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of upland pasture grounds, are its fa- | their tormentors, and which it is busy vourite haunts, and we have seen and in catching. Alas ! how ready is man heard it among clumps of sycamore to defame even an innocent and useful trees, near farm houses. White's de- bird ! scription of the habits of this beautiful But hark! the jar of the goatsucker bird is celebrated for correctness ; and
we must conis the more valuable, as it is the result clude our discursive remarks; when of personal observation. There is no we meet in June, we shall renew our bird, he informs us, whose manners he theme, the wisdom and the power of has studied more than those of the goat- God as seen in these his lower works, sucker. “ Though it may sometimes often neglected by man; but in the conchatter as it flies, yet in general it templation of which, the highest anutters its jarring note sitting on a bough; gelic intelligence might wonder and aand I have watched it for many a half- dorc, hour as it sat with its under mandible quivering. It usually perches on a bare UNDESIGNED COINCIDENCES OF
SCRIPTURE.-No. III. twig, with its head lower than its tail. This bird is most punctual in begin- SOME presumption that the last four ning its note (a note like the jarring books of the Pentateuch were really hum of a spinning wheel) exactly at composed by an eye-witness, at the time the close of day; so exactly that I have of the transactions, arises from their deknown it strike up more than once or scribing the nation and the lawgiver, twice, just at the report of the Ports- in circumstances totally different from mouth evening gun. It appears to me, any which ever existed, before or after past all doubt, that its notes are formed that peculiar period; from their adaptby organic impulse, by the parts of its ing every incident, however unimporwindpipe formed for sound, just a cat's tant, every turn of expression, however pur. You will credit me when I as- minute, to these peculiar circumstances. sure you, that as my neighbours were The Jews are supposed to have left assembled in a hermitage on the side the land of Egypt, and not yet possessed of a steep hill, where we drink tea, one themselves of the land of Canaan : in of these churn owls came and settled this interval, the nation was all collected on the cross of that little straw edifice, together, never before or after ; it then and began to chatter, and continue his dwelt in tents, never before or after ; no note for many minutes; and we were one possessed any landed property or all struck with wonder to find the or- houses; no local distinctions, no local trigans of that little animal, when put in bunalcould then exist: these, and a variety motion, give a sensible vibration to the of other circumstances of the same nawhole building." When the male is ture, necessarily attended this peculiar gambolling in the air with his mate, situation. Now such is the nature of he frequently utters a shrill squeak. the human mind, that though it may In its powers of wing, the goatsucker be easy to imagine a peculiar situation scarcely yields to the swallow, especially of fictitious characters, and describe when giving chase to chaffers and moths, their conduct in this situation with sufwhich constitute its food. The inner ficient consistency, as in a poem or a edge of the claw of the middle toe is fiction entirely unconnected with reality; deeply serrated, or furnished with a yet when characters that have really comb-like apparatus, by means of which existed, are described in circumstances the bird cleans the long stiff bristles entirely, or even partly fictitious; when which fringe the margin of its wide it is necessary to combine a considerable mouth. The eyes are full, dark, and degree of truth with a certain portion of large. It breeds on the ground, making fiction ; when it is necessary to describe no nest, generally among fern; but this unprecedented and fictitious situoften in more exposed situations. Its ation, not merely in general terms, but eggs are two in number, and of a white in a very minute detail of facts and recolour, marbled with yellowish brown gulations; to connect it with particular and grey. It need not be said, that the times and places, and persons, to comold account of this bird, with respect to its bine it with subsequent events, which draining the udders of goats, is fabulous ; were real, and with the laws and custhe goatsucker attends cattle, goats, and toms which the writer himself lives sheep, attracted by the flies which are under, and which prevail through an
extensive nation,—then, indeed, it re-Jews into the land of their inheritance, quires no ordinary ingenuity, and no occur for the first time, in the last common caution, to preserve a perfect address which Moses delivered to the consistency; never once to suffer the people on the borders of Canaan : then, constant and familiar associations, which and not before, does the legislator speak perpetually obtrude themselves upon the of the place which the Lord should mind from present experience, to creep “choose to put his name therein,” Deut. into our language or sentiments, when xii. Then, and not before, does he we wish to describe or relate facts suit- add to the precepts concerning the obably only to past experience. Nay, ad- servance of the three great feasts, that mit that all this may possibly be done, they were to be celebrated at that holy it certainly can be done only by great care place: then, and not before, does he enand art; and it is, I should conceive, join the Jews to bring their offerings, next to impossible, but that this care their sacrifices, their tithes, and the and art should somewhere or other firstlings of their flocks, and of their betray itself in the turn of the narrative herds, to the same holy place, and not or the expression.
to eat them in the gates of their own Now an attentive perusal of the Pen- cities; and (Deut. xiv. 24) if that house tateuch will, I doubt not, prove that of the Lord should be too far from them, it is written without the least ap- to turn their offerings into money, and pearance of art or caution ; and it is employ that for the celebration of the recertain beyond all doubt, that its facts, ligious festivals, at the place which the sentiments, and language, are adapted Lord should choose. Now also does the to the peculiarities of the situation which legislator add to the rules relating to have been noticed. The present tense the Levites, that which gave them a is constantly used in speaking of the right of migrating from any other city, facts in the wilderness : “I am the and joining with those who were emLord that bringeth you up out of the ployed in the service of God, at the land of Egypt: the future, in speaking place which he should choose, Deut. of any thing to be done in the land xviii. 6. of Canaan, Exod. xxxiv. 11–13, 23. Thus also, in recapitulating the regu“I drive out before thee the Amorite lations of the civil law, the legislator and the Canaanite :-take heed to thyself now, for the first time, introduces the lest thou make a covenant with the inha- appointment of judges and officers in bitants of the land whither thou goest, the different cities which they should inlest it be for a snare in the midst of habit, Deut. xvi. 18; xix. 11; xxi. thee : but ye shall destroy their altars : 18, and fixes the right of appealing, thrice in the year shall all your men in difficult cases, from these judges to children appear before the Lord God of the high priest and his assessors at the Israel. For I will cast out the nations place which the Lord should choose ; before thee, and enlarge thy borders.” and determines what the elders of each
Thus also it is perpetually supposed city may finally decide on, and the manin every direction as to public matters, ner in which they should examine the that the whole congregation could be col- cause ; as in the instances of an uncerlected together at the shortest warning. tain murder, Deut. xxi. ; of the rebel(See Lev. first nine chapters, also x. 5.) lious son ; and in the ceremony of takWe are told of dead bodies “carried out ing or refusing the widow of a brother of the camp," of victims on particular who had died childless. The city, the occasions being (Lev. iv. 21; viii. 17. gate of the city, the elders of the city Numb. xix. 9) burned without the are now frequently introduced, never camp: this peculiarity of situation mixes before. itself with every circumstance of the nar- We may also observe, that in this rative, directly and indirectly, in ex- last address, when the people were going press terms, and by incidental allusions, to attack the great body of their eneand always without any appearance of mies, and as they conquered them were art or design.
to inhabit their land; different circumBut to proceed to compare the direct stances are mentioned, suited to this narrative with the recapitulation. We new situation. The causes which were may observe, that a variety of circum- to excuse men's going to war, are now stances which it was natural and neces- first stated, Deut. xx. 5, “ having sary to notice, on the entrance of the built a new house, planted a new vine
yard, or betrothed himself to a wife;" | gard it, except for the purpose of ascer. all of which supposed a separation of taining the weather, has often puzzled the people from the common camp of me. Never yet did I witness a ploughthe whole congregation, in consequence boy standing still to admire the rising of their possessing the promised land. sun, nor his master gazing with delight Now also the rules about besieging cities, on the setting beam. And yet, for all about not destroying such trees around this apparent inattention to the beauties them as were good for food, are speci- of creation, on the part of country peofied much more minutely than before, be- ple, I am well persuaded that, without
now sieges would be frequent, knowing it, they do feel to some extent Deut. xx. 10, 19. Now also Moses the beauty of the earth and the heaenlarges more frequently and more fully ven ; for, if you remove them from their than he ever did before, on the (Deut. rural neighbourhood, they manifest an vi. 3, 10; viii. 7; xi. 10 ; xv. 4) fer- unsettled state of mind, and a yearning tility and excellence of the promised after their accustomed scenes. land: this was natural; such a topic. As for myself, from a very child, the at an earlier period, would have in heavens above me have appeared an uncreased the murmurings and the im- equalled exhibition of varied beauty that I patience of the people at being detained gaze on with the liveliest emotion. At this in the wilderness; whereas, now it en- moment I could describe ten or a dozen couraged them to encounter with more skyey scenes that are impressed on my cheerfulness, the opposition they must memory, so vividly, that I seem to get meet with from the inhabitants of Ca- young while I think of my sky-gazing
moments. Come, you shall judge wheThese general and obvious features of ther or not my descriptions are faithfully difference, which distinguish the last drawn. You must allow me a little latibook of Moses from the preceding ones, tude in my fancy and language ; our when compared with the evident art- phrases must be expected to be somelessness and simplicity of the narrative, what glowing when we speak of sunseem to result from truth and reality beams. alone. Such differences were natural, There is a clear blue sky, when the nay, unavoidable, if these books were cloudless firmament imparts a tranquil really composed by Moses, who was the cheerfulness, a peaceful gladness to the witness of the facts, and the author of gazer. The wide-spread azure canopy, the laws which these books contain; from the zenith to the horizon, presents they would be much less likely to occur, the same unwearied, yet lightsome chaif
any other man were the author, even racter : lovely is the blue expanse, and if he were an eye-witness ; and they lovely the light that mingles with it so are totally unlike the general detail of a harmoniously. Beneath such a sky as remote compiler, or the laboured artifice this the Christian walking abroad, lifts of fiction and forgery.- Graves. up his admiring eye, with confiding
thankfulness. • The Lord,” says he,
shall I fear? The Lord is the strength OLD HUMPHREY ON THE SKIES. of my life ; of whom shall I be afraid ? I WILL · not inquire if you have ever Though an host should encamp against been moved by the appearance of the me, my heart shall not fear: though war heavens above you, for that would be al- should rise against me, in this will I be most like asking if you have eyes to see, confident,” Psa. xxvii
. 1, 4. When it or hearts to feel. Rather will I take it pleases the Father of mercies to give for granted at once, that you are among confidence and cheerfulness to the hearts those who, now and then, look up to the of his people, he can do it if he pleases beautiful clouds, with emotions of inter- as effectually by the aspect of the heaest, thankfulness, and delight, fully con- vens, as by employing the angel Gabriel vinced, that, even when neither sun, moon, for his messenger. nor stars, are visible, “ The heavens de There is a mountainous sky, where, clare the glory of God; and the fir- from a sea of ether, rise eminences of all mament showeth his handywork," Psa. kinds, hill, and cliff, and craggy steep ; xix. 1.
pile above pile they recede, and fade away The little attention that is paid to the in the dimly-descried distance. The eye sky by country people, who rarely re- and the heart may revel in such a scene as
this, till a voluntary tribute, to such un- | wards it comes, and yet onward, till equalled beauty, rolls down the cheek, suspense becomes painful. The firmaand the words break forth from the tongue, ment seems, even by its portentous still“O Lord, open thou my lips; and my ness, to proclaim that the tempest, in his mouth shall show forth thy praise, strength, is about to walk abroad. Psa. li. 15. The winds hurry on the There is an iceberg sky, whose pointed hills, and the sun comes and mountainous masses, lit up by the sungoes, giving a fitful variety to the goodly beam, for purity, whiteness, and brightgroup of moving mountains, till a giant ness, would shame the very snow on the eminence is seen advancing.
head of Mount Blanc. This kind of " Vast, huge, and high, the mountain mass is sky wonderously affects me, filling given
my mind with exalted conceptions of To lift from earth its awful height to heaven : Wrapt round with gloom it sails along, and now the unsullied purity, and immeasurable A sunny glory gilds its burning brow.”
power of the Eternal. There is every There is a peaceful sky, so delight conceivable degree of repose and exfully calm and quiet, that you cannot citement in such a sky, varying as it look upon it without thinking of angels, does, from the calm and lustreless vales and happiness, and heaven. The blue of snow at the base of the pointed crags, expanse is not vivid; the motionless to the unbearable blaze that rests on the clouds are not silvery-white; neither summits of their sunny peaks. A Chrisis the sunbeam seen upon them; but all tian man may indulge his imagination is sweetness and repose. The heart is among these icebergs of the sky: he made soft, and the eye inclined to be may fancy that he will kneel in abase. tearful, when such a canopy is above us. ment at their feet, to pray, “God be It may be, that the days of our childhood merciful to me a sinner,” Luke xviii. 13. come gently stealing over us, and the Or, that he will climb the highest soft voice of our mother teaching us to height, and, stretching his arms towards lisp. our evening prayer; or, perhaps, heaven, cry out like Thomas, in the we hold communion with the spirits of glowing language of faith, and joy, and those we love, who are gone to glory, ecstacy, My Lord and my God!" imagining their peaceful joys and unin- John xx. 28. terrupted repose. An hour spent thus,. There is a stormy sky, when the gais more profitable to the heart, and grate- thered artillery of heaven is at length ful to the affections, than a day of fever- ready to pour forth its thunders. The ish impulse, and thoughtless joy. huge black clouds can no longer bear
There is a fleecy sky, where the fea- each other's weight; the lurid glare thery flakes of one part of heaven lie in the south gives a deeper gloom to the lightly on the blue beyond them, while frowning sky; the wind rises, and, in fitanother part of the firmament exhibits ful sweeps, whirls round and round, “ the beauteous semblance of a flock at bending the giant trees, while the big rest.' The musing mind is led on by drop falls heavily, here and there, on such a scene to quiet and consolatory the thick foliage. Thus, for a moment, thoughts. The thorny cares of the day the tempest withholds his rage, toying are unconsciously extracted, oil and balm with the things of earth, till, all at once, are poured into the heart, and rural as- the lightning launches itself from the sociations embody themselves in the ebon clouds; crash comes the thunder words, “The Lord is my Shepherd; I clap, as if it would rend in twain the shall not want,” Psa. xxiii. 1. When heavens, and down comes the drenching we turn our eyes heavenward, our hearts deluge from above! Fearful is this by often follow in the same direction. land, but unutterably fearful where the
There is a threatening sky, whose tormented waves of mighty ocean, lashed fearful and overwhelming aspect imparts, into fury by the winds, rise in resistance even to the thoughtless, a sense of dan- to the storm. ger, and oppresses, with a sort of horror, There is a glorious sky, when the the moody and desponding. A sultry king of day' advances from the east, stillness prevails, and a gathering of dun, “as a bridegroom coming out of his dusky, and dark masses is fearfully visi- chamber," Psa. xix. 5, right royally ble. There is a rolling onwards of the arrayed in glittering robes of purple and burdened heavens, as of a thick cloud of gold. The kindling light shoots far and black dust raised by the approach of a wide, and hues of all kinds beautify the turbulent and hostile multitude. On- glowing heavens. At last, burning his
THE APPLICATION OF THE INVENTION,
may frequently be taken in the time But before we proceed to the immedi- occupied by producing one by the ordiate object before us, it will be desirable nary method from a copper-plate. Plates to answer a question, which will, no in relief might also frequently be printed doubt, be proposed by many of our off in the body of the work, which, in readers. “To what purposes can the point of economy, would be a very coninvention be applied ?" Mr. Spencer siderable advantage. has given a cautious, and we believe, "In the formation of that important a correct reply to this interrogation. implement in the manufacture of print
“I entertain no very sanguine notions ing types, the matrix or mould, advanas to the future general application of tages in the adoption of this operation this method of operating upon the metals, appear to present themselves. And I more especially copper. This must be am assured by the printers of this pamentirely left to the practical engraver phlet, that it gives fair promise to supand printer.
ply several important desiderata in the “ The question will then be—Is it art of printing, and in its attendant oper. cheaper and better than the methods ations, more particularly in the stereoin common use? It may now be an- type process. swered, Give it a fair trial: the way is " In general, I feel convinced that it pointed out, practice will no doubt exhibits many promising indications of enable you to improve upon the me- utility, should no obstacles in a pethods which suggested themselves dur- cuniary point of view present theming the experimental investigation de- selves, on occasion of attempts to extend tailed in the following pages ; and most the application of the discovery.' probably may realize an extended field Such are the prospects entertained of of practical utility for the peculiar mode the advantages to be derived from the of operation which has been the result. use of voltaic electricity in taking me.
"I feel assured, however, that in tallic impressions, forming moulds and the arcana of many trades and branches in other ways working upon metals. of art, this process will be found an important addition ; supplying, as it does, HISTORY OF THE INVENTION. a means of producing a cast or a die in With the voltaic, or as it is somehard metal, without the agency of heat times called, the galvanic battery, many or pressure, and in extreme perfection of our readers must be acquainted, either and well defined sharpness. Nor, I from having seen or used it. It conneed hardly observe, is its application sists of plates of the two metals copper confined to copper only.
and zinc, acted upon by some liquid. “In addition to the applicability of The form commonly employed in the this process, in procuring fac-similes of present day is that represented in the coins or medals, with all the lineal sharp- accompanying diagram. c is a cylinness of the original ; perfect copies may be obtained of bronzed figures, nor do they require chasing when taken out, nor do I apprehend inconvenient limits ation as regards their size.
“Assuming it to be advantageous to publishers of music to have their plates in relief; by this process they will be
с enabled, in the original engraving, to have them so.
“I have seen nothing in wood engraving that might not be produced in copper, in relief, by this means; the chemical plates might possibly require retouching to a small extent: but, with careful manipulation, twenty or thirty der of copper and z of zinc contained plates might be taken from one mould. in an earthenware jar. The copper is
“I may mention that the advantage inserted in a bladder, and is acted upon of being able to produce a given effect by a solution of the sulphate of that metal. from a plate in relief would be very | The zinc which is thus shut out from considerable, as ten printed impressions I any immediate contact or communi