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succeeded to the French throne, was 1589, the government received informaone of the greatest monarchs of his day: tion that Parkyns, an English Jesuit, had at that time he was a Protestant, which declared there were seven ways or means caused many of his subjects to withhold agreed upon by the pope and his contheir aid against the league, in which federates for murdering the queen. extremity he applied to Elizabeth. She The various garb and characters assumed sent him aid in money, and four thou- by these emissaries, often baffled suspisand men from the Netherlands. By cion. They took every appearance, from supporting the king of France, Eliza- the highest to the lowest, as it suited their beth strengthened herself against Philip, views. Thus a seminary priest appeared who continued her determined enemy. at the Croydon races, in 1591, “in But the aid rendered was not sufficient green and velvet, well mounted, with a to settle the contest. It is only of late pistol at his side,” like one of the galyears that the plan of deciding a war by Iants, or sporting men of the day. Others one strenuous effort has been resorted were disguised as soldiers, sailors, or even to. Additional aids of men and money as galley slaves, just liberated, begging were granted from time to time : one for their bread. This mode of warfare inof the best organized divisions was com- volved less risk and expense than mimanded by Essex.

litary proceedings, and was carried forIn 1590, sir Francis Walsingham, ward by men who considered the welfare secretary of state, died. He was one of of their souls connected with their diaElizabeth's most efficient ministers, a bolical efforts! As before observed, it determined opponent of the Papists, would be wrong to make light of the whose craft he did not hesitate to meet sufferings of the Papists, but we must by craft. He carried the employment always remember that they were solely of spies to a greater extent than any on political grounds; the government English minister before or since. The lowered the spiritual tone of the Reformpersons occupied in these intrigues were ation, in order to comprehend the Rousually unprincipled characters, men of manists, and did so satisfactorily to the desperate fortunes: among them were bulk of them, till the pope interfered. many who contrived to gain employment By demanding absolute submission to from both parties, thus increasing their his mandates, and requiring the deprofit, and at times diminishing their thronement of the queen, he placed every danger; but frequently causing un- Romanist under the necessity of being founded suspicions, and even entering accounted a rebel against one into false plots, to deceive their employ- other; the pope enforcing, of course,

With all his care, Walsingham obedience to his bulls, by threatenings was under great disadvantages, com against the eternal happiness of his pared with the pope and the Romish slaves. The English Papists them princes. The Jesuits were far superior selves felt this, and published an apin ability to any other emissaries or spies, peal against the unjust hardships inand actuated by far stronger motives flicted upon them by the arbitrary manthan those of mere pecuniary interest. dates of the pope. Unceasing efforts Yet even from them the English secre- also were made by the Jesuits to subject tary contrived to obtain some assistance, James of Scotland to popish influence. though liable to be deceived; for the Notwithstanding all these provocations, Jesuits were his superiors in the arts of no Romanist perished, in England, except. dissimulation, and the sixteenth century ing for his treasonable practices. Many was eminently a time of crooked policy. suffered heavily by pecuniary fines, when Walsingham died poor. When his de- they made themselves prominent; but, cease left the office of secretary vacant, as already observed, what are fines, howEssex endeavoured to have Davison re- ever severe, compared with the total loss instated, or Bodley appointed; but lord of life and property inflicted on the Burghley desired the appointment of his Protestants by Mary 1. ? Yet, under all son, sir Robert Cecil : the queen settled these intrigues, the comparative safety of the matter, by requiring lord Burghley Elizabeth and her government says himself to take the office, and allowing much to explain the general desire of him the assistance of his son.

the nation for the execution of Mary The troubles from popish emissaries Stuart; it certainly was considered a continued; they seem to have increased matter of safety, and needful for the during the latter years of this reign. In peace of the realm. After her death,

or the



the English Papists more decidedly se- , the obstinacy of the Puritans, and the parated into two classes. The older power of some noblemen, is run out of party objected to the rising influence of square.” Agreeably to this charge, the Jesuits, who now were known as the Whitgift's first proceeding was to direct, Spanish party; their undisguised objects that all preaching, catechising, and still was to re-establish Popery in Eng- praying, in any private family where any land under a popish prince. The king are present beside the family, be utterly of Spain, and his family, presented the extinguished.” No books or pamphlets only source from whence such a bigoted were to be printed without a bishop's and persecuting monarch as they desired, licence. The whole of these documents could be sought with any hope of suc- are recorded by Strype, and we need not cess. Parsons, their leader, prepared a enlarge upon them. Even at that day book to this effect; it was published they were considered illegal, and disunder the name of Doleman, another puted by the civilians. Whitgift

, folJesuit, and asserted that the profession of Iowing up his proceedings, had the the Protestant faith was a sufficient cause hardihood to declare, that the books called for setting aside any lineal claim. Apocrypha, were holy writings, void of The hard measures dealt out to the

These measures still further rePuritans, also require notice. In 1593, duced the number of efficient ministers a severe law was enacted, which applied in the church, and entangled many in to them as well as to the Papists. All difficulties. persons absenting themselves from the The council, on more than one occapublic services of the Established Church sion, interfered with the antichristian for a month, were to be imprisoned; if measures of Whitgift, and Aylmer, they did not subsequently conform, they bishop of London. The latter, in his were to be exiled , if they returned, or visitation, in 1584, suspended thirty-eight refused to go, they were liable to suffer of the parochial clergy in Essex; one of death. In unison with this proceeding, them was sent by him before the High when a bill had been brought into the Commission Court, for stating that, in House of Commons for the reformation the compass of sixteen miles in that of abuses in the high commission, and county, there were twenty-two nonother ecclesiastical courts, the queen resident clergy, thirty insufficient, and stopped its progress, and caused the nineteen silenced who were able to mover of the bill to be imprisoned. preach. Lord Burghley interfered in Such proceedings deserve our censure ; behalf of two clergymen from Camthey show the spirit of the age, prevent- bridgeshire, whom he advised to go to ing the advance of constitutional liberty, Whitgift, and answer candidly to any which, as yet, was unknown in England. questions that might be put. His letter, This parliament farther offended the recorded by Fuller, shows the course queen, by desiring some settlement of the pursued by that prelate. succession to the crown. The leaders in they are commanded to be examined by this matter were also imprisoned. So an- the register at London ; and I asked noying were liberty of speech and free them whereof? and said, Of a great discussions, to the arbitrary notions of number of articles ; but they could have Elizabeth, that she intimated her wish no copies of them. I answered, that that the rising spirit of debate could be they might answer to the truth; they said, stopped, and the members only allowed The articles were so many in number, to say ay, or no, to the matters brought and so divers, as they were afraid to anbefore them! But the many advantages swer them, for fear of captious inher subjects enjoyed under her govern- terpretations. Upon this, I sent for the ment, began so to develope the energies register, who brought me the articles, of the nation, as effectually to prevent which I have read and find so curiously her stopping the march of improvement. penned, so full of branches and circum

We notice, with regret, the proceed stances, that I think the inquisitions of ings relative to the Puritans. Arch- Spain use not so many questions to com. bishop Grindall was succeeded by Whit- prehend and to entrap their prey. I gift, in 1583. He was charged by the know your canonists can defend this queen, as she declared, to " restore the with all their particles; but surely, discipline of the church, and the uni- under your grace's correction, this juriformity established by law, which, dical and canonical siftner of poor mithrough the connivance of some prelates, I nisters is not to edify and reform. And

“ They say,


in charity, I think they ought not to which they were written ; but they were answer to all these nice points, except brought into trouble, while many were they were very notorious offenders in driven to still more angry proceedings. papistry or heresy. Now, good my Barrow, a lawyer, Green and Penry, lord, bear with my scribbling; I write two ministers, were singled out and prowith testimony of a good conscience, secuted on the statute against recusants, I desire the peace of the church, I de- also in 1592, being charged with sedisire concord and unity in the exercise tion. They vainly declared their loyalty of our religion. I fear no sensual and towards the queen, but refused to rewilful recusant; but I conclude that tract their views on religious discipline. according to my simple judgment, this They were executed early in 1593. kind of proceeding is too much savour- The first two had been nearly three ing the Romish inquisition, and is ra- years in prison ; and when Dr. Reyther a device to seek for offenders than nolds, who attended their execution, to reform any." Such a statement from reported their behaviour to the queen, Burghley who was always inclined to she expressed regret that she had conenforce strict uniformity, strongly shows sented to their death. Penry was the persecuting spirit then abroad. zealous opponent of the prelates; he was

We must pass by the particulars of considered to have had a large share Whitgift's proceedings, observing that in the libels of Mar-Prelate ; but he was he obtained a new ecclesiastical com- not apprehended till 1593, when he remission, by whose authority numbers turned from Scotland to present a pewere sent to the prisons, many of whom tition to the queen. The draft of this died in those noisome receptacles. These was found on him, and was made the measures caused an attempt to take up ground for his condemnation. Whit the matter in parliament, already re- gift was the first to sign the warrant lated; when that was silenced, various for his execution ; he was hanged on efforts were made to obtain relief, but May 29, 1593, in the afternoon, having in vain. Whitgift even objected to al- only had notice to prepare for death lowing marriage at all times of the year, while at his dinner. "These executions as contrary to the old canons, though raised such an odium against the perthe church of Rome had abused them secutors, that it was resolved to proceed by exacting money for licences to marry in future on a different statute, by which at the forbidden periods. He said that they were subjected to banishment. to grant such a permission tended to Thereby many excellent the slander of the church, as having forced to take refuge in Holland, in the hitherto maintained an error! The same manner as the Flemish refugees angry spirit on both sides increased. had found shelter in England. A private press was set to work, to These particulars have been narrated, print violent pamphlets against the bi- since it is as necessary for a faithful shops and their proceedings, under the historian to record them as the suffername of “ Martin Mar-Prelate.” They ings of the martyrs in Mary’s days. contained, as Neal states, many sad Both reflect discredit on the persecuting truths ; but delivered in rude and un- bigots of the respective periods, though becoming language, and with a bitter, certainly in a different degree. It is angry spirit, breaking forth into se- painful to find, that when the original dition. After much anxious search for exiles were gradually called from their the press, which was moved from place labours to their reward, men of a fiercer to place, it was discovered at Man- and more bitter spirit came in their chester. Several divines and others places, commencing proceedings, which, were prosecuted for being concerned in before many years elapsed, led to a these libellous publications; some were fatal reaction. How humbling the confined, and others hanged for their part sideration, that human nature is always therein. Udal died in prison in 1592: he inclined to persecution; and that Elizahad been found guilty, of what was called beth, who in her youth had tasted of “a wicked, scandalous, and seditious this bitter cup, in her latter days showed libel,” in declaring that it was more herself disposed to follow her father's free in those days to be a papist or a example ! "And how painful to think wicked man, than a sound Christian. that she was urged forward in this The moderate Puritans publicly disowned course by Whitgift, who, beyond any these books, and condemned the spirit in ! prelate, urged the extreme doctrines



served you,

of the Reformation, framing in 1595 It is unnecessary to detail all the exwhat were called the Lambeth articles. peditions undertaken against the SpaThese were nine propositions, chiefly niards, by adventurers assisted by the framed with respect to the Divine de- queen. În 1595, one of considerable crees ; they were arranged, and sought magnitude was fitted out under Drake to be imposed as explanations of the and Hawkins ; after various predatory thirty-nine articles. Surely we may efforts, with different success, the fleet ask, did not these proceedings reflect returned in the ensuing spring, both the more discredit on Elizabeth, than those commanders having died, their diseases against Mary Stuart, which, however being aggravated by disappointments. unjustifiable, the conspiracy of foreign Philip was still bent on the invasion potentates and domestic traitors led her of England, for which purpose a large counsellors to urge her to adopt ? force was prepared in Spain, in 1596,

Henry iv. conformed to the church of when it was resolved to attack and deRome in July, 1593. This was done as stroy the Spanish vessels in their own a matter of political expediency; and for ports. A fleet was fitted out, again the time, it enabled him to possess the chiefly supplied by private adventurers. throne of France in quiet. * Elizabeth Essex and Jord Effingham were apwrote a strong remonstrance to her ally, pointed commanders. Many vessels in which she asks him whether he could were destroyed; Cadiz was taken. The reasonably expect that Providence would whole loss to Spain was estimated at grant a happy issue, adding, “could you twenty millions of ducats ; but a fleet entertain a jealousy that the Divine Be- from America, with a large amount of ing, who had so long supported and pre- treasure, was not intercepted, and the

would fail and abandon you expedition returned without making farat last ?" Only seventeen years passed, ther efforts. It is to be noticed, that, and not without various disquietudes, by the especial command of Elizabeth, when Henry perished by the hand of no personal injuries were inflicted on an assassin, prompted to the deed by the inhabitants of Cadiz. The nuns the popish bishops whose favour the and other females were allowed to reking thought to conciliate by this act tire unmolested, carrying with them of apostacy!

their clothes and jewels. The deaths of the earlier favourites A Spanish fleet sailed from the Taand ministers left lord Burghley almost gus soon afterwards, for Ireland ; but alone. The court was in a divided state; Providence again disappointed the proon the one side were Burghley and his ject. A storm destroyed a part, and disson, sir Robert Cecil, with a few persed the rest. It is remarkable that more ; while the youthful Essex, sir in the following year, 1597, another fleet Walter Raleigh, and other forward and designed for Ireland was also scattered active characters, sought to exercise the by a storm. An expedition from Eng. chief control. Essex, at that time, ac- land had previously attacked the Azores cused Lopez, a Portuguese physician, with imperfect success. It was origiin attendance on the queen, of a design nally intended for a descent into Spain ; upon her life ; it was referred for but the ships were crippled by a storm Burghley to examine, who reported that that drove them back into port. there were not sufficient grounds for the The queen's reception of Essex on accusation. The queen then rebuked his return, implied dissatisfaction, upon Essex, who rested not till he obtained which he retired to Wanstead. Among further evidence, sufficient to convict other subjects that annoyed this way. Lopez and two others of corresponding ward youth, was the elevation of the with the Spanish governors of the Ne

lord admiral to be earl of Nottingham, therlands, respecting such a scheme. which, by combining the earldom with Lopez was executed; but he denied any his official rank, gave him the precedence treasonable intentions, declaring that he of Essex. He considered it a studied had informed the queen herself of the affront, designed by lord Burghley ; nor effort to engage him in an attempt was he appeased till the queen appointed against her life. This gave Essex some him earl marshal, which office restored advantage ; but while the queen treated his precedence; then Nottingham, dishim as a favourite, she supported lord pleased in his turn, resigned his office. Burghley, listening to his advice in Such are the troubles that agitate those matters of state.

whom the world calls great. The queen

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was much annoyed by the disputes, ment of Ireland; when he could not among her courtiers; but she evidently prevail, he rudely turned his back upon gave sir Robert Cecil the preference her majesty! This was more than the for conducting matters of business, while Tudor spirit of Elizabeth could bear. Essex was the agreeable and favoured She “bestowed on him a box on the courtier. The efforts of the Spaniards ear,” with a rebuke expressed in no in Ireland much disturbed the queen's courtly terms; Essex put his hand to mind. Fenton, writing from court in his sword, and declared with an oath 1597, says, “The queen doth not now that he would not put up with such an bear with such composed spirit as she insult. Those present interfered. Essex was wont; but, since the Irish affairs, withdrew from court, refusing to make seemeth more froward than commonly any submission; and the queen refused she used to bear herself towards her to allow him to return without an apowomen; nor doth she hold them in dis-logy. How plainly this shows, that the course with such familiar matter, but indulgence of the passions, especially often chides them for small neglects; anger, will lower the most elevated chain such wise as to make these fair maids racters ! How true are the words of often cry and bewail in piteous sort.'

the wise man,

• He that ruleth his Such is the interior of a court!

spirit is better than he that taketh a In the year 1598, peace was made city,” Prov. xvi. 32. This estrangement between France and Spain. Henry lasted for some months. urged Elizabeth and the States to ac- The autumn of 1598 was marked by cede to terms of pacification. This ad- the death of Philip, who died at the vice was supported by lord_Burghley age of seventy-two, having signalized and other counsellors; but Essex and himself for more than forty years as his young supporters urged the con- the bitter, though unsuccessful enemy tinuance of a war which promised to of Protestantism. With the chief power bring what they called glory and wealth of the old world, and the riches of the to England; forgetful that the plunder new, at his disposal, he failed in his obtained in their expeditions was only bigoted efforts to subdue Holland and obtained by a heavy expense, and a England. The Almighty said to this serious loss of life, while it was in proud monarch as to the waves of the reality a disgraceful robbery.

“ Thus far shalt thou go, and strife among the counsellors was severe : no farther.” Though the waves toss lord Burghley took a psalm book from and roar, they connot pass the seemhis pocket, and showed to Essex the ingly feeble barrier of sand, which is solemn declaration, that “ blood-thirsty decreed for their boundary: Thus, and deceitful men shall not live out though Philip was permitted to overhalf their days,” Psa. lv. 23. Essex run and pass over many realms, he was resented this ; but it is a solemn truth, not allowed to accomplish the subjuand was remembered by many when gation of England, or the ruin of those his own untimely fate realized the warn- who refused to obey him rather than ing. Peace was not made with Spain, their God. though negociations were begun. In- A few weeks before the death of Phistructions drawn up by lord lip, his great opponent, lord Burghley, Burghley, to do nothing without se departed this life. How different were curing the religion and liberty of the their objects; and how different, so far United Provinces. This would inter- as we can venture to judge, their repose a barrier against the efforts of the ward. Amidst all the difficulties and pope and his confederates to injure temptations of the principal official post Scotland and England. Before Henry in the kingdom, lord Burghley appears signed the treaty of peace between France ever to have sought the glory of God, and Spain, he published the edict of and the welfare of his queen. Of this Nantes, a decree which ensured the en- Elizabeth was fully sensible ; she never joyment of many privileges to the Pro- allowed his enemies to prevail against testants in his dominions, but which was him, however much they presumed on always displeasing to the Papists. her personal favour. She called him,

The rash and hasty temper of Essex “her spirit;” and it is evident that was further displayed at this time. He most of the laudable part of the polity opposed the queen's will respecting the of Elizabeth, which secured her the appointment of a deputy for the govern- respect of succeeding ages, emanated

The ocean,


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