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which oozed, drop by drop, the fluid | to their roosting place after a fishing contained within. "On detaching the as- excursion, in which, no doubt, they have terias from its prey, these vesicles col- been very successful. The cormorant is lapsed, and became no longer visible. a beautiful bird, and may be as easily The query is, What were these vesicles ? reclaimed and taught to catch fish as and why were they introduced into the falcons to take partridges. It has been shell, or how could they be so without so employed in China, and has been being injured ? The probability appears also trained for the same purpose in to be, that they contained a poisonous or England, but for the sake of amusement paralyzing secretion, by which the vital only. energies of the mollusk were destroyed; The cormorant swims with its body and that they were insinuated by degrees, immersed ; its tail, composed of stiff, as the mollusk, clasped in the arms of its elastic feathers, serves the purpose of destroyers, and absorbing some of the a rudder, and is an efficient agent poison poured out upon the edges of in enabling the bird to turn, to dive the shell, became enervated; when the deeper, or ascend, as it pursues its prey adductor muscles, that close the shell, beneath the surface, which it does with would lose, first by degrees, and then great pertinacity, occasionally rising to more rapidly, their power of contrac- breathe. The wings in diving are not idle, tion; death ultimately supervening. That but are used as vigorous oars, the bird this is the way in which the process was striking the water with them, in order accomplished seems the more probable, to make rapid way. When scarcely from the circumstance that some of the half fledged, the young, if thrown into mactræ examined, although apparently the water, invariably attempt to escape little injured, were either dead or ren- by diving, and, using their wings as dered perfectly torpid, the adductor their fully-fledged parents, continue for muscles being quite relaxed. Whether a long time their subaquatic course. these vesicles have been detected and As, however, an account of this bird examined by other naturalists, we are may be found in most works on orninot able to determine ; but we have a thology, and among others, in a work clew, in M. Deslongchamps's account, to entitled, “ An Introduction to the Study the means by which the asterias is en- of Birds," (published by the Religious abled to destroy and devour the mol- Tract Society, 1835,) reference may be lusk of the oyster, and other large bi- made to it. valve shells.

The evening draws on apace, and The use of the suckers in securing we must return. See how gloriously prey has been noticed; they are also, the broad bright harvest moonlights it may be added, organs of progression, up the dark waters of the sea, throws by means of which the animal glides her radiance over the wide spread securely over the surface, or up the corn lands, and silvers the sombre perpendicular sides of rocks, however foliage of the trees, and the tall smooth or slippery. In the perform- spire of the church, embosomed in ance of this operation, the rays are ex- their shade. How beautiful is such a tended to their utmost, the suckers are night! how lovely such a scene ! Who all protruded through their ambulacral can behold it unmoved? who gaze upon orifices; and, each having independent it, and not feel his heart glow within power of action, are employed in fixing him, nor experience a profound emotion and detaching themselves alternately, of gratitude to the God of all power and their curious inovements reminding one goodness, whose mercies are over all his of those of the limbs of a millipede, works, and who in all his ways claims (Julus terrestris,) a regularly gliding our warmest adoration !

M. progress being the result. If placed in a large vessel of clear glass, filled with pure sea water, the curious and interesting motions of the suckers of the asterias may be contemplated with ad

THE LAW AND THE GOSPEL. vantage. But enough of this animal. The hammer of the law may break

Mark now those large dark-coloured an icy heart; but the sunshine of the birds, winging their way landwards from gospel dissolves it into tears. Peter was

They are cormorants, (Pha- melted by a love-glance of Christ.lacrocorax carbo,) and are returning | Dingley.

the sea.

BAY OF HONGKONG.

Chinese admire a fair complexion exThis is a noble harbour, about forty ceedingly; and the ear of the traveller, miles from Macao. It is formed by the who understands a little of their lanisland of Hongkong, which is a small, guage, is often saluted, as he passes by, but lofty island. It is composed of trap, with allusions to the whiteness of his and has a beautiful waterfall on the west- skin. While the stranger and the circle ern side.

The word trap signifies a of bystanders were exchanging civilities, stair, and refers to the perpendicular a poor woman, at a little distance off us, ledges and escarpments, which are so was observed to be very busily engaged frequent in mountains formed of this in surveying her own complexion. She material. Over these ledges, or down had pulled up her sleeve, and seemed these escarpments or steeps, the moisture to be comparing its fairness with what that has distilled upon the lofty ridges, she remarked in a stranger. A white often rolls in a headlong current, and skin, the characteristic of Europeans, then we get a cascade or waterfall, an appears to be held in admiration most object that never fails to inspire feelings among those who have it not; a fact of sublime delight in the mind of all that shows that there is a greater apbeholders. The bay of Hongkong was proximation to identity in the tastes of latterly the anchorage of all outside ships, different nations, than we might at first which used formerly to lie at Linton, or be led to suppose. The more carefully in a harbour a few miles from it. The and comprehensively we analyze the senpeople on the shore are noted for their timents and practices of different nations, civility and the absence of all contempt- the more shall we find reason to think uous feeling or abusive language towards and conclude, that God “fashioneth foreigners. In fact, the Chinese inha- their hearts alike," Psa. xxxiii. 15; and bitants of this place have not been les- " as in water face answereth to face, so soned by their rulers in the art of think- doth the heart of man to man. It is aling meanly of what they do not under ways useful to a traveller to remember stand, nor of railing at what they have this; for it constitutes the “mystery" not seen. In one of my walks, I en- of his profession : it is of the highest imtered a small village, which lay at the portance in China, where we have so end of my route; the people pressed many curious opportunities of seeing, around the stranger to study his person, that in despite of hearsay, or first imand ask his business. A sad contrast to pression, God has made all men of one the general cheerfulness and good hu- blood, to dwell upon the face of the mour was presented by an opium smoker, earth. who, in broken English, demanded the Ducks are hatched in China, as (chickreason of my coming. The ill-looking ens) in Egypt, by culinary heat, and are cast of his face made me take him for a reared in boats, or, as is more frequent, in foe; but I was mistaken, perhaps, for he pens, near a splash of water. In this way, brought a stool, and sitting down upon the brood can indulge their favourite proone end of it, begged me to rest myself pensity without giving the keeper any upon the other.

But whatever may trouble to fetch home the strays. The have been his sentiments, he saw that owner of one of these broods, whom I the kindness and gentleness of my car- met in one of my walks, was surrounded riage had won the favour of the crowd, by his children, and seemed to be hapand was wise enough to think it would py enough in his occupations and his be in vain to resist the popular current.

Among his sons was a clever The Chinese are timid, and cautious, boy, who spoke with a spirit and clearand free institutions have not fostered ness of intonation, that mightily recomwhat we call public opinion; but an in- mends a Chinese to a stranger, somewhat tense feeling seems, on some occasions, initiated in their language. It seemed a to supply the place of it, and sets in pity that so much talent should be left to with such a heady and overbearing tide, run wild without any training, so I asked that the magistrates are obliged to use all the father why he did not send his son to their resources to soothe and divert it. school. “Because I have no money," was This poor

victim of intemperance under the reply. “No money!” said I ; "why, stood the temper of his countrymen, sell a few of these ducklings, get a little and thought it would be better to lead cash, and give it to the seen jhang, or than to oppose their inclinations. The schoolmaster, that he may teach your

cares.

child to read." The father rejoined, state, and pointed to it as the chief good, with a good-humoured laugh, that he the sum total of all his happiness. Half had no money. For a parent in China the population here were said to be adwithholds education from his children dicted to the intoxicating use of this only under the stern interdict of poverty. drug ; but this statement must be cauHe looks upon learning as one of the tiously accepted, for it may only mean an most lovely and most useful things in occasional recourse to the fumes of the world. I afterwards visited the school opium to enliven the spirits, or to soothe to which I recommended the native the mind when it flags in weakness or just mentioned to send his son, and despondency. Few among the lower found about ten boys assembled to re- orders can well afford this expensive inceive instruction. I gave the master, dulgence; and as by far the greater who received me with the usual urbanity number enter with cheerfulness into of a Chinese, two copies of the New some industrious pursuit, the body never Testament, which consisted of four vo- falls into that pining waste which deslumes each.

troys the sense of hunger; nor does the In one of my visits to the island, appetite feel that insufferable longing, on the opposite side of the harbour, which is experienced by those who, deI took with me a single copy in four void of every pleasurable occupation, volumes, as not anticipating that I give themselves wholly up to its sway. should find more than one or two read. The poor wretch, to whom we have just ers in a place so remote from the gene- adverted, had by some means obtained ral pale of education. I met with an more than enough,

and his success became intelligent native on the beach, to whom his misfortune. Poverty has become a I at once offered the Testament. He greater blessing than usual in China, appeared well pleased with the gift, and where it is, in the absence of religion, asked many times if it were sold or the best safeguard against the solicitagiven. He carried it to the best house tions of this most bewitching vice. in the village, where I saw him after

G. T. L. wards among a group of his neighbours, and was glad to observe, that Providence had led me to bestow the book upon one, who seemed to be at the head of the rest

RIGHTEOUSNESS OF FAITI. in “ readiness of mind” and intelligence. BEFORE we can have a right to any He gave me in return a paper of sweet thing in Christ, we must be one with cakes, which had come by sea from him; we must be joined with him as Macao. These 1 divided among the our Head, being dead to the law and children, to the great admiration of some married to him. And as this union is of the bystanders; while the rest, espe- accomplished only through faith, his cially my new friend, said, it was not righteousness which we receive, and good, as wishing me to enjoy them my- which becomes ours in this self. I left them with a hope, that the therefore called " the righteousness recollection of this pleasant interview which is by faith of Jesus Christ,' would lead them to set a higher value “the righteousness of faith,” and “ the upon the books, and as little things, under righteousness which is through the faith God's blessing, are sometimes the cause of Jesus Christ.” It is called the rightof great ones, to study them with inter- eousness of faith, because faith is the est and patience.

only instrument which God is pleased In one of my rambles on the main to make use of in applying his rightland, I saw a thorough-paced opium eousness. It is not called the righteoussmoker, easily recognised by the yellow ness of any other grace, but of faith : paleness of his lank visage, and the in- we never read of the righteousness of difference with which he regarded every repentance, of humility, of meekness, thing around him. The neighbours were or of charity. These are of great price charmed with my box of flowers, and in the sight of God; but they have no the appearance of my books, though office in justifying a sinner. This bethey could not make use of them. But longs solely to faith ; for to him that he, turning with inexpressible noncha- worketh not, but believeth, is righteouslance from these things, opened a little ness imputed, and faith is the gift of brass box filled with opium, in a fluid | God.-R. Haldane.

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Oxnead Hall. Built in the reign of Queen Elizabeth by Clement Paston.

ENGLISH HISTORY.

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the royal prerogative, which her family ELIZABETH,

had ever shown, she refused to allow a (Continued from page 249.)

reformation of the malpractices in purThe last period of Elizabeth's reign veyance, which was a right then largely expresented many busy scenes, but it was ercised, claiming of provisions and other less unquiet than those which preceded atricles, for the royal household at low it. The first event of importance was prices : some regulations of the exchethe death of Leicester, which took place quer were also subjects of complaints. immediately after the flight of the Span- The queen, it is true, promised to redress ish armada. When that event was these grievances; but they were allowed clearly ascertained, the army encamped to continue. in Essex was disbanded, and Leicester When the Spanish invasion threatened, proceeded towards his castle at Kenil- apprehensions were felt respecting the worth. He was taken ill on the jour- more bigoted Papists whose attachment ney, and died at Cornbury park, in Ox- to Popery was stronger than their pafordshire. Some have attributed his end triotic feelings. It was necessary to to poison, administered by his wife and secure some of them from doing misher supposed paramour, Blount, whom, chief; but Elizabeth refused to do more it is said, he had attempted to assassinate. than place them under restraint, and To the account already given of this when the danger was over, they were nobleman, nothing need here be added, mostly liberated. Among the number excepting that his character continued were some seminary priests, and others, enveloped in mystery till the very last. who were found to be involved in treaWe must, however, remark, that his sonable practices. Six of these suffered boldest accusers are popish writers, who death, with some of their abettors, under have blackened his memory by relating the law which forbade such characters to circumstances that involve contradictory enter the kingdom. Many more were improbabilities.

in England, but these examples, it was The preparations for resisting the considered, might be sufficient. The naSpanish invasion occasioned a large ex- tion had then just narrowly escaped from penditure; this obliged Elizabeth to ap- the results of that combination of foreign ply for a considerable grant, which was and domestic enemies, which the Papists made by the parliament; but with that themselves called “ the great plot;" if jealous resistance of interference with that had been successful, by their own The queen

account, the proceedings against the and Scotland. The expedition was set Protestants would have been incompara- forth in a singular manner. bly more severe. The earl of Arundel, only furnished six ships, and granted son of the duke of Norfolk, who was 60,000l. towards the expense. The rest executed in 1572, was then in the was supplied by private adventurers, Tower, and was charged with having who calculated upon a profitable return corresponded with the invaders. He from plunder, or in rewards from Don was tried by his peers, and found guilty Antonio, the claimant of the Portuguese of high treason. . At the request of her throne. The whole fleet amounted to counsellors, the queen spared his life ; one hundred and fifty sail, with twenty but it was not then safe to allow the thousand men, under the command head of the English Papists to be at of sir Francis Drake, as admiral, and sir liberty; he was detained in the Tower, John Norris, as general. It is painful where he died in 1595. A modern to reflect, that in all warlike proceedings popish historian has exaggerated the ex- the suffering falls on the inoffensive intent of the sufferings inflicted upon the habitants, rather than upon those whose recusants ; but even from his own re- ambition and hateful spirit excite the presentation, they were very different conflict. The expedition against Portufrom those endured by the Protestants gal failed, but much havock was made at during the reign of Mary. In 1586, it Corunna, Vigo, and on the neighbourwas found that many of the rescusants ing coast. The fleet returned victorious, were unable to pay the fines they had in- after some months' absence; but more curred. One, a gentleman of Suffolk, of- than half the men, who at first embarked, fered to pay every year the sum of forty perished, chiefly by disease. The propounds. We find that he continued a re- jectors were disappointed of the unlawful cusant till the year 1600 ; but the utmost gains they greedily looked for. This personal suffering inflicted on him was, expedition brings into notice the young detention in the castle of Ely, three earl of Essex, who, though forbidden by times, for short intervals, when the the queen, joined it, with many young Spaniards were expected to invade Eng- men of rank and family as volunteers. land. One of these was in 1594; in the His mother, Letitia, the widowed counautumn, he was suffered to go to his own tess of Essex, had married the earl of house for fourteen days; he then was to Leicester, who introduced her son at choose the house of some friend, where court. He soon attracted the notice of he was to remain, engaging not to go Elizabeth, who made him master of the more than six miles from it; and to ap- horse, and appointed him, though under pear before the council at any time, twenty-one, captain general of the cavalry within ten days after notice had been in the camp at Tilbury. On the death left at the house appointed for his resid- of Leicester, he became the favoured

The account continues : “ In courtier, and soon showed the wayward 1595, he procured the indulgence of tempers of a spoiled child. having his own house for his prison, The singular changes of worldly poli(observe, under the same liberty of tics were manifested this year, by the going six miles from it,) and in 1598, English nation being called upon to aid was permitted to leave it for six weeks.' both the kings of France and Scotland How widely different from the treatment against their subjects. In France, the of the poor Protestants in queen Mary's Guises and the bigoted popish faction, reign! The particulars just stated, are who had formed what they called “the related by the Papists themselves; and holy league,” openly rebelled against the severest proceedings against the re- their sovereign, who sought the aid of cusants ceased, if they would but state his Protestant or Huguenot subjects. that they did not consider the pope had Henry III. had been guilty of blood, by power to depose Elizabeth : to maintain causing the duke of Guise to be assassina contrary opinion assuredly was treason- ated in December, 1588, considering him able.

a notorious traitor, though uncondemned The nation was now eager to attack by any legal proceedings. The king the Spaniards, and desired to weaken himself soon after perished in like manPhilip by wresting Portugal from his ner, being stabbed by Clement, a Dopower. At any rate, such an attempt minican monk, whose superiors induced would assist in diverting him from con- him to believe it would be a meritorious tinuing to stir up troubles in England I act to kill his monarch. Henry iv., who

ence.

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