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why we did not observe it ourselves, had, of Naples, Giovanni Battista Porta, disbeen delayed year after year, without at- covered that if a very small hole be tracting any attention, or at least a very pierced in the window shutter of a room, partial examination. It is equally worthy completely darkened in other respects, of remark, that discoveries are generally or better still if the aperture be perfomade by different persons at about the rated in a thin metallic plate applied to same time, so that it is often difficult to the shutter, all the exterior objects apportion the honour between them, or to from which rays can enter through this say who ought to be considered as having opening will be represented on the ophad the first idea, or as having followed posite wall, in dimensions enlarged or out a principle with most success. It is diminished according to the distance. thus with the photogenic drawing. There He found also that even with this imare already many candidates in the field, perfect apparatus, throughout a large and nation is in competition with nation extent of the picture, objects were painted for the discovery of this process, and a in their natural colours, and with conmuch more laudable competition it must siderable truth of linear perspective. be considered than that in which life and A short time afterwards, Porta found property has been so often sacrificed. that it was not necessary to have the

The art of photogenic drawing may be opening very small, thus limiting the said to depend on two facts That the view; but that if the perforation was forms and shadows of bodies may be covered with a lentiscus, or a convex thrown by the rays of light on surfaces glass, it might be of any dimensions. He capable of receiving them, and That light remarked also the great improvement has the property of changing the charac- thus produced in the delineation. The ters of certain chemical compounds such as images passing through the simple methe white chloride of silver which it con- dium of the hole were without distinctverts into the black oxide. This explana- ness of position, intensity of colour, or tion of the art is, we are conscious, liable to neatness of outline. On the contrary, many objections, and we should, perhaps, with the lentiscus, the mimic forms rihave better described it, by saying, that valled the vivacity and strength of nait is a method of obtaining the forms, ture herself, the focal distances being proportions, and groupings of natural properly adjusted. It is well known objects, by the physical and chemical that all these discoveries of Porta have action of light upon a prepared ground; become truly astonishing in precision but we doubt whether this would convey of detail and strength of colouring since so much information as the previous less the art of constructing achromatic glasses accurate but more explicit statement. has been brought to its present perfection. When we say that the definition wants Formerly a simple lentiscus composed of in accuracy, it must not be understood one kind of glass only, and consequently that it is contrary to present practice; acting with as many separate focuses as but, on the other hand, although it is there are colours in the undecomposed now perfectly true, new methods may white ray, transmitted a comparatively be discovered of producing the effect indistinct image of objects. Now that required with greater ease and with we employ achromatic glasses, which more advantage. Let us, however, now combine all the incident rays in one turn to an examination of the princi- focus, and that a periscopic construcples to which we have referred, and tion of the apparatus likewise has been endeavour to explain them fully to the adopted, great perfection has been given reader.

to its effect. A work has been recently published “Porta constructed also portable dark by M. Daguerre on the history and chambers : these were composed of a practice of the Photogenic Drawing, which tube, longer or shorter, armed with a has been translated by Dr. Memes. In lentiscus as its optic instrument; a screen this book we find an analysis of the of white paper, or some prepared subreport presented to the Chamber of stance, occupied the focus, and upon Deputies by M. Arago, and from it we it the images of external objects were may extract the following passage, which received. The Neapolitan philosopher fully illustrates the first principle to proposed his simple arrangements for which we referred—the projection of the the benefit of those who had not been forms of bodies upon prepared surfaces. taught drawing. According to him,

“ Two centuries ago, a philosopher nothing else was required in order to

camera.

are

ance.

obtain the most perfect transcripts of becomes black when exposed to the light, nature than merely to trace carefully the shades being more and more dark the outline of the focal image.

according to the intensity of the light. “These anticipations of Porta's have The knowledge of this might have sugnot been realized. Painters and draughts- gested to the alchymists, that if any men, those in particular who execute image were thrown upon a piece of large views, have still recourse to the paper, or any other medium, impregnatel

They, however, employ it with it, that image would be painte i merely to group objects en masse, to by the rays of the sun, although, as far trace their contours, and to fix them as lights and shadows are concerned, in their proper position and magnitude, the picture must be the reverse of the according to the principles of linear real object; the parts which are deeply perspective. As to those effects pro- shaded, those on which no light falls, ceeding from the imperfect transparency will remain white, and those which are of our atmosphere, whence arise all the brilliantly illuminated will be quite black. charms of tone and colouring, which, Strange as it may appear, this applicaby a sufficiently erroneous appellation tion was not thought of by the early are designated by the term aerial per- chemists, nor indeed until the commencespective, the most experienced ar- ment of the nineteenth century. tists aware that in reproducing Wedgewood seems to have been the these, the camera affords them no assist- first person who had any idea of apply

No person, however, has wit- ing the property of which we have nessed the neatness of outline, precision spoken to the formation of drawings. of form, the truth of colouring, and the The inquiries of this philosopher were sweet gradations of tint, without regret published in June, 1802, in the Journal ting that an imagery so exquisite and of the Royal Institution, and he there so faithful to nature could not be made proposes paper steeped in chloride of to fix itself permanently on the tablet silver to copy paintings on glass and of the machine. Who has not been engravings. deeply anxious that some means might The experiments made by Wedgebe discovered by which to give reality wood were repeated by Davy, who states to shadows so exquisitely lovely. Yet he had obtained representations of obin the estimation of all, such a wish jects exhibited in the solar microscope, seemed destined to take its place among but only at a short distance from the other dreams of beautiful things; among lens. Both Wedgewood and Davy then the splendid but impracticable concep- were unsuccessful in their attempts to tions in which men of science and ardent introduce a photogenic drawing: Not temperament have sometimes indulged. having obtained the drawing, they of This dream, notwithstanding, has just course devoted no time to the discovery been realized. Let us take, then, the of a method of fixing it, although this invention of its germ, and mark carefully would have been to them an object of its gradual unfolding."

not less importance than the production The principle here referred to, is em- of the outline. The pictures when proployed in the camera obscura, an nstru- duced cannot be submitted the action ment employed to throw the rays of of day-light, and are therefore only to light from external objects, by reflection be examined by the light of a lamp or from a looking, glass, so that the image candle. Some 'means, therefore, must may be formed on some horizontal pre- be provided to neutralize the action of pared surface, which is done in such the light upon the paper. a manner as to give the proper form In the year 1814, M. Niepce, a counand colours to them.

try gentleman residing on his property The next thing to be considered is a near Châlon, on the Gaône, commenced means of giving permanence to the a series of photogenic experiments. In image thus formed; this will be done, January, 1826, he became acquainted probably, in various ways, and indeed with M. Daguerre, and in 1827, during is already accomplished in more than a short stay in England, read a paper

There is a substance, long since on the subject before the Royal Society discovered, called lunar or caustic sil- of London. “On an attempt," says ver, or, according to modern nomen- M. Arago, “having been made to esclature, chloride of silver. This remark- tablish a priority of invention, thees able compound, although in itself white, sketches, still in a state of good preserv

one.

NOTES ON THE MONTH. ation, were immediately and honour. ably produced from the collections of

By a Naturalist. certain English philosophers. They

JANUARY prove beyond dispute, as respects both The new year begins its career in the photographic copies of engravings, winter : it is ushered in by clouds and and the formation, for the use of artists, storms, yet we welcome and hail 'its apof plates in the state of advanced etch- proach. The old year, with its sorrows ings, that M. Niepce, in 1827, was ac- and joys, its hopes and fears, its gratifiquainted with a method of making the cations and disappointments, has passed; shadows correspond to shadows, the demi- its chequered months, have rolled back tints to the demi-tints, the lights to the into eternity, and we stand on the marlights. These early essays farther prove gin of an untried future, over which that he had discovered how to render his hangs a dense cloud, receding only in copies once formed, impervious to the proportion as we advance, so as merely erasing and blackening effects of the to lay bare the present, while all beyond solar rays. In other words, the inge- it is unseen ; for we know not what a day nious experimentalist of Châlons, by the may bring forth. Let us then use the composition of his grounds, had so early present, and be thankful that it is ours as 1827, resolved a problem which had

to employ and improve. How a Chrisdefied the lofty sagacity of a Wedge- tian should use the present, depends upon wood and a Davy."

the circumstances in which he is placed, In December, 1829, a deed of part- the exigencies, and the duties of the nership was drawn out between MM, hour; but among all his pursuits he will Niepce and Daguerre, and by their united not forget his God, or heedlessly pass by efforts, the art has been brought to a the works of the great Creator, whose wonderful state of perfection. We are Spirit, at the beginning, moved upon the not, however, certain, from the evidence face of the waters, and whose great works before us, that the name of M. Daguerre are recorded in Scripture, that we may should be applied to the invention ex- render them tributary to his praise. cluding that of M. Niepce, as the French Need we then an apology, if, as each have done, for it is quite certain that month appears, we direct our readers to we are as much, if not more indebted the natural occurrences which, in the to him ; but we suppose the process order of things, God has appointed; at will now always be known in France as least as far as our portion of the world is the Daguerreotype.

concerned; invite them into the fields and But it is here necessary to remark, lanes, “ by woods and lawns and living that the English philosophers have not streams,” show them a bird's nest, a bud, been entirely excluded from this work, a flower ; teach them to feel an interest although they have taken but a small in the fluttering insect, whose little life and comparatively insignificant part. is its all; to relish the beauties of nature ; Soon after the publication of M. Da- and instead of gazing around them, and guerre's process, Mr. Fox Talbot stated, exclaiming, “ All is barren,” teach and in a communication to the Philosophical | induce them to acknowledge, Magazine, that he had been for four

" These are thy works, years acquainted with a process analo- Parent of good. Thyself how wond'rous then !" gous to that of M. Daguerre ; and yet it But what is there worth looking at in must be allowed that the operations of winter, when the trees are leafless, and these two philosophers are sufficiently dis- the hedges bare, and the ground either tinct. With Mr. Fox Talbot's arrange locked up with frost, or deluged with ment, the picture is taken on prepared rain ; when the fallow lands look dreary, paper, and all the lights and shadows and the lark has forgotten his song, and are reversed; a densely heavy thunder the sun, far in the south, scarcely rises cloud appearing white, and a brilliantly above the verge of the horizon, and soon illuminated body of water, quite black finishes his course ? Such, methinks, I According to the French process, the hear some reader ask, as he looks from image is impressed on the silvered sur- this paper to the window, then stirs the face of a copper plate ; the lines are dis- fire, and shivering, creeps closer to the tinct, and the shadows are in their proper blazing embers, glad that he is not places. In our next paper, we shall obliged to go out in such a bitter day. proceed to explain the former of these What, then ! is there no pleasure in a processes,

H. winter's walk ? nothing to see, nothing

her in any."

e. ch

which will afford interest and instruc- / animation and vigour. We shall see the
tion? Come with me into the fields and bat wheel again round the steeple, or the
lanes, let us stroll through the wood, and trees; the hedgehog will interrupt our
by the farm ; dare the cold, and see if woodland walks at eventide, and roll it-
we shall not be repaid for our exertion. self up at our approach ; and the little
Credit Cowper, no mean authority, when dormouse will build its nest in the
he says, that he “ who can derive no thicket, when the thicket can afford it
gratification from a view of nature, even concealment.
under the disadvantage of her most or- What a flock of small birds ! they
dinary dress, will have no eyes to admire must amount to thousands ! They are

larks, the same species whose song trills:
It is very cold; yet see how well in the blue summer sky, the minstrel ap-
the animals, destined to endure our pearing but a speck in the vault of hea-
winter, are enabled to withstand the ven. The lark is only gregarious during
severity of the season. The coat of the winter. At the close of autumn this bird
ox, no longer short and smooth, is deep assembles in flocks, augmented by visitors:
and rough; the rain can scarcely pene- of the same species from more northern
trate it; it is the same with the horse, regions, and the assemblage scours the
save when pampered and stall fed; in the country in search of food, sweeping and
more exposed and bleak districts, its wheeling around the turnip fields and
increase of clothing is very remarkable. fallow lands, as if to reconnoitre ere set-
The Shetland pony is now as rough and tling. Larks in winter are generally
shaggy as any painter who loves the fat, and esteemed a delicacy for the table,
picturesque can desire. The fur of all and hence their wholesale destruction :
the wild tenants of our heaths and woods while the flocks are sleeping at night, a.
is increased in depth and thickness. The wide light net is drawn over them, and!
under fur of the hare is full and thick, thousands are thus taken. From the neigh-
whereas, during summer, it is very thin bourhood of Dunstable, vast quantities:
and short. The red grouse of the heath- are sent to the London markets ; never-
covered hills, has a warm thick downy theless we see no apparent diminution in
feathering to the very end of its toes; the numbers of these delightful warblers,
and the ermine, which, during the sum- when the summer months return.
mer, was sleek and of a reddish brown, That is the song of a bird ; how clear,
is now full furred and snowy white, ex- how shrill! It is the wren, one of the
cept the tip of the tail. The alpine hare, smallest, but one of the hardiest of our
and the ptarmigan of the Highlands have British birds ; it may be seen hopping
also changed their brown and mottled from twig to twig, and flitting down
livery for one of purest whiteness; thus the hedgerow, inquisitively examining
assimilating with the snow in colour, the closely-covered buds, and prying
they better escape observation, when all into the crevices of the bark in quest of:
around is open and exposed. But not dormant insects and their larvæ, on
only so, white bodies or substances are which it feeds; then suddenly breaking:
less rapid conductors of caloric than forth into a clear strain, which ceases as:
coloured, and while the atmosphere is so suddenly as it began. But the wren is not:
far below the vital temperature of the our only winter songster: we have the
animal, its heat is thus, as it were, pre- robin, whose cheerful note is familiar to:
served and husbanded, for the mainten- all, a favourite every where, with his:
ance of life.

rust-red breast, and his full black eye: the: But we miss the bat, we miss the woodlark also, on a fine day, pours out. hedge-hog, we miss the dormouse. his melodious strain. The woodlark They may soon be found; but in what (Alanda arborea) does not congregate: situation in quiet slumber,--a slumber like the skylark during the winter sea-termed hybernation, during which the son, in large flocks, but merely associates: blood slowly circulates ; the temperature in small families of five, six, or seven,, of the body is reduced nearly to that of which separate in the early part of the: the atmosphere; and the vital functions spring. The hedge-sparrow, or winterare almost suspended. Is not this just one fauvette (Accentor modulares) may also remove from death ? No; it is the Crea- now be heard warbling a gentle yet sweet: tor's plan of preserving from death; it and varied song; the thick hedge conis a state of insensibility which the breath ceals the plainly-dressed songster, but. of spring will dissolve, at once restoring it is well known; a pair builds in every

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Fedgerow, in every garden, in every actions, more pleasing in its colours, orchard, before the leaves have yet un- than the blue titmouse, (Parus cærufolded;

and the nest, and its bright blue leus); there it hangs, head downwards, eggs are too often borne away in petty on that slender spray, pecking the buds triumph by the thoughtless schoolboy. in search of small caterpillars. In this

The golden-crested wren, or gold pursuit its attitudes are amusingly varied; crest, (Regulus auricapillus, Selby,) all elegant; all quick and lively. It is the most diminutive of our British birds, gone; another twig is undergoing its less even than the common wren, (to scrutiny. There too is its relative, the which it is not generically related,) great titmouse, (Parus major,) remark. braves our severest weather, and may be able for its well-contrasted colours, and observed flitting through the coppice, its active, restless, busy habits. Little and along the edges, like a little fairy, all care these birds for the coldest weather: life and animation. It is a singular cir- they are clad in soft deep plumage, cumstance, that in the winter of 1822, and retire at night into barns, pigsties, thousands of these birds were seen to stables, or the holes and chinks of old arrive

upon the sea-shore and sand-banks walls or trees, for comfort and security. of the Northumbrian coast; many of them See the fields, green with the rising were so fatigued by the length of their blade, are blackened with rooks, all intent flight, or perhaps, by the unfavourable upon the destruction of the larvæ of shift of wind, as to be unable to rise beetles, which they eagerly devour, to again from the ground. The flight must the benefit of the farmer, who need not have been in prodigious quantities, as its grieve at the trifling mischief they do by extent was traced through the whole the dislodgment of the roots of the corn; range of the coasts of Northumberland a mischief compensated a thousand fold and Durham. There appears little doubt by their services. of this having been a migration from the The redwing and the fieldfare are more northern provinces of Europe, winter visitors ; flocks of them are wheel(probably the pine forests of Norway ing round the fields ; they settle under and Sweden,) from the circumstance the hedges, and along the borders of copof its arrival being simultaneous with pices, or in turnip fields ; gleaning a that of large flights of the woodcock, scanty subsistence from the berries of the fieldfare, and redwing. (See Selby's hawthorn, the dogrose, the holly, the f'rit. Ornithol.)

ivy, and the mountain ash; adding What can be more graceful in its thereto snails and the larvæ of insects.

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What a singular bird flitted by and a crossbill, (Loxia curvirostra, Linplunged into yonder firwood ! It was næus.) Instances of this curious and

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