical laboratory of Gonville and of the problem have changed, and, above all, accuracy Caius College will be closed at the end of the academic has increased, but, steadfast to its original design, the year 1906-7. It will therefore be necessary to provide Royal Observatory has always been willing to assist in further accommodation in the University for the students such inquiries, whether in the interests of navigation or who have hitherto found places in the chemical laboratory. for the purposes of geodesy. The Paris meridian seems to The museums and lecture rooms syndicate recommends that have been a constant source of anxiety to Greenwich, and a site in the museums' grounds contiguous to the buildings the present volume gives the history of no less than three of medicine should be set apart for this purpose. It is attempts to grapple with the difficulty. The two earlier also recommended that the proposed extension of the results, om. 20-85s, and gm. 20.795. west of Greenwich, Cavendish Laboratory should take place on a site with a comm fairly accordant to the lay mind, but since they both frontage to Free School Lane to the north of the existing differed in the same direction from the results of the French building Lord Rayleigh's gift of 5000l. of the Nobel prize observers, the small discrepancy led to a third attempt in will, it is hoped, enable this building shortly to be begun. 1902, from which it appeared that Paris was

west of

The Vice-Chancellor has been authorised to convey to Greenwich gm. 20-9325., with a probable error of only the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths the thanks of the n.cons. Since this probable error is equivalent to about University for its munificent gift of 5oool., to be applied the length of an ordinary writing table, it would seem to the present needs of the l'niversity library. to possess the necessary accuracy, and the problem of the The well-known authority on coral reefs and oceandistance between the meridians of Greenwich and Paris ography, Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner, has been nominated by may be considered as laid aside for some time to come. the master and fellows of Gonville and Caius College to be The remaining portion of the book is concerned with the pro-proctor for the ensuing year. longitudrs of Montreal, Waterville, and Canso, and of Dr. Bonney will lecture at 5 p.m. on Thursday, May 31, stations incidentally connected with the scheme of oper- in the Sedgwick Museum, on " Volcanoes and Man's ations. The result is to place Montreal in west longitude | Experience of them.” th. 54m. 18.625., with an uncertainty of about 20 feet. Steps are being taken for the provision of a permanent Doubtless the day will come when this error will be felt endowment to place the Balfour library in a secure position. in be intolerable, but if a demand is made for a fresh The library owes its origin to the generosity of the family inquiry, we may be sure that the best traditions of Green- of the late Prof. F. M. Balfour, who after his death in wich will respond to the appeal.

W. E. P. 1882 presented his scientific books to the l'niversity for the



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use of the zoological laboratory. The library so constituted and special schools ; certain hygienic and sexual questions was housed in a room adjacent to the laboratory, and has in connection with school life; the chemical instruction ever since been freely open to all members of the University given in the training colleges. While the results and reand to others qualified to make use of it. The library has ports of these discussions will be laid before the society been maintained hitherto out of the fees paid by students at the Stuttgart meeting in the autumn, it has been decided attending the classes; and the burden which it thus places to issue a report on the form of instruction recommended upon the resources of the laboratory is undesirable. A com- for the girls' high schools as early as possible. mittee has therefore been formed for the purpose of collecting subscriptions, and of establishing a fund to be called

An addition to the many proofs which have reached us the Balfour Library Endowment Fund, with the object of

of the active interest taken on the Continent in the reforin putting the library on a secure and satisfactory basis.

of mathematical teaching is afforded by the publication or The committee at its first meeting agreed that the fund,

German translation of the address delivered to the

Mathesis Society by Prof. Gino Loria on April 22, 1905. when established, “ be offered to the University at such time and under such conditions as the subscribers shall

at Milan. The translation, which is literal, has been hereafter determine, provided that the management be

made by Dr. H. Wieleitner, and is published by G. J. closely connected with the zoological laboratory, and that

Göschen, of Leipzig, under the title of "Vergangene und the library be freely open to students.' Subscriptions may

künftige Lehrpläne.' The address affords evidence of a be paid to the Balfour Library Endowment Fund, at

general tendency on the Continent to attach less importance

in school curricula Messrs. Barclay's Bank, or to the treasurer, Mr. Adam

the performance of gymnastic

exercises of little educational value, and to introduce the Sedgwick, Zoological Laboratory, New Museums, Cambridge. The sum already received or promised amounts to

wider ideas of higher mathematics at an earlier stage in about sool.

the curricula. The object of mathematical teaching should

be to give the pupils as wide an insight into mathematical The King and Queen will visit Newcastle on July 11 methods, especially higher methods, as is consistent with to open the new wing that completes the Armstrong College. thoroughness. It is impossible to study a paper like this The King will also open the new university buildings at

without seeing how much better off in this respect our Aberdeen on September 24.

Continental rivals are than we are. This difference is due It has been resolved by the Corporation of McGill Uni- partly to the fact that under our university systems a large versity, Montreal, to confer the honorary degree of LL.D.

proportion of the mathematical teachers of our schools on Dr. D. Macalister, president of the General Medical

never learn any higher mathematics whatever, whereas in Council of the United Kingdom.

Germany or Italy every student has the opportunity of It is announced from the Agricultural Department of the studying under specialists. A second cause of difference is University of Edinburgh that Mr. E. Thompstone has been

due to the lesser importance attached on the Continent to

examinations and syllabuses. In illustration of the spirit of appointed assistant deputy director of agriculture for

the paper. Prof. Gino Loria considers that “elementary Bombay Presidency, and Mr. Roger Prosser will go to La Germania, Argentina, to investigate salt soils.

conics" is of little value as usually studied, as the subjec

contains no new ideas, and the pupils are only wearied with There is a vacancy for a junior assistant secretary, hold

complicated exercises. This is certainly true of the subject ing a science degree or possessing equivalent qualifications,

as commonly taught, but, at the same time, a course of in the office of the department of technology of the City elementary mathematics ought to contain some introduction, and Guilds of London Institute. Applicants for the appoint- however small, to the study of common curves, their tanment should communicate with the superintendent,

gents, and their other simpler properties treated gerExhibition Road, London, S.W.

metrically and not as graphs. ACCORDING to the Chemiker Zeitung, the University of Basle has fallen into line with the German universities, and

The conditions of admission of students to college not now requires from all German doctor candidates the leaving

only vary in different countries, but also often in the colleges certificate of a nine-year gymnasium or of a corresponding ceiving interested attention among educationists in

and universities of the same country. This subject is re

the Swiss institution. The German Government had threatened not to recognise the doctor's degree if the University con

United States. Science for April 27 prints an address by tinued to grant it on the old conditions.

President G. E. MacLean, of the State ('niversity of lawit,

which discusses the question : Can there be a coordination A GENERAL meeting of old students of the Technical College, Finsbury, was held on May 8 to discuss the pro

of the examining, certificate, and accrediting (including posal to form an Old Students' Association. In a short

school inspection) systems for admission to college, looking

toward a common or national administration in the interests opening speech Sir Owen Roberts, who occupied the chair, expressed his approval of such associations, and said that

of students, colleges, and the preservation of standards?

The American procedure in this matter is not uniform it gave him great pleasure to preside at the organisation

The western plan may be said to be the admission of students meeting of such a one as this promises to be. Dr. M. O.

to colleges and universities by certificates from duly in. Forster, F.R.S., was elected president of the association. It is announced in Science that Mr. Andrew Carnegie is to admit only by examinations conducted by represent

spected secondary schools, while in eastern States the method has made a donation of 20,000l, to Lehigh Cniversity; and

ative boards or otherwise. Some valuable opinions are that the movement to increase the endowment of Victoria

collected in the address as to the relative value of the two University, Toronto, by 60,000l. is now practically com

President MacLean says that the accrediting pleted. The amount has been raised all but 24001., count

system has raised the standard of the work done. It has ing the 10,0001. given by Mr. Carnegie. The latter gift linked the secondary school into one system with the was conditional upon the raising of an additional 10,000l., college. It has given an increase of students entering but no trouble in fulfilling the condition is expected. college, and with better average preparation. It is soineAccording to the N.Y. Evening Post Sir William McDonald,

times alleged that the scholarship of students admitted on of Montreal, has given 11,000l. for the purpose of erecting certificate is lower than that of students who are required an extension to Prince of Wales College, Charlottetown,

to pass examinations, but Fresident Schurman, of Cornell, P.E.I. Additional facilities will be provided for teaching

says the experience at his university dor's not support the nature-study, domestic science and kindred subjects, and for contention. On the other hand, Prof. Hadley, of Yale, training teachers.

believes that the examination method is fairer to bors who The commission appointed by the German Association of come from a distance to the university. Yet, with the Naturalists and Physicians at Breslau in 1904 to consider exception of Harvard, Yale, and Princeton, practically the mathematical and scientific instruction in German a coordination of the examining, certificate, and accreditins schools held a general meeting in Elberfeld on April 9-11, sustem has been reached inasmuch as testimonials issued and discussed the following questions at length :-the by the college authorities are interchangeable. President syllabus of the mathematical and scientific teaching in the MacLean concludes by urging the need for liberty to earlı girls' high schools, in the six-class Realschulen and in institution, and records his belief that it is a question of the Reformschulen; the science teaching of the elementary evolution—the best system or combination of systems will and continuation schools, as well as that of the commercial survive.



- The constitution of the hydroxides and cyanides obtained LONDON.

from acridine, methyl-acridine, and phenanthridine methZoological Society, May 1.-Dr. Henry Wooduard,

iodides : C. K. Tinkler.—The constitution of ammonium E.R.S., vice-president, in the chair. -Skin of a remark: amalgam : Miss E. M. Rich and M. W. Travers. The al lp new duiker from Nyasaland, presented to the British

results of determinations of the freezing points of a series Museum by Mr. S. W. Frank : Oldfield Thomas.

of samples of ammonium amalgam have led the authors The

to the conclusion that it is true solution of ammonium animal was named Cephalophus walkeri, sp.n.-Further notas on anthropoid apes : Hon. W. Rothschild. The

in mercury.--Action of light on potassium ferrocyanide :

G. W. A. Foster. When a neutral or alkaline solution of authur exhibited five mounted specimens, one skeleton, six hulle, and a photograph of the following races :-Gorilla

potassium ferrocyanide is exposed to light, a purely photogorilla, durk-headed_race, G. gorilla, red-headed race,

chemical action ensues, and ferric hydroxide is slowly pre6. gorilla mutschiei, G. gorilla diehli, Simia vellerosus, cipitated. A mercury vapour lamp was used as a source

of light.--Note on the constitution of cellulose : A. G. and spellerosus fuliginosus.--Mammals collected in SouthWrst Australia for Mr. W. E. Balston : Oldfield Thomas.

Green and A. G. Perkin. The supposed tetra-acetate of Thirty-two species and subspecies were enumerated, of

cellulose has been re-investigated and found to be in reality

a triacetate. This affords further evidence of the correctwhich the following were described as new :- Scoteinus

ness of Green's formula for the nucleus of the carbohydrate. holstone, sp.n., Tachyglossus aculeatus ineptus, subsp.n.-A

When series of papers on the Lepidoptera collected in South Tibet

Some new derivatives of pinene : F. P. Leach. by the polticers during the recent expedition to that country

pinene nitrosochloride is treated with potassium cyanate in under Colonel Sir Frank Younghusband, Mr. H. J.

alcohol at 50° to 60°, a compound, C, H,,0,N,, separates.

When heated with concentrated sulphuric acid it yields a Elwes gala an account of the butterflies contained in the rullection, which comprised thirty-three species and varie

base, C.H.ON,. This is amphoteric, and appears to be tips four of which were described as new. The moths,

an amino-oxime; it is also obtainable from pinene nitroso

chloride muclusive of the Tineidre, have been worked out by Sir

by the action of ammonia.-Glutaconic and (srryr Mampson, Bart., who enumerated the sixty-three and Thorpe's work on these acids.

aconitic acids : S. Ruhemann. A criticism of Rogerson *patirs of which specimens were obtained. Of these, Amples of thirty-six species were taken at moderate Anthropological Institute, May 8.- Mr. H. Balfour, exrirvations in Sikhim, 'and belonged to the Indian fauna, president,' in the chair.-Phonograph records of native two being urscribed as new; twenty-seven species belonged songs from the Congo, collected by Dr. J. L. Todd, were In the l'altarctic fauna, of which nine were widespread exhibited. The songs were all collected in the upper and righteon Tibetan ; ten of these were described as new.

waters of the Congo, and were of great interest as speciAn arcount of the Tineide was supplied by Mr. J. Hartley mens of native African music.-Notes on the ethnography Durrant ; they were referred to four species, two of which of the Ba-Mbala : E. Torday and T. A. Joyce. The data wf" new.--Contributions to the knowledge of the vascular on which the paper was based were collected by Mr. and respiratory systems in the Ophidia and to : anatomy Torday. The Ba-Mbala are a Bantu tribe inhabiting the o the genera Boa and Corallus : F. E. Beddard.

district between the Kwilu and the Inzai, tributaries of Chemical Society, May 3.-Prof. H. E. Armstrong, F.R.S.,

the Kasai, in the Congo Free State. The country had past-president, in the chair.–The chairman gave expression

not previously been visited by a white man, at least for tu the sense of loss sustained by the Chemical Society in

many years. The most interesting feature connected with the dtath of Prof. Pierre Curie. The meeting endorsed

these people is perhaps the fact that they are cannibals, the letter of condolence addressed by the president to Mme.

men, women, and children all indulging, with the excepMarie Curie, an honorary and foreign member of the

tion of a particular class known as Juri, who are dissocirty.–The relation between absorption spectra and

tinguished by wearing a particular kind of bracelet. chemical constitution, part v., the isonitroso-compounds :

Another interesting feature of these people is that they E. C. C. Baly, Miss E. G. Marsden, and A. W. Stewart.

appear to have borrowed all their knowledge of crafts From observations of the absorption spectra of several

from the neighbouring tribes. The paper was illustrated

by a collection of specimens sent home by Mr. Torday, ison tro04 ompounds in neutral and alkaline solution it is

and also by lantern-slides. found that the free substances most probably have the R.C:0

Physical Society, May 11.-Dr. C. Chree, F.R.S., viceconstitution

but in presence of sodium hydroxide president, in the chair.—The dead points of a galvanoR.CH.NO

meter needle for transient currents : A. Russell. When the starred hydrogen atom is replaced by sodium and be- many types of needle galvanometer are connected with a comes labile. Isorropesis then takes place between the condenser and a battery in the ordinary manner by a >C:0 and >C:N groups, a tautomeric process being the charge and discharge key the following phenomena can arfuating mechanism.-The residual affinity of coumarin easily be observed. When the needle is initially at right as shown by the formation of oxonium salts: G. T. angles to the axis of the galvanometer coil, and the spot Morgan and Miss F. M. G. Micklethwait. Platini- of light is in the centre, X, of the scale, the throws on chlorides of coumarin, 6-aminocoumarin, ethyl-6-amino- charge and discharge are equal. If the controlling magnet coumarin, dimethyl-6-aminocoumarin, acetyl-b-amino- be turned through a small angle, or if the suspending fibre coumarin, and a coumarin hydriodide periodide

be twisted slightly so that the spot of light is not in the varribed. The formation of these salt-like additive com- centre of the scale initially, the throws on charge and dispounds of roumarin agrees with the results of earlier charge are not equal. The algebraic difference between inteligators. Coumarin also exhibits an amphoteric them, however, is constant. Hence, for an initial position charurier in combining with metallic oxides and hydroxides. P, of the spot of light there is no throw on charge, and -Braslin and hematoxylin, part vii., some derivatives of similarly for another initial position P, there is no throw brusik in: P. Engels and W. H. Perkin, jun. Brazilein on discharge. The author shows that these effects can be is inip colouring matter produced when brazilin is oxidised explained with considerable accuracy by supposing that in alkaline solution by means of air. Trimethylbrazilein, the magnetism of the needle consists of two parts, one Ir theidsbrizilein formic acid, trimethylisobrazilein sulphate, permanent and the other proportional to the magnetising and trimrehu brazilein hydroxylamine were described.

force. He finds that it is easy to arrange with a low'. The action of tribromopropane on the sodium derivative of resistance galvanometer so that a, relatively speaking, rhyt malunale: W. H. Perkin, jun., and J. L. Simonsen. gigantic charge can be passed through the coil without - Pipizahoic acid: J. McConnell Sanders. The author producing any throw at all. He also finds that all the Ponsiders that the composition is best represented by the galvanometers he has tested, whether needle or moving formula C.H.O., it being thus isomeric with camphor- coil, will produce throws when certain transient current quinone and similar to, although not identical with, the pass through them, even although the integral value of 108 amphorquinone discovered by Manasse. The acid these currents is zero. It also appears that the effective xrrms jo lahave as a hydroxy-ketone, forming a resinous internal resistance of ordinary condensers is appreciable in å riil cursound and a greenish-brown copper derivative. certain cases.



Royal Meteorological Society, May 16.- Mr. Richard electrification of the air to effects of its contact with bodies Bentley, president, in the chair.-An instrument for test- at the earth's surface, e.g. to friction, or to greater loss ing and adjusting the Campbell-Stokes sunshine recorder : of negative than of positive ions on account of their greater Dr. W. N. Shaw and G. C. Simpson. Experience has mobility. In an article in NATURE in June, 1903, it was shown the necessity of an instrument for testing the shape suggested that the precipitation theory of the origin of the and dimensions of recorders, and for verifying their adjust- electrical field might have to be abandoned on account of ment when installed. But it is not at all easy by mere the difficulty of explaining how positively charged air could inspection or simple measurements with ordinary measur. be carried from wet-weather regions for any considerable ing instruments to check the adjustment, nor is it possible distance without losing practically all its charge, and

a sunless day, without some special instrument, to another possible origin of the electrical field was suggested, check the orientation, and so the time-scale of the sunshine ise, the arrival at the earth's surface, from external sources, recorder. The authors have devised an instrument for this of negatively-charged particles of the nature of extremely purpose, which they fully described in the paper.-The penetrating kathode rays. This hypothesis has been made development and progress of the thunder-squall of February less unlikely by the recent experiments of Campbell and 8, 1906: R. G. K. Lempfert. This squall was first noted Wood, which suggest the existence at the earth's surface at Stornoway soon after midnight, and the last station in of rays from cosmical sources. On the other hand, the England to feel its effects was Hastings, over which it difficulty in the way of the precipitation theory is removed passed at about 4 p.m. The rate of progress was nearly if the current from the wet- to the fine-weather regions uniform, though it increased somewhat in the south-east is regarded as due to conduction in the upper atmosphere, of the country, where the thunder and hail storms were and not merely to convection of the positive charge by most intense. The average speed of advance of the line of winds.-A class of integral equations : H. Bateman.squall was about thirty-eight miles per hour. The most A suggestion as to the nature of the horny teeth of the marked feature of this squall was the sudden shift of the Marsipobranchii : H. W. Marett Tims. It is difficult to wind in the course of a few minutes from south-west to accept the homologies which have been proposed between north-west, and it was during this period that the thunder- the horny teeth of the Marsipobranchii and the teeth of storm occurred, accompanied by a rise of barometric pres. higher vertebrates. The published accounts of the developsure and a fall of temperature.

ment of the former appear to the writer to harmonise more Society of Chemical Industry (London Section), May 7.—

closely with the development of the teleostean scale, from Mr. A. Gordon Salamon in the chair.-Notes on the Gut

which it is suggested in the present paper that the horny zeit test for arsenic : J. A. Goode and Dr. F. Mollwo

teeth may have been derived. Perkin. Owing to the difficulty of obtaining zinc free

EDINBURGH. from arsenic, the authors used an ammonium salt-preferably the chloride-and metallic magnesium. Numbers are

Royal Society, May 7:—Dr. R. H. Traquair, vice-presi. given showing the solution potential of magnesium in dent, in the chair.–Vibrating systems which are not subammonium chloride and sulphuric and hydrochloric acids, ject tot' Boltzmann-Maxwell law: Dr. W. Peddie. also the difference produced by the addition of cadmium

In this paper the question of the partitioning of energy in salts. The potential found was always lowered by the

a system of mutually influencing masses is considered, the addition of the cadmium salt. Attempts to obtain a per

law of action assumed being the generalised Hooke's law. manent stain were unsuccessful. The authors, however,

It is shown that equipartition of energy is in general do not consider that this is a matter of great importance, impossible. An infinity of cases with a given number of because as the test is so readily carried out it is easy to

degrees of freedom in which equipartition holds is possible, conduct several experiments simultaneously, one to pro

but the order of the infinity of cases in which it does not duce a standard stain, one a blank, and the other with hold is greater. A method of time averages for a single the substance under examination. The authors found that system is used. When equipartition cannot hold in the mercuric bromide is more delicate than mercuric chloride,

case of any one system, the same result must be true for and the stain is more intense. With mercuric bromide it

the space averages of a large number. In the course of is possible to detect 1/2000 mg. of arsenic. Although

the work a very symmetrical condition for the reality of magnesium and ammonium chloride were employed by the

the roots of an n-ic is found.—The superposition of authors, they also used zinc and acids, and obtained results mechanical vibrations upon magnetisation, and conversel equally as good. In fact, they consider that zinc and acid

in iron, steel, and nickel : James Russell. The wire under is fractionally more sensitive than magnesium and an

examination was, when required, set into mechanical ammonium salt.--The separation of brucine and strych- vibration by means of an electric bell, to the sounding part nine by nitric acid ; influence of nitrous acid : W. c.

of which the one end of the wire was fixed. The investi. Reynolds and R. Sutclifte. The authors have examined

gation was a systematic comparison of the temporary and the processes proposed by Keller (Zeit. Oesterr. Apoth, residual magnetisations of these materials in various cyclic l'er., 1893, 542), Stoeder (Ned. Tydschr. Pharm., 1899,

fields, according as the material was or was not in a state xi., 1-5), and Gorden (Arch. Pharm., 1902, ccxl., 641-4),

of vibration. The influence also of the condition of the and show under what conditions brucine can be completely

wire, according as it was annealed or quenched,” was oxidised with the minimum loss of strychnine. They have carefully studied. Of the many results obtained the followalso investigated the part played by nitrous acid in the ing may be mentioned :—With permanently acting vibraoxidation, and the action of alkalis on the products.

tions hysteresis loss is increased when the limiting fields Absorption of gallic acid by organic colloids : W. P.

are low, increased when they are high, but always deDreaper and A. Wilson. The absorption of gallic acid

creased when the comparison is made with the limits given by silk and hide powder is shown to be of a similar nature

inductions instead of fields, In the annealed condition of to its absorption by gelatin or albumin. The influence of all three metals, vibrations greatly increase the effects of general reagents and the curves obtained indicate that the field on ” and “ field ofl." When the vibrations are not reactions are due to absorption. The precipitation of these

maintained permanently, but are superposed upon the colloids by tannic and gallic acids indicates, when studied

magnetised condition at different stages of the cycle, the in detail, that the solution state is a determining factor in

results are very different. Thus with continuous vibration the production of these coagula. The influence of gallic

the slope of the curve decreasing from the same maximum acid on the nature of a tannic acid gelatin coagulum is is always greater with vibration than without. On the also observed. The results confirm the pseudo solution

other hand, when the vibration is superposed an increase of theory of dyeing, and indicate the nature of tanning.

induction always occurs on the down curve as the cyclic

extreme is departed from, and this increase passes into deCAMBRIDGE.

crease in the opposite sense as the other cyclic extreme is Philosophical Society, April 30. - Mr. I. J. Lister in the reached.-Neobythites brucei, Poisson abyssal nouveau chair.-Demonstration of new apparatus for psychological recueilli par l'Expédition Antarctique Nationale Ecossaise : tests : W. H. R. Rivers.-The measurement of the earth Louis Dollo. This is a unique specimen of a new fish (family air current and the origin of atmospheric electricity : Brotulidæ) which Mr. W. S. Bruce found in the Weddeil C. T. R. Wilson. The experiments, so far as they go, Sea at a depth of 2500 fathoms, 800 feet deeper than the yield no support to theories which attribute the positive deepest sounding obtained by the Challenger in the same

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region.- The Nematoda of the Scottish National Antarctic as the assumption of divalency for this metal would lead Expedition : Dr. v. Linstow. Seven species were de- to improbable formulæ for these addition products.-The ribed, five of the parasitic genus Ascaris, of which two existence of sulphides of phosphorus; mixtures of phoswere new species, and one undetermined. The others were

phorus and phosphorus sesquisulphide : R. Boulouch. A i new species of Monorygma and a free-living Thoreo- criticism of a paper on the same subject by H. Giran,


Bruce exhibited the specimens, the and a discussion of the nature of the eutectic mixture Vonorygma dentatus found in the stomach of the Weddell's formed by phosphorus and the sulphide P.Sz.--Some will being specially interesting: --A Pfaffian identity and special brasses : Léon Guillet. The addition of an element related vanishing aggregates of determinant minors : Dr. such as aluminium to a brass containing copper and zinc Thomas Muir.

only yields an alloy possessing mechanical properties and Paris.

a micrographic structure corresponding to a pure copperAcademy of Sciences, May 7.—M. H. Poincaré in the zinc brass of quite different composition. From numerous chair.--I he discovery of the proper motions of the stars experiments on the addition of various elements, a quantiw the aid of the stereoscopic method of Dr. Max Wolf : tative expression is developed referring the properties of N. Loowy. The method consists of a comparison in a the alloys thus formed to the pure copper-zinc brasses of stereostope of two photographs of a given portion of the corresponding properties.-A method for the detection and shs taken at several years' interval. Among the photo estimation of small quantities of iron : A. Mouneyrat. Sriphs shown was one bringing out the proper motion of The method is based on the production of a green colour

star of the ninth magnitude in the constellation of Leo. in dilute solutions of iron salts by the action of sulphuretted The proper motion can be evaluated stereoscopically with hydrogen in ammoniacal solution. It is shown that the a greater precision than by the ordinary micrometric reaction is specific to iron and is of extreme delicacy, nu-thods.-Remarks

the twelfth volume of the serving to estimate this metal between the limits of 1/ 1000 " lnnales de l'Observatoire de Bordeaux " : M. Lewy.- and 1/1,000,000.—The production of aromatic sulphamates The methods for the detection of aggregations of luminous by the reduction of nitro-compounds with sodium hydroparticles, mixed with the gases and vapours in the lower sulphite : A. Seyewetz and M. Bloch. Nitrobenzene is part of the solar atmosphere, at other times than during reduced by sodium hydrosulphite in presence of sodium eclipses : B. Deslandres. Very little has been done on phosphate to the sodium salt of phenylsulphamic acid. ihe composition and distribution of the non-gaseous portion The reaction is general for aromatic compounds, and has of the sular atmosphere. The author reviews the difficul- | been extended to the three nitrotoluenes, metanitroxylene, lies of the subject, and gives suggestions as to the best and a-nitronaphthalene.-A seismic disturbance recorded at mode of attacking the problem.---The nidification of bees the Observatory of Ebro on April 18 : P. Cirera. in ihe open air : E. L. Bouvier. An account of two cases in which domesticated bees have built hives in the open

New South Wales. ait on the branches of trees, and of the modifications in the Linnean Society, March 28.-Annual General Meeting. structure necessitated by the exposure to wind and rain.

Mr. T. Steel, president, in the chair.--Annual address : Owing to the neighbouring buildings, one side of the hive the President. The question of rabbit destruction was more exposed than the other. This fact was appreci

was dealt with the proposal to introduce disease for aird by the bees, and the exposed side was strengthened the purpose being condemned, on the grounds that not accordingly, -The conglomerates from the explosions of

only would it not affect the desired extermination, but Vesuvius their minerals, and their comparison with the

also that it was extremely undesirable to introduce a Tachytic conglomerates of Mont Dore : A. Lacroix.- foreign pathogenic microbe of unknown potency under Remarks by M. Albert Gaudry on the forthcoming Inter- ' changed conditions, be broadcasted over the land. fational Congress of Anthropology and Prehistoric Archæ

Attention was directed to the indiscriminate destruction, virgy at Monaco.--The synthesis of penta-methyl-ethanol :

wilful as well as inadvertent, of useful and harmless Luis Henry. The substance (CH),—C—C(OH)-(CH3), indigenous animals, and the deplorable results in loss of soblaned in an attempt to prepare

crops through attacks of insects which are sure to follow

the killing off of insectivorous birds. Taking as the (CH),-CC1-C(OH)-(CH),

special subject of his address that of oceanic physics, the m the interaction of magnesium methyl-bromide and ethyl president briefly sketched the formation of the primary florisobutyrate or the corresponding bromo-compound. ocean, showing that it was in all probability highly saline The method described is the most advantageous one for and that calculations of the age of the earth, based on the Lite preparation of this alcohol.-Researches on the whiten- present rate of transport of salt from the land to the sea, ng af fur and feathers in winter : El. Metchnikoti. are misleading. Regarding the observed rate of increase Obervarions are given showing the probability of the in temperature downwards in the earth's crust, which has virw that the blanching of the hair and feathers, in animals been found to be about 1° F. for each 51 feet of descent, periodically and in man through old age, is due to the reasons were given for considering that this rate is not dil vity of living amaboid cells, chromophages, sensible to maintained, and that a maximum temperature of about + sternal influences, and capable of moving and attacking 7000° F. is reached at a depth of some 800,000 feet, after the pigment grains.-The generalisation of trigono- which the temperature to the earth's centre remains prac1:1 trical series : 1. Bunl.–Certain asymptotic series : L. tically unaltered. Dealing with the phenomenon of windtohlesinger-The acceleration of spherical waves of raised waves, it was shown that these have well-defined wheck: M Jouguet.— The application of the principle of properties, waves of any given size having all their other suposposition to the transmission of alternating currents functions in unison, the height, length, frequency, velocity, Onts a long line. Its graphical representation : A. Blondel. &c., being fixed and invariable, relative to one another. - The interference effects produced by a grating limiting Allusion was made to the enormous amount of energy I thin plate : Georges Meslin. The theory of interference involved in the evaporation which takes place daily from ringe otuch appear when a grating is placed on the convex the ocean surface, and to the profound effect on climate surface of a lens of small curvature, and are distinct caused by the transference of heat absorbed in vapourising Tom Newton's rings. These fringes can be applied prac- water from the sea and again liberated at the places where Oually to the verification of a surface without the use of this vapour condenses to form clouds and rain. The address Honochromatic light, and this testing can be carried out concluded with an examination of the possibilities in rePrirout interrupting the working of the surface, owing to gard to the withdrawal of water from the ocean to be the fact that the diffraction grating may be placed at a stored as ice at the poles, and the result on the relation Silance of some millimetres from the surface without of land and water levels, also on the adequacy of change interfering with the production of the fringes.—The action of land level at the poles to account for the known former ni armonia gas on anhydrous neodymium chloride : C. existence there of a comparatively mild climate.—The first Matignon and R. Trannoy. Neodymium chloride forms recorded occurrence of Blastoidea in New South Wales : Senen different combinations with ammonia, containing re- T. G. Taylor. The Australian Blastoids at present known pecusvelt one, two, four, five, eight, eleven, and twelve comprise three species from the Gympie beds (permoTolkules of ammonia to one of NdCi,. These compounds Carboniferous) of the Rockhampton district, and profrom a further confirmation of the trivalency of neodymium, visionally referred to the genera Metablastus, Granato


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