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ENGLISH HISTORY.

the utmost abhorrence, Knox and others ELIZABETH.

were made instrumental in leading their (Continued from page 86.)

countrymen to throw off the yoke of The first ten years of the reign of Popery; while the death of Mary, set Elizabeth were troubled by her contests Englishmen at liberty to declare their with France, and other circumstances, abhorrence of idolatry and persecution. chiefly arising from the state of Scottish The pope at that time was Paul iv., a affairs. But a deeper and more deadly cruel character, who encouraged and urged contest was preparing; her struggle with Mary of England to follow her merciless the Papacy which involved every sort of course. To check the progress of Luwarfare, national and private, open bat- theranism in Italy, he established the tles of armies, secret conspiracies, craft Inquisition at Rome; but his career was and stratagem, turmoil and deception. soon stopped, he died in August 1559,

Soon after the peace of Passau in when the populace destroyed the prison 1552, the Papacy appeared likely to of the inquisition, and liberated his vicregain much of that influence which had tims. The accession of Elizabeth was been shaken by the establishment of the a bitter event to him ; every circumReformation in Germany. The pro- stance connected with her birth and ceedings of the Council of Trent, and early life, placed her in direct opposition other matters exclusively connected with to the see of Rome. The pope, indeed, the history of the nations on the Con- invited the new qucen to cast herself tinent, must be here passed by. With upon his clemency, and to sue for her regard to the British islands, Popery crown as his gift ; but nothing short fully regained its sway, under the reign of the most abject submission and direct of Mary, while the alliance between apostasy could ensure his confirmation France and Scotland kept down the of that inheritance, which she claimed northern reformers. But Scotland was as the descendant of a marriage, the roused. Popery had there been exhi- validity of which would not for a mobited in its worst forms; as a political, ment be admitted by the Papacy. Such as well as a religious system, it excited submission must have caused Élizabeth

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to lose the hearts of her subjects, while her Protestant nobles, urging that “all the nation rejoiced to receive her as the Catholic princes were banded to root Protestant daughter of Henry VIII., and them, (the Protestants,) out of all Euthe day was past when the pope could rope.' Elizabeth never listened for a obtrude a vassal, either by force or moment to the blandishments or threats fraud, upon the throne of England. of the Vatican. She stedfastly refused

Pius iv. followed the track marked to admit a nuncio or ambassador from out by his predecessor, though with Rome. Her council stated her full more measured steps. He re-established persuasion that such an emissary would the Inquisition, and prepared that de- attempt to raise a rebellion. Some inclaration of faith, which under the title ferior agents, however, found admittance of the creed of pope Pius, embodies the into Ireland, where they took an active principles of Popery to the present day. part in exciting rebellious proceedings. In this document, the leading errors One obtained admission to Mary in of the church of Rome, its peculiar Scotland, in the garb of a merchant; articles of faith, are added to those of he encouraged her in the mistaken the apostles' creed, and taught as of course she was pursuing; but his stay equal authority, concluding with an ana- was short, and he escaped with some thema against all Protestants, that is, difficulty. It is painful to observe the declaring them accursed, and to be per- quick succession of popes, when we resecuted to death here, and asserting flect that the atrocious proceedings of their eternal condemnation. Pius iv. the Papacy were almost invariably the urged the kings of France and Spain acts of men, whose last hour was at to persecute their Protestant subjects; hand! Pius iv. died in 1565. he was willingly obeyed by the latter. Pius v. was equally firm of purpose In France, he endeavoured to set the with his predecessor; he was also more leaders of the nation at variance, which unhesitating and implacable in his proended in massacre and civil warfare ; ceedings. If an unscrupulous adoption the pope taking part by sending troops of atrocious measures, pursued with unto act against the Huguenots. By the wearying perseverance, gives evidence final decrees of the Council of Trent, that a man is a follower of Satan, this which he re-assembled, Pius iv. effec- infallible head of the church of Rome, 1ually prevented any reformation in the styling himself, “ Holiness," was unchurch of Rome, and fixed its doctrines doubtedly one. He, too, was an inquiand practice in that form, which they sitor; he was chosen Pope, because the have ever since maintained. This gave cardinals believed he would not hesitate him additional power to pursue his to carry out into action the violent plans great design for extirpating Protestant of his predecessor. He did so; for this ism. Having in vain attempted to win he was afterwards declared a saint, miover Elizabeth, by a direct offer to es- racles were said to have been wrought tablish and confirm her royal authority, by him; the first of May is appointed provided she would submit to his con- for .paying religious worship to him. trol, (a promise which she and her mi. In the collect for that day's service he nisters knew would be kept no longer is declared to have been chosen of God than might suit the views of the Pa- “to depress the enemies of the church;" pacy,) nothing remained but to destroy as it is expressed in the gentler phrase her, and overturn the religious system of the English missal ; but the original, which she was establishing in England, as used in the Latin public service, is although she earnestly desired to ar- "crush the enemies of the church ;' range matters, so as to comprehend the the phrase is applicable to the destrucadherents of the church of Rome, pro- tion of noisome and poisonous reptiles, vided they would only engage not to such the church of Rome declares Proobey the mandates of a foreign power testants to be. This was the spirit in in temporal affairs, in preference to the which Pius v. entered into open contest laws of their own kingdom.

with Elizabeth ; it was his own seeking, We have not space here to relate all and his own letters show the implacable the steps by which the pope proceeded. ferocity with which he sought her deThat his design went forward is plain; struction. In them, he urged the kings an emissary was sent from Rome in and nobles subject to his power, to ex1566. to Mary of Scotland, to prevent tirpate, even by “massacre," those whom her from coming to any agreement with he calls the enemies of God.” In a

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letter to the cardinal of Lorraine, he Much light has been of late years directs him to convince the king of thrown upon the real history of ElizaFrance that he cannot satisfy the Re- beth's reign, by documents published by deemer, unless he shows himself inexo- Romanists themselves, many of which rable to all who plead for those most had long been neglected by historians, wicked of men. How different this others have been recently brought forfrom the language of Christ, the Re- ward. The biographer of Pius v. has deemer himself. Consider his words left sufficient statements to show the recorded in the volume of Divine in- extent to which his machinations against spiration :—“ This is my commandment, this illustrious princess were carried. That ye love one another as 1 have loved The pope gave regular pay to many of you," John xv. 12—“Whosoever shall the English nobility and gentry; he offend one of these little ones that be- sent pecuniary aid and counsel to the lieve in me, it is better for him that a supporters of Mary in Scotland; he millstone were hanged about his neck, animated the English Papists to rebel and he were cast into the sea;” and so- against Elizabeth, and to plot her delemnly declared, " I say unto you, Love position with a view of placing Mary your enemies,” adding an injunction not on the throne, even recommending them to curse, but to “ pray for them which de- “ to take off her whom he stigmatized spitefully use you,

" Matt. v. 44. Then " the slave of wickedness.” This say whether it is possible that this pre- evidently sanctioned designs for the tended " vicar of the Son of God," could death of Elizabeth. To forward these be a believer in that blessed book, un- plans, a Florentine named Ridolfi, ofless indeed as the devils are said to ten visited England as a merchant : “ believe and tremble." Letter after the degree of success he obtained we letter of this pope, printed by Romish shall see hereafter. The despatches of historians, show that he was a murderer, the French ambassador at this period that he urged others to deeds of blood, notice Ridolfi as having charge and and thus sought to forward the work commandment from the pope in person, of “his father the devil.”

to treat with the English Roman Catholic In one letter, this pope rebuked a com- noblemen for the restoration of the Romander, because he had not put to death man Catholic religion. This conspiracy

murdered,” using the very word, of the Popish powers had begun to be a Huguenot commander taken prisoner acted upon before May 1568, when by his troops !

Mary Stuart took refuge in England. In 1569, the pope sent Nicholas Considerable embarrassment was caused Norton, with authority to declare pri- by her arrival: several of the counsellors vately to some of the English nobility, of Elizabeth, at the moment, were inwho still professed the Romish faith, clined to wish that she should leave the that Elizabeth was considered by him kingdom, and for some weeks she had a heretic, and that they were not the opportunity to do so.

But farther bound to obey her. In February 1570, consideration still more plainly showed a papal bull was published, in which, the difficulties in which the question was by virtue of the power assumed by Pius, involved on every side. If she were he declared Elizabeth to be a slave of allowed to remain in England free from wickedness, and a pretended queen, de restraint, it was obvious that this would prived her of her kingdom, absolved all afford many advantages for carrying her subjects from their allegiance, forbade into effect the papal conspiracy to place any one to obey her laws, and declared Mary on the English throne. The all who should act contrary to the papal heavy charges against her moral chadecrees, liable to the same severities. racter increased the difficulty. By treatAmong other charges was one which ing Mary with regal honours as a fugiTurner, who gives a full account of tive queen, Elizabeth would declare herthis papal conspiracy, justly points out self convinced of Mary's innocence, or as a valuable testimony to the character as countenancing her crimes if she were and practice of Elizabeth: it denounced proved guilty. If Mary were compelled her for affording refuge to the perse- to return to Scotland, that would excite cuted of other lands. This has repeat- a civil warfare, and be considered as edly been the glory of Britain, and betraying her into the hands of her enetruly we may say the land has been mies. Should she be allowed to seek blessed in that deed.

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place in the control of the members | a readiness to expose herself to all perils of the papal conspiracy a powerful in- in hope of victory. The thing she most strument for the furtherance of their thirsteth after is victory, and it seemeth designs, while it would subject Scotland to be indifferent to her to have her eneto the horrors of foreign invasion, in mies diminished, either by the sword of addition to those of civil warfare, and her friends, or by the liberal promises open a way for the pope's confederates and rewards of her purse, or by divisions to attack England. Nor was Elizabeth , and quarrels raised among themselves ; in the situation of a private individual. so that for victory's sake, pain and perils Upon the decision of her government in seem pleasant to her, and in respect of this matter, rested the lives and fortunes victory, wealth and all things seem to not only of the great majority of her her contemptuous and vile."

It is plain own subjects, but those of the Protest- that by victory," Knollys meant reants of Europe in general. It was now venge, and well might he add, plain that the life and power of Eliza- what is to be done with such a lady and beth were the great supports of Protest- princess, or whether such a lady and antism, and her duties and responsi- princess be to be nourished in one's bility were increased thereby. There bosom; or whether it be good to halt cannot be a greater mistake than to con- and dissemble with such a lady; I refer sider the differences between Mary Stu- to your judgment.” We have seen her art and Elizabeth merely as a quarrel thirst after revenge when in Scotland; between two rival queens. They were and on more than one occasion while rivals, but their quarrel was heightened there, she assumed the arms and clothand rendered deadly by the vast interests ing of a man, desiring to head her in which they were involved, from their troops herself. The Mary Stuart of political, and not from their personal history was a very different being from situations.

the gentle, lovely, feminine character Under these conflicting circumstances, delineated by the authors of romance, what course was the government of Eli- and the apologists for her vices and zabeth to pursue ? Had the case been crimes. reversed, there can be little doubt what Cecil, to whom this appeal was made, the Papists would have done. The saw the difficulty, but did not hesitate to punishment of an illegitimate preten- meet it. His views on the subject were der to a crown would have been sum- expressed in a paper dated June 20. mary; such they considered the daugh- That she ought to be helped, having ter of Henry viii. to be. Philip did come into England of her own accord, not scruple to seize the son of the prince trusting to receive aid. That she had of Orange, a mere student at the uni- not been lawfully condemned, and that versity of Louvain, and detained him a she had offered to clear herself of the prisoner in Spain twenty-eight years, crimes laid to her charge, if allowed acbecause his father pleaded for the rights cess to Elizabeth, and that she brought of his Protestant countrymen. But charges against her subjects who had Elizabeth chose to meet the incon- deposed her. But on the other hand, veniences of her position, rather than to that she was, by the general voice of her seek to remove a rival by unlawful subjects, charged with participating in

Had she not felt compassion the murder of her husband, and with for Mary, she might have driven her protecting the murderer from the law. back to Scotland ; her fate there would She had procured Bothwell to be dihave been certain.

vorced from his lawful wife, and had The character of Mary Stuart also herself married him, and protected him must be taken into consideration. She from those who would have called him is thus described by sir Francis Knollys, to account for his evil deeds. Surely one of the counsellors sent to her at this was not an unfair view of the subCarlisle. “This lady and princess is a ject; yet Cecil has been misrepresented notable woman.

She seemeth to regard as being an enemy of Mary from her no ceremonious honour beside the ac- childhood. knowledging of her regal state. She Mary demanded either to be reinstated showeth a disposition to speak much, to in her power by assistance from Engbe bold, to be pleasant, and to be very land, or to be allowed to proceed to familiar. She showeth a great desire to France. It was not right to do the first, till be avenged of her enemies; she showeth she had cleared herself from the strong

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appearances of guilt, and had shown that then engaged Murray to withdraw his acshe would not act treacherously in return cusations, promising' he should be con, for such service. It was not safe to firmed in the regency of Scotland, and permit her to engage France to aid an proposing that Norfolk and Murray should invasion of Scotland, which must lead to support each other in obtaining influence war with England, and be most injurious over their respective queens. Elizabeth to both nations.

had some intimation of the underhand Mary's residence at Carlisle proved proceedings of Norfolk; she caused the objectionable ; her subjects being allowed conference to be removed to Hampton freely to resort to her, so many came as Court; there Cecil and Bacon were to endanger that important border for added to the commission. Murray's agent tress. If she continued there, she must then produced the accusatory, papers, have been subjected to more personal but declined to give them in, when they restraint than Elizabeth desired; or than were snatched from him by the bishop would be needful in a place further of Orkney, who not in the south. It was therefore proposed that secret, and delivered to the commission she should remove to Tutbury, a large ers. The proceedings then could not be mansion in Staffordshire; but Mary stopped, the letters were examined with being averse to proceed so far inland, the depositions of some witnesses, and Bolton castle, in Yorkshire, was fixed there appeared full proof that they were upon for her residence, to which she genuine. The agents of Mary refused went about July 16. Here she could be to answer, but required that Élizabeth detained, and yet enjoyed freedom from should admit Mary into her presence to personal restraint; she hunted and defend herself. The English queen, with amused herself as she pleased, under the becoming spirit, refused to do this, till care of those appointed to attend her. Mary had cleared herself from the

Finding that Elizabeth would not en-charges of adultery, and the murder of gage in warfare with the Scots to replace her husband, who was a relative of Eliher on the throne, as matters then stood, zabeth. She wrote to Mary, expressing Mary desired that the Scottish nobles, her regret that such documents had been her accusers, might be sent for to state produced, but that she wished to cover before some of the English nobility, on these matters, and had stayed any judg. what grounds they had deposed her. ment upon them. As there appeared She sought at this time to gain Elizabeth full reason to believe that Mary would to favour her cause, by attending the be proved guilty, it was best to stay the Protestant worship, and pretending to inquiry. She had so misconducted herbe inclined to favour that faith. Eliza- self, as to render it improper that she beth consented to her request for an in- should be replaced on the throne of Scotvestigation, determining to take no active land; this was clear without entering part in the inquiry, but to reserve any upon the accusation of murder; but as decision, or further proceedings, till she yet, nothing was established to exclude heard what was brought forward. her or her son from being considered in

*The duke of Norfolk, the earl of Sus- the succession to the English throne. sex, and sir Ralph Sadler, were the Murray returned home, but found it commissioners appointed by Elizabeth. necessary to avail himself of the protecThe earl of Murray, with other Scottish tion of Norfolk, by whose influence with nobles, appeared before them early in Mary, orders were issued to the Nortons October ; but the proceedings were soon and others who were prepared to interinvolved in difficulty by the treacherous cept and murder the Scottish regent in conduct of the duke of Norfolk. He de- his return through Yorkshire, directing sired to marry the Scottish queen, there- them to allow him to pass unmolested. fore wished Mary should be freed from Such influence did Mary at this time exthe charges against her ; he privately ercise in England, and so deeply was she advised Murray, not to produce the docu- enraged against Murray for being the ments substantiating his charges, unless cause of the production of her letters to Elizabeth agreed to pronounce a con- Bothwell. The bishop of Ross was her demnatory sentence against Mary if the agent in this affair. accusations were proved. He knew,

In January, 1569, Mary was removed from his confidential situation, that Eli- to Tutbury, where she remained under zabeth was not prepared to proceed so the care of the earl of Shrewsbury, with far. This stopped the inquiry ; Norfolk | a retinue of fifty of her own attendants,

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