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hich he was placed, seems ta nuppi, thou similar observation may be made,

The stream had gone over our soul :

of which tents are made, wool, Lev. xiii. Then the proud waters had gone over our soul," Psa. cxxiv. 2-5.

47–58, and canvass, ib. 48–59, and And ought not the English Protestant leather, are particularized, as exhibiting to respond ?

each peculiar symptoms of the plague ; « Blessed be THE LORD

and this being done, it was unnecessary Who hath not given us a prey to their teeth. to say any thing of a tent itself; but as Our soul is escaped as a bird out of the snare the materials of a house were quite dif

of the fowlers : The snare is broken, and we are escaped,” | ferent, and the appearances of infection Psa. cxxiv. 6, 7.

in it peculiar, this required a particular

specification. All this has the appearUNDESIGNED COINCIDENCES OF ance of reality, and is exactly the way SCRIPTURE.-No. IV.

in which an eye witness would have The general suitableness of manner, spoken ; but it is such a difference as in the different books of the Jewish law- a writer of fiction would scarcely have giver, peculiar of. a proof of authenticity at once natural on the manner in which the service of and convincing. But there are coin the Levites, in taking care of the tabercidences of a less obvious nature, more nacle, is described, Num. iii. and iv. circuitous and indirect, which occur in We find the families of the Levites enuthe statement of particular facts, and merated, the numbers of each, and the deserve to be accurately attended to, as heads of them, and which were to be supplying still more decisive characters entrusted with the most holy things. of truth and authenticity.

If it should be conceived, that all this In delivering rules about the leprosy, may have been inserted in a fictitious it is said, Lev. xiv. 34, " When ye narrative, like the catalogues of Homer be come into the land of Canaan, which and Virgil

, to preserve the semblance I give to you for a possession, and I of probability, and compliment existing put the plague of leprosy in a house families, by representing their supposed of the land of your possession, ye shall ancestors in situations of peculiar digdo thus, and thus." I notice this in- nity, yet how can we, on such a prinstance, because that a house is spoken ciple, account for the exact detail which of, not at all with a design to mark is given, not only of the arrangement the circumstance of their not yet being of these families 'round the tabernacle, come into the land of their possession, but the particular parts of that strucbut is of necessity introduced from the ture, and the particular sacred vessels nature of the case. The subject here is which each family was to carry on the the discovery and the purification of the march, Num. iii. 25, 26. 31. 35, leprosy. As to this, particular direc- 36 ; iv. 15, 20; and still more, the mitions are given with respect to a house, nuter directions given, as to the mode but nothing is said of a tent; whereas, of taking these different parts asunder, with regard to the impurity contracted protecting them from the injuries of the by the presence of a dead body, all the weather during the march, carrying and directions relate to a tent, and nothing setting them up ? How unnatural and is said of a house, Num. xix. 14; also irrational would all this appear, in the compare 11 and 21, which prove the remote compiler of a general history, rules as to a dead body were of per- who lived long after these marches had manent obligation. Now this difference ceased, when all such directions were is, by a little attention, easily accounted utterly superfluous. Surely we cannot for ; the writer applies the rules about suppose that such particulars as these the purification from a dead body to the should proceed from any writer but an object then most familiar with him, a eye-witness of the events ; nor even tent. And as its lying in a house would from an eye-witness, except he had produce no effect different from its ly- been engaged as Moses was, in origining in a tent, and require no difference ally directing and constantly superof purification, he says nothing about intending these operations. a house; but leaves the nature of the Different circumstances occur in the thing to suggest the regulation when it detail of these directions, which seem should become necessary. Whereas, in to supply more decisive characters of detailing the rules for discovering and truth and authenticity; because they purifying the leprosy, all the materials display coincidences more minute, or

more circuitous and indirect. Thus it is in each camp. He fixes the position mentioned, that Aaron, as high priest, and each was to take round the tabernacle, his family, had charge of the ark of the and the order of their march: and he Lord, and the furniture of the holy of directs, that the tabernacle, with the holies ; but they were to be carried camp of the Levites, should set forward during the progress of each march, by between the second and third camps, an inferior family; and the writer re- Numb. ii. 17. But in the tenth chapter marks, these were not to approach them, occurs what seems at first a direct conuntil Aaron and his sons had made an tradiction to this ; for it is said, that after end of covering them, at the commence- the first camp had set forward, Numb. ment of the journey, Numb. iv. 15. What x. 17, “then the tabernacle was taken forger, or mere compiler, would have down, and the sons of Gershon and the thought of such a circumstance ? sons of Merari set forward bearing the

A coincidence still more remarkable tabernacle, and afterwards the second on this subject is the following. In the camp, or standard of the children of third and fourth chapter of Numbers, Reuben.” But this apparent contrathe parts of the tabernacle to be carried diction is reconciled a few verses after, by each family of the Levites on the when we find, that, though the less march are minutely specified. The fifth sacred parts of the tabernacle, the outand sixth are taken up with a detail of side tent and its apparatus, set out be. laws entirely unconnected with this sub- tween the first and second camp; yet ject; the seventh begins with relating, the sanctuary, or holy of holies, with that the different princes of Israel made its furniture, the ark and the altar, did an offering of six covered wagons and not set out till after the second camp, twelve oxen, which Moses employed to as the direction required. And the reacarry the tabernacle, and distributed to son of the separation is assigned, that two families of the Levites, “according those who bore the outside tabernacle to their service,” Numb. vii. 5—9; (for might set it up, and thus prepare for the third were to carry the part as- the reception of the sanctuary against signed to them, the furniture of the it came, Numb. x. 21. Would a forger, holy of holies, upon their shoulders ;) or compiler, who lived when these to one are assigned two, to another four marches had wholly ceased, and the wagons. The reason of this inequality Israelites had fixed in the land of their is not specified ; but on turning back, inheritance, have thought of such a cirwe find that the family to which the cumstance as this ? four wagons are assigned, had been ap- In comparing the direct narrative with pointed to carry the solid, and therefore the recapitulation in the last book of heavy parts of the tabernacle, its boards, the Pentateuch, some differences occur and bars, and pillars, compare Numb. well worth noticing. In the eighteenth vii. 8, with iv. 31,) while that family chapter of Exodus, Moses, with sinto which the two wagons are assigned, gular impartiality, gives the credit of was appointed to carry the lighter, (com- originating one of the most salutary and pare Numb. vii. 7, with iv. 25,) its important parts of the Jewish civil gocurtains and coverings, its hangings and vernment to his father-in-law, Jethro; cords. Such a coincidence as this is who, observing the variety and weight extremely natural, if Moses, who di- of business which oppressed the legisrected this matter, recorded it; but is lator, from his acting as judge of every it not wholly improbable that a forger or private litigation between the people, compiler should think of detailing such tells him, * The thing that thou doest minute particulars at all, or if he did, is not good. Thou wilt surely wear away, should detail them in such a manner both thou, and this people that is with as this?

The more minute and ap- thee: for this thing is too heavy for thee; parently unimportant such coincidences thou art not able to perform it thyself as this are, the more unlikely is it they alone. Hearken now unto my voice, should arise from any thing but reality. Thou shalt provide out of all the people

Another coincidence of somewhat a able men, such as fear God, men of similar nature is the following. In the truth, hating covetousness, and place second chapter of the book of Numbers, such over them, to be rulers of thouthe writer describes the division of the sands, and rulers of hundreds, rulers twelve tribes into four camps, the num- of fifties, and rulers of tens: and let ber of each tribe, and the total number them judge the people at all seasons. If thou shalt do this thing, and God , rity as subordinate judges. Thus the command thee so, then thou shalt be two statements are perfectly consistable to endure, and all this people shall ent: but this is not all; their differalso go to their place in peace. So ence is most natural. In first recording Moses hearkened to the voice of his the event, it was natural Moses should father-in-law, and did all that he had dwell on the first cause which led to said. And Moses chose able men out of it, and pass by the appeal to the people, all Israel, and made them heads over the as a subordinate and less material part people, rulers of thousands, rulers of hun- of the transaction ; but in addressing dreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens. the people, it was natural to notice the And they judged the people at all seasons; part they themselves had in the selection the hard causes they brought unto Moses, of those judges, in order to conciliate but

every small matter they judged them their regard and obedience. How natuselves," Exod. xviii. 17-19. 21–26: rally also does the pious legislator, in such is the direct narrative. In the very his public address, dwell on every cirbeginning of his address to the people, cumstance which could improve his Moses is represented as alluding to this hearers in piety and virtue ! The mulfact, but with this remarkable differ- titude of the people was the cause of ence; that he not only says nothing of the appointment of these judges. How Jethro, but that instead of representing beautifully is this increase of the nation himself as the person who selected these turned to an argument of gratitude to magistrates, he states that he had ap- God! How affectionate is the blessing pealed to the people, and desired they with which the pious speaker interrupts should elect them. “I spake unto you the narrative, imploring God that the at that time, saying, I am not able to multitude of his people may increase bear you myself alone: the Lord your a thousand fold! How admirably does God hath multiplied you, and, behold, he take occasion, from mentioning the ye are this day as the stars of heaven judges, to inculcate the eternal prinfor multitude. (The Lord God of your ciples of justice and piety, which should fathers make you a thousand times so control their decisions ! How remote many more as ye are, and bless you, as is all this from art, forgery, and imhe hath promised you !) Ho can I posture! Surely here, if any where, myself alone bear your cumbrance, and we can trace the dictates of nature, your burden, and your strife ? Take you truth, and piety.-Graves. wise men, and understanding, and known among your tribes, and I will make them rulers over you.-So I took the

By a Naturalist. chief of your tribes, wise men, and known, and made them heads over you. With light and heat refulgent, July -And I charged your judges at that time, opens upon us. Vegetation is in full luxsaying, Hear the causes between your uriance ; myriads of insects are glancing brethren, and judge righteously between in the sunbeams; butterflies, in rich atevery man and his brother, and the tire, are fluttering over the fields, or hostranger that is with him. Ye shall not vering around the blossoms; the bees are respect persons in judgment; but ye all at work, collecting honey from the shall hear the small as well as the great ; nectaries of the flowers, in the petals of ye shall not be afraid of the face of which they bury themselves to obtain man; for the judgment is God's : and the liquid sweets within. It is amusing the cause that is too hard for you, bring to watch these insects thus engaged, to it unto me, and I will hear it,” Deut. see how they examine flower after flower, i. 9—13. 15-18. There is a great and how quickly they leave those which have striking difference between these state- been already robbed ; and how eagerly ments, but there is no contradiction : they extract the honey from such as Jethro suggested to Moses the appoint- afford a supply: in this pursuit, they ment; he probably, after consulting traverse the fields and gardens, and God, as Jethro intimates, “ If thou shalt wander far from their home, returning do this thing, and God command thee when their honey bag is filled, and again so,” referred the matter to the people, going forth on the same errand. and assigned the choice of the indi- On light gauze-like wings the dragon-fly viduals to them; the persons thus se- is sweeping over the surface of the water lected, he admitted to share his autho- from which he has recently emerged, for,

NOTES ON THE MONTH.

JULY.

The gnat

air;

like the ephemera, the dragon-fly com- The gnat, (Culer,) of which myriads mences existence as an aquatic larva; and are dancing in clustered squadrons, at this larva is very remarkable for the mode this season of the year, when the coolin which it propels itself along, without ness of the evening tempts them from the aid of its external members, which their leafy retreats, is also aquatic in its are six in number, and which enable it larva state, and abounds in stagnant to creep up the stems of aquatic plants waters, such as pools, ditches, or large in search of prey; but the mode of pro- water tubs, and may be easily examined gression through the water is a sort of in a watch glass of pure water, by a swimming. Appended to the posterior common magnifying lens. extremity of the body are three or five deposits her eggs in the water, but not leaflike appendages, and these the crea- singly; her object, so to speak, is to ture continually opens and closes, taking keep them from sinking : at the time of into a cavity at their base, which is fur- their exclusion, she therefore glues them nished with strong muscular walls, a cer- together, by means of a viscid secretion ; tain portion of water, and instantane- and thus joined side to side, their shape ously rejecting it with considerable force. being a long oval, they form a little raft, By this mechanical contrivance, the ani- which floats upon the surface. Each mal is propelled along, on the same prin- egg, at its inferior extremity, or that ciple as that by which a rocket rises in the which is in immediate contact with the

and ingenious attempts have been water, is constructed so as to form a lid, made to apply this mode of propulsion destined to give exit to the larva, when to ships, by means of the force of steam it leaves this primary habitation. The acting on machinery, constructed so as subjoined is a magnified representation to throw out a continued volume of of the egg raft of the gnat. water at the stern of the vessel, instead of being applied to paddle wheels; but, as in many other cases, art fails in her endeavours to imitate the mechanism of nature. The difference between the larva of the dragon fly (Libellula, order Neuroptera) is so great, that persons unacquainted with entomology would not readily believe the two beings to be identical. This difference is shown in

The figure of the larva is very curi. the accompanying sketch, which repre-downwards, are singularly quick and ac

the tive. Still, however, air is necessary for its existence; but the question is, how is it to be obtained ? On looking at these larvæ in a quiescent state, we find them invariably at the surface of the water, with the head hanging down, and the tail above. Now, on examining one of them, we see it to be organized as in the accompanying magnified sketch. It con

[graphic]

sents the larva of the dragon-fly; all are familiar with the perfect insect. The dragon-fly is one of the insect tyrants of sists of a long slender body a, dilating the air ; its flight is rapid and powerful, into a large thorax b, to which is attachand it wages incessant war with insects ed a head not much inferior in magniof inferior strength; while the larva is tude c, the tail appears as if it were equally destructive in the water. bifid, but one portion is a breathing apparatus d, the other, e, is the true cau- | emerges above the surface. The memdal termination. To this is appended a branous integument now begins to dry, circlet of moveable leaf-like processes, and soon to split longitudinally, and graso arranged as to sustain the animal at dually to expand, forming a boat, in the surface of the water, where they per- which rests unwetted and secure the perform the office of a float. The respir- fect insect; it floats on a coracle of its atory tube d, which is connected with own skin, which it leaves behind, and the internal tracheæ, or organs of aëra- rises on fluttering wings, to begin a new tion, is perforated at its extremity, and existence. How simple, yet how perfect, while the larva remains quietly suspend- are these operations of our Creator; and ed, is just raised above the surface, so as how forcibly do they appeal to the mind to take in the necessary supply of air. in proof of consummate wisdom, power, Thus is this little creature curiously and and goodness! How certain the princiadmirably adapted for the situation as- ples on which they are conducted, how signed to it by the great Creator. The sure is the result! Here have we, in the segments of the body and the thorax are history of an insignificant gnat, as the furnished with radiating pencils of fine thoughtless would call it, a proof demonhairs, and on the head are two ciliæ, by strative, that all things are made in wisthe movements of which food is brought dom, and that in the meanest insect a to the mouth. It is by the vibratile lesson upon the attributes of the Creator movements of the body that the animal may be learned. Can the changes in swims about, and the fine hairs with this little insect, which we have briefly which it is furnished, seem to contribute detailed, its mode of being supplied to render it buoyant; for when its mo- with air, the preparatory steps to its tions cease, it begins slowly to ascend to last change, the surprising means by the surface without any visible effort. which this is safely accomplished, and

Several times, before assuming the its triumphal entrance into another elepupa state, this larva moults its skin, ment, be reflected upon by the Christian and when this state is attained, it would without a feeling of grateful adoration hardly be recognized as the same crea- to that God, who thus manifests his care ture; the thorax and head are no longer even for the meanest creatures which he divided, but form one mass, beneath the has called into being, an assurance in itself, membranous investment of which the made a thousand fold more so by his outline of the perfect insect may be de- word, that man, whom he created in his tected. The elongated tail-like body is image, is the object of his especial restill used as an organ of locomotion, and gard and benevolence ? the pupa floats at the surface, but not in It may be asked, Is this the mode in its former position. The creature now which the metamorphosis of all aquatic swiins with the back of the thorax, and larvæ is conducted ? It is not; that of not the tail, nearest the surface; and the larva of the dragon-fly is effected in therefore a remarkable modification of the following manner. It must be borne in the respiratory apparatus now takes mind, that the outer skin of the larva of inplace ; the caudal breathing-tube disap- sects, once formed, does not grow; it is in pears, and in its place two tubes rise fact an extra-vascular cuticle ; the true from the back of the thorax, so as to skin, from which it is secreted, is beneath have their orifices just emerged from the it, and grows with the growing body it water.

immediately envelopes : thus the encased This change of position, and altera- animal, by reason of its growth, necestion of the breathing apparatus, are pre- sarily bursts this outer envelope, which paratory to the last change, the egress is thrown off, a new one formed on the of the perfect insect from its pupa en- true skin then taking its place, to be velope, and prepare the way for its escape broken and cast off in its turn. During from its pristine element into the air. this process, several times repeated, the This it must accomplish without being insect is becoming more and more dewetted by the water, for which it is no veloped ; and when the pupa state comlonger adapted, and in which it would mences, (the last change excepting one,) speedily perish; but how is its escape to the wings and general form of the impribe effected ? Floating, as we have said, soned animal may be more or less plainly with the back of the thorax uppermost, as

discriminated. In this condition, then, the important change draws near, the pu- imagine the aquatic pupa of the dragonpa becomes still more buoyant, till its back fly; the period of the last metamorphosis

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