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were pasted together that they might is both novel and imposing. All around not by their nakedness betray their he sees deformity.” These wooden types and “ The grey smooth trunks distinctly shine stereotype plates, if we may be allowed Within the twilight of their distant shades;" the term, were soon exchanged for me above his head, the thick leafy canopy tallic ones as being stronger and more supported by those intertwisting and durable, though the ever-to-be-honoured inosculated branches from which it has beechen rind was, and still is, used in been supposed that men derived the idea Germany by the bookbinders instead of of grafting, exclude the glaring rays of pasteboard for the sides of thick volumes, light; below, no herbage green or woodand some have imagined that our word land flower like an emerald pavement book is derived from buch, the German enamelled with radiant gems meets the name of this tree. The bark also, when wondering eye, save in the remote discovered with leather or paper, is made tance, or where in any open spot some into scabbards, hat boxes, etc.
verdant oasis relieves the monotony, of The interesting experiments of M. the scene. But Almighty God has left Macaire have recently established an im- po blanks in his fair creation; no void portant fact in the physiology of vegeta- in nature bespeaks an exhausted imaginbles. He proves that they possess the ation, or a careless arrangement: if the power, not only of absorbing by their ground beneath the beech tree seem spongioles or roots, those particles among barren and without utility, below the which they are planted, and converting surface of the soil are found two fungi, them into sap for the nutriment of the which, while they afford food to the wild plant, but that they approximate yet nearer inhabitants of the wood, are highly prized to the animal kingdom, being endowed by man " the lord of all." These are with the faculty of rejecting or exuding the morel and the truffle. The former those particles that are not suited to their in appearance resembles a mushroom, constitution, into the soil in which the the surface perforated with small circular plant is placed. These exudations he hollows. They are used to flavour made found were capable of affording nourish- dishes, and many persons gain a maintement to plants of a different species or nance, by collecting and then drying family. Thus the important fact well them, which is done by threading the known to all practical agriculturists, the stalks and suspending them in an airy necessity of a succession or rotation of situation, after which they will keep for crops to avoid the impoverishment of the years. The truffle is yet more valued by land, is satisfactorily accounted for. It the epicure, and even ancient writers would seem, however, that the exudations have mentioned them as used in cookery. of the beech treeare injurious to vegetables A turkey stuffed with truffles and left to in general. It is seldom found growing hang till the flavour is dispersed through among other trees; and Evelyn observes, the meat, is one of the greatest delicacies that every forest in which oak and beech of the French gourmand. They are also have been planted promiscuously will in eaten plain with sauce, and added to flatime become entirely beechen. “ Certain vour ragouts and rich pies. They are it is," says Gilpin, “this appearance of found buried the earth, and detected decay is found in many of the woodlands by their peculiar odour, or by the unduof the New Forest, which consist chiefly lations of the surface which seems as if of beech and unthriving oak.” To the ef- it had been raised by moles, and the ap; fect of these exudations also we may attri- pearance of numerous small flies attracted bute it, rather than, as has been generally by the smell
, which deposit their eggs supposed, to the density of shade afforded in them. In shape the truffle is not unby the tree and the length of time which like a potato, though it varies in size, elapses before the fallen leaves beneath being sometimes no larger than a hazel it decay, the total absence of vegetation nut. When the outer thick dark coloured which marks the spot
skin is removed, the inside presents the "Where the broad beech its ample shade displays." of a light colour, covered with darker
appearance of a firm and fleshy substance The holly is the only plant that will veins. Dogs and even pigs are trained thrive in such a situation. To an in- to hunt for it
, and induced to bring it habitant of those parts of the island where their master by the reward of a piece of this tree is comparatively unknown, the bread or meat.' Soacute is the smellof the effect of the first view of a beechen wood former that an instance is recorded of a
dog who detected “a truffle of uncommon in Dumfriesshire is eighteen feet in cirsize which weighed twelve ounces and a cumference where it begins to throw out half, at the distance of a hundred yards." branches, and extends its shade over a On the continent they are sought by space ninety-five feet in diameter. The individuals who stir up with a peculiar sort Ashbridge beeches are no less remarkof spud, the places where they imagine able. One of them, called the King they are concealed, and soon become so beech, is one hundred and fourteen feet experienced as rarely to be deceived in high, and a trunk seventy-five feet high their search. An account is related by before it divides into the limbs; the trunk a Dutch author, of a poor crippled boy at two feet from the ground is nine feet who could detect truffles with a certainty in circumference. Another, which is superior to the best dogs, and so earned seventy feet high, and more than eighteen a livelihood. They fetch a high price feet in girth, covers a diameter of one during the season, varying from ten to hundred and fourteen feet. The Knowle fifteen shillings a pound; many are im- beech measures at three feet from the ported from the continent, though they ground, twenty-four feet in circumfer
lose their flavour after being ence; the stem, as is usual with this gathered. They are seldom found in species of tree, increases upward "till it England, excepting in beech woods ; and bursts into a perfect forest of limbs.” it is said that they have been discovered It rises to the height of one hundred and in places where they were not previously five feet, its boughs extend one hundred known, after plantations of this tree have and twenty-three feet, and it contains been made. They have been propagated, four hundred and ninety-eight feet of though at a great expense of time and solid timber.” Nor must we omit to trouble, by removing the earth from the notice two other beechen groves, which places where they are usually found, will be consecrated as the favourite reinto a garden, and covering it with de- sorts of two of our most distinguished caying beech leaves.
poets, the immortal Pope, and the auMany valuable and curious fungi are thor of the well-known elegy, Gray. found on the leaves, mast, and branches, The latter thus describes his favourite reas well as bark of the tree, among them sort, in the neighbourhood of Stoke may be named agaricus adiposus, which Pogis, Bucks :- “I have at the disin fine specimens resembles a pine-apple; tance of half a mile, through a green hydnum coralloides, which is esculent and lane, a forest (the vulgar call it a not unlike a cauliflower ; and polyporus common) all my own, at least as good gigantèus, which spreads in large masses as so, for I spy no human thing in it over the trunk, and may be compared but myself. Both vale and hill are to a large tuberous flower with four covered with most venerable beeches, petals.
and other very reverend vegetables, that, The most ancient beech now existing like most other convenient people, are in England is most probably one in the always dreaming out their old stories neighbourhood of Sunninghill, within to the wind. At the foot of one of the limits of Windsor forest; it is sup- these, squats me, (il penseroso,) and posed to have existed before the Norman there grow to the trunk for a whole conquest. At the distance of six feet | morning. The timid hare and sportive from the ground, the trunk measures squirrel gambol around me." Within thirty-six feet in circumference. The the precincts of Windsor forest, in the Frankley beeches, on an estate belonging neighbourhood of Binfield, the early to lord Lyttleton, in Worcestershire, are residence of Alexander Pope, is a grove also of great antiquity; they are men- of beeches, whither he would frequently tioned in old leases as landmarks, being retire, and beneath one in particular, in a conspicuous situation on a hill
. The it is said, many of his early pieces were largest now standing is seventy feet high, composed. Lady Gower, an admirer and fourteen feet in girth at a foot from of the poet, to perpetuate the memory the ground; but one blown down in 1833, of this circumstance, caused the words, was yet larger, twenty feet in circumfer- * Here Pope sang,” to be cut in legible ence. At Donnington park is a beech tree characters upon the bark of the tree. one hundred years old, which measures A violent storm, however, some years one hundred feet in height; the diameter ago, entirely broke off the upper part of the trunk is seven feet, and that of the of the tree, leaving only a scathed and head one hundred feet. The Eccles beech | mutilated trunk.
Group of New Zealanders.
The colonization of this remote counWe look with interest on a group of try will excite in us different emotions, savages, whose manners and customs are according as we are accustomed to revery different to our own, especially if gard mankind. Colonies are formed is there be among them any particular. uncivilized countries with various views traits of character, setting forth courage The statesman considers the advantage or cowardice, kindness or cruelty. We that may arise from bringing a new judge them by our own opinions; we country under the subjection of his own. measure them by our own standard. The merchant calculates on the profit
But if, in addition to the interest ex, that may accrue from trading with the cited by their peculiar customs and inhabitants, and bearing away their proqualities, there be a prospect of their duce to other climes. The manufacturer rapidly rising in the scale of civilization contemplates a new market for his goods. and intelligence we regard them with While the Christian looks with a single more than ordinary attention and curios- eye to the temporal and eternal welfare ity, Rude and ignorant, superstitious of the new people to whom the benefits and degraded as they may be, we see in of civilization and Christianity are about them the germ of a new order of things; to be extended. the elements of an infant state, and the It is not intended, in these observaprogenitors of a race, whose knowledge, tions, to enter on a description of New influence, and renown, may spread Zealand, to set forth the progress of disabroad in the earth.
coveries made in the country, or to reThe interesting group in the en- present the degree of civilization already graving, is intended as a represen- partially effected. For the present purtation of the natives of New Zealand, pose, it is enough to know, that the New in the neighbourhood of the Straits of Zealanders have been always described Cook and Cape Palliser. The Straits of as ignorant, fierce, treacherous, and Cook separate the northern islands called cruel cannibals; and that the country Eaheinomauwe from the centre one, presents sufficient attractions for EuropeTavai-Poenamoo, in the same manner ans to form colonies therein. as Tee's Straits divide the latter from And here, at the very threshold of our the southern island ; these three islands, remarks, we are struck with what is calaltogether, form the country of New culated to produce a deep impression on Zealand.
the pious mind. It would astonish the JUNE, 1840.
most imperturbable spirit to find a lamb | deceit; brutalized them with spirituous living fearlessly near the lair of a wolf, liquors; embroiled them in wars; and of a kid dwelling in safety in the den of robbed them by pretended treaties. a lion. Yet here is a circumstance little They have defeated them by force, purless surprising. Missionaries, unarmed sued them in their native woods with and unprotected, (save by his Almighty rifles, and hunted them with blood protection, who alone can “control the hounds. And can these things pass ununruly wills and affections of sinful heeded by the righteous Ruler of the men,”) not only living in peace with, skies ? Is there no retribution in the but exercising influence over the laws stretched-out arm of the Holy One less, the fierce, the_treacherous, the against oppression! "Envy thou not man-devouring New Zealander. Truly the oppressor, and choose none of his “this is the Lord's doing ; it is marvel ways," Prov. iii. 31. lous in our eyes !" Psa. cxviii
. 23. Great Britain, stretching as she does The colonizing of New Zealand is a the sceptre of her command over so large subject full of interest to the Christ- a portion of the earth, and exercising ian philanthropist; for hard must that control over at least a hundred and fifty heart be that can contemplate, with millions of human beings, in distant out emotion, the barbarous usage of lands, was once like New Zealand, incivilized people towards uncivilized habited by a barbarous people. We tribes;
the unchristian conduct of have little among tis now resembling the Christian nations towards the heathen! savage rites of the ancient Britons, and Very few, indeed, are the colonies of the the superstitious and cruel ceremonies of world wherein the aborigines of the soil the Druids, burning alive their fellowhave not groaned beneath the iron yoke beings in figures of wicker work. We of those who first settled among them as regard these things with indifference; friends. The man of colour has fallen and, in like manner, the New Zealander, before the white man, and the blood of in years to come, may regard the relaunnumbered victims has cried out from tions of cannibalism as a part of history the ground against the oppression and alone, setting forth practices long abolwanton cruelty of those who boast of the ished. purity of their faith, and make large
the savage customs of New professions of humanity, mercy, justice, Zealand are giving way. As yet, the
inhabitants of the place may, for the Thereare Christian men who, believing most part, dwell in chimneyless huts, in national as well as individual sins and with walls formed of twigs, and roofsof punishments, think they recognize in the rushes or grass. They may tattoo their civil wars of Portugal and Spain a Di- bodies, and rub themselves over with vine retribution for the wantonly shed grease and red ochre. They may eat blood that has stained the thirsty soil of fern roots, take their meals in the open their distant colonies. These consider air, delight in the slaughter of their the division of Holland, the revolutions enemies, and bake the bodies of their of France, and the unsettled position of prisoners in the earth for food; but Great Britain herself, as not unconnected these things must rapidly disappear. with national and colonial transgression. At present, · New Zealanders, in It remains, then, to be seen, whether, the interior of their country, clothe profiting by the past, the colonizers of themselves with mats and rushes, stickNew Zealand will adopt a more merci- ing feathers in their hair; use imful, upright, and Christian course than plements, whose handles
frethe annals of the past hand down to quently formed of human bones; cut us; and whether the present inhabitants themselves with knives on the return of of that distant land will have to bless, or their chiefs from warlike expeditions ; to look back with bitterness upon the join noses, and weep and howi, in parthour, when English colonists first set ing with their friends; and practise a foot on their native soil.
hundred other strange customs which The
page of the past, on the subject of must give way before the influence of colonies, can hardly be read without a civilization. Every year will effect new soul-sickening emotion of indignation and changes, and every generation destroy, shame. White men have won for ever, usages that now form a part of their darker-coloured brethren by pre- the character of the people. tended kindness; supplanted them by In future years, the New Zealanders
will hardly believe that their forefathers | the swallow, the first hum of the bee, cut their hair with oyster shells, and and mark the sun yet in the chambers greedily devoured men. Nor will their of the east, encurtained with roseate wives and daughters, without astonish- clouds, while the morning dew glitters ment, be convinced that the wife of the on the grass like a shower of diamonds, Great Shungie laboured in the potato and the fresh breeze is redolent of ground, digging up the earth with a pole. flowers. Hark! the mower is whetting
The New Zealander is now fierce, his scythe, and the lark is soaring in the even to fury; and treacherous and cruel sky, pouring forth his delightful melody. to a proverb. His tomahawk; his mery, Let us go forth. How beautiful is morn(a short thick club;) his patoo, (battle ing! morning, that opens the night-folded axe;) his hennee, (halberd ;) and his blossoms, bids the tuneful choir enliven spear, are his most valuable property. the woodlands with their music, and He is a man of blood, and to shed blood summons man to his labour. The is his delight. Put a hatchet and a prowling fox has retired to his den, the musket before him, and his eyes sparkle; polecat to his retreat; the timorous hare give them to him, and great is his plea- has sought her form; the creatures that
May the time be hastened, when are active only during the hours of darkhe shall cast away the weapons
of war, ness have concealed themselves; the when swords shall be beat into plough- owl is in her ivy-covered bower; and the shares, and spears into pruninghooks, bat is suspended, asleep, in the hollow and war no more be known.
tree, or the chamber of the ruined tower; It is probable that New Zealand will the creatures that rejoice in the brightgreatly rise in importance; and who ness of day have already bestirred themshall say that this country will not de- 'selves, and even inanimate nature seems cline ? We are upheld only by the hand to assume a robe of gladness. See how of the Holy One; with him, the proudest the mist in volumes rolls up the brow of “nations are as a drop of a bucket, and yon high hill, and clears away from the are counted as the small dust of the ba- woods that stretch along its ridge, belance," Isa. xl. 15. It becometh us, then, tokening a goodly day for the mower and to take heed to the warning words of holy the shearer, who are now busy at their writ; “Let him that thinketh he stand work; a goodly day, too, for the bee, in eth take heed lest he fall,” I Cor. x. 12. whose labours man is himself not uninIn the mean time, leaving all useless terested. But come, we must not delay ; speculations on the future position and let us imitate the bee, and endeavour, influence of the new colonies, the at least, to extract good from the works Christian reader will not fail gratefully of our Creator, which he has pronounced to regard every new opening for the to be filled with goodness. word of God, and the glad tidings of the
See how the surface of that water is gospel, as an approach to the fulfilment covered with the broad leaves of the of the Divine promise, which he ex- water-lily; there are two species, one is pects, one day, to be fully accomplished ; the nymphea lutea, or yellow water-lily, " I shall give thee the heathen for thine with a yellow blossom; the other is the inheritance, and the uttermost parts of nymphea alba, or white water-lily, the the earth for thy possession,” Psa. ii. 8. large flowers of which are exceedingly And,“ the earth shall be full of the elegant. Several species of duckweed knowledge of the Lord, as the waters (Lemna) are also spread in sheets of cover the sea,” Isa. xi. 9.
green over the liquid they hide, so closely are their small glossy green leaves com
pacted side by side together. Observe By a Naturalist.
that little animal swimming in the clear water; it is the water newt or eft (Tri
ton) one of the amphibia, an innocent LEAFY June, with its flowers and sun- little creature, though regarded by some shine, the month of roses, returns wel ignorant persons as venomous. During come to all, and invites the naturalist to
the spring and summer, the males are wander along the stream, and through furnished with a membranaceous dorsal the woods verdant in the fulness of their crest running down the back and the renovated foliage. Let him obey tail, which latter is always compressed :
“The breezy call of incense-breathing morn," the dorsal crest forms an elegant fin-like and rise with the earliest twittering of appendage, but it is temporary, disap
NOTES ON THE MONTH.