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BATTLE ABBEY.

and is never weary,

If then you are are said to have fallen, and Harold was able to make melody in your heart killed by an arrow shot into his brain. to the Lord,” let your hand and your “The victory of Hastings was too voice make melody too; and let the glorious," says Rapin, “ for the king faculty which infinite benevolence has to neglect to transmit the memory of it created for your enjoyment, be converted, to posterity. For that purpose, he laid as all your other faculties should be, the foundations of a church and abbey into the instrument of praise.-M. J. in the very place where Harold was Graham.

slain; and ordered, when they should be finished, the church to be dedicated

to St. Martin, and the monastery to be Who can pass the grey towers of called Battle Abbey:" (a note adds, Battle Abbey, so thickly clad with ivy,

6. The high altar was set upon the very and stained by time, and not read spot of ground where Harold's body å tale of interest and instruction from was found.") • Though the desire of its mouldering walls ? How faithful a prayer for his own and Harold's soul picture of the past does it bring to the was the pretence he used to make for mind's eye! How glowing a sense of the foundation, probably vain glory had thankfulness should it excite in the en

no less a share in it than devotion. lightened Christian's heart, that his Sunk low in the earth, among weeds country is no longer under the yoke of and rank grass, may now be seen the ignorance and crafty superstition ! To ruins of the high altar: the spot on the man of taste, the ruins of each ele. which more than eight hundred years gant arch and pillar, roof and window, back the fate of England was decided. with their elaborate tracery, must ever

The works of man hold out against be an object of admiration ; but the time, while his generations pass away. thrill of delight will be checked by a

The broken shell which held the holy view of the dark subterraneous passages around have yielded up their dust, and

water is empty:

The stone coffins to the cruel dungeons below.

Oh bright light of the gospel! glad show only the vacancy where a dead tidings of great joy to the repenting body once reposed. The perpetual sinner ! how little do the gloomy pri- prayers for the slain are no longer sons of Battle Abbey agree with the heard. The pilgrim has ceased to make spirit of thy heart-cheering principles his toilsome journey to the "taper-lit and active virtues !

shrine.” The sufferer no longer pines The town of Battle (formerly called in the prisons; and the criminal no Epiton) is situated in the county of longer flees from justice to the walls Sussex, on the road to Hastings; it is of Battle for protection, claiming the celebrated as the place, at which the right of sanctuary. Since those dark battle of Hastings was fought between ages of ignorance and gloomy superHarold and William duke of Nor- stition, the day-spring from on high mandy. The Norman army, after wait- has arisen upon us. The blood and ing long at St. Valery for favourable ashes of martyrs have stemmed the torwinds, had a quick passage, and landed rent of priestcraft and imposition which at Pevensey, the latter end of September, overran our land. The Bible has been 1066. The

spot in the distance is placed in the hands of our poorest counpointed out to the traveller from the trymen, and they have been taught to grounds of Battle Abbey. Rapin tells read it; and while it has shown the folly us, that the English spent the night, and falsity of these refuges of lies, it previous to the engagement, in carousing has pointed out the way of life, and led and singing, as if they were sure of the thousands to the true city of refuge to victory; while the Normans, on the

" the blood of Jesus Christ, his Son, contrary, were employed in preparing which cleanseth us from all sin.” M. for the action, and offering up prayers to God for success. The long and bloody battle took place on the 14th of October, A.D. 1066. It cost the duke THESE were as common as empty of Normandy six thousand men; and mourning coaches among us, and were he had three horses killed under him probably as effectual symbols of grief as without losing one drop of_his blood. scarfs and weepers.

Horace tells us, While three score thousand Englishmen | that the hired mourners wailed more at

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HIRED EASTERN MOURNERS.

burials than the bereaved relations. Loud and celebrate the excellences of the de. lamentation was encouraged by the an ceased. It is remarkable that this very cients, and is kept up by the Orientals. practice is forbidden in the Koran ; but They use not only the voice, but various Mussulmen, as well as Christians, have instruments. When good Josiah was no their liberal interpretation of precepts." more, “ Jeremiah lamented for Josiah ; and all the singing men and the singing women spake of Josiah in their lamenta

DOCILITY OF CAMELS. tions,” 2 Chron. xxxv. 25. But this pro STRINGS of camels are continually phet is more express, when, in his fore- 1 passing, each comprising about fortysight of the destruction of Judah, he five, and headed by a man upon an ass

, summoned the mourners, and cried, who leads the first, the others being “Call for the mourning women, that mostly connected by slight cords. It is they may come; and send for cunning

a beautiful sight to see the perfect trainwomen, that they may come: and let them make haste, and take up a wail- ing and docility of these animals

. The

caravans, as the weather is becoming ing for us, that our eyes may run down with tears, and our eyelids gush night, generally halting about ten or

warmer, are beginning to travel bý out with waters : for a voice of wailing eleven o'clock in the morning. The is heard out of Zion !” Wher the

care of the camels seems to be very much daughter of Jairus lay dead, our Lord left to the children. I have just watched “Jesus saw the minstrels and the people

a string of them stopping on an open making a noise :" and he speaks of what plain : a child twitched the cord suswas common in all times of mourning, pended from the head of the first; a when he says to the Jews, “ We have foud gurgling growl indicated the pleamourned unto you, and ye have not lamented,” 2 Chron. xxxv. 25 ; Jer. ix. down, and the child, who could just

sure of the camel as it awkwardly knelt 17; Matt. ix. 23, xi. 17.

reach its back, unlinked the hooks which Mohammedanism has only modified, not removed these customs. The Moslems suspended from either side the bales

of cotton; another child came with a begin to mourn before the breath is out bowl of water and a sponge, and was of the body, while “ the women of the welcomed with a louder roar of pleasure, family raise the cries of lamentation

as it washed the mouth and nostrils of called welwel'eh or wilwal; uttering the animal. This grateful office ended, the most piercing shrieks, and calling the liberated camel wandered off to the upon the name of the deceased. The thicket, to browse during the day; and most common cries that are heard on the this was done to each of the forty-five, death of the master of a family, from which all unbidden had knelt down prethe lips of his wife, or wives and children, cisely as the one I have described, form. are, O my master!” “O my camel!", ing a circle which continued marked

Ómy lion!” “O camel of the house!", during the day by the bales of goods "O my dear one !” “O my only one !"

lying at regular distances.

On a given “O my father !” “O

my
misfortune!"

signal in the afternoon, at about three The women continue their lamenta- o'clock, every camel resumed its own tions; and many of the females of the place, and knelt between its bales, which neighbourhood, hearing the conclama

were again attached, and the caravan tion, come to unite with them in this

I am not melancholy task. Generally, also, the surprised at finding the strong attachfamily send for two or more neddábehs, ment of these animals to the children; or public wailing women; but some for I have often seen three or four of persons disapprove of the custom; and them, when young, lying with their many, to avoid unnecessary expense, do heads inside a tent in the midst of the not conform to it. . “They use a sort of sleeping children, while their long bodies tambourine in their mourning. If the

remained outside.— Fellows. corpse is not buried at once, they keep up their wake all night. At the head of the funeral procession walk about six poor men, mostly blind, who chant passages from the Koran. Schoolboys pre VANITY is a

“nothing between two cede the bier, also chanting. The hired dishes”—much expectation, little satismourners follow it, next to the relations, faction.-Herbert.

VANITY.

[graphic]

vernors.

Death of Queen Elizabeth.
ENGLISH HISTORY.

then possess it. A native chieftain, ELIZABETH.

Hugh O'Neal, created by Elizabeth earl (Concluded from page 304.)

of Tyrone, revolted, and became the The bad policy pursued by England, leader of his countrymen, who regarded in reference to Ireland, enabled the Spa- him as the sovereign of Ulster. Instinish government, and the popish party, gated and aided by Spain, he successfully to keep up disaffection there. The rest- resisted the efforts of the English goless spirit of Popery found that island a suitable field for the employment of the In August, 1598, O'Neal obtained a Jesuits, who encouraged the Irish chief- signal advantage, near Blackwater, in tains to resist the English government. Tyrone, when the queen resolved to It may be said of Popery, that it found Ire- make more vigorous efforts. Essex havland wretched, and has made it still more ing expressed his willingness to under, so; it has even prevented the advance of take the command, both his friends and civilization. These feelings were em his enemies recommended the appointbittered by the sweeping forfeitures of ment; the latter hoping to take advanthe lands belonging to Desmond, and tage of his absence from court. He was other rebellious chieftains ; large dis- persuaded to make some apologies for tricts of which were bestowed upon the past conduct, and went to Ireland early queen's favourites, and on others who in 1599, with considerable forces, and merely engaged that one English family extraordinary powers, but

effected little, should be settled on every two hundred wasting his strength in limited operaand forty acres, and that none of Irish tions, till he found his forces reduced so origin should be admitted among the as to be unequal to a campaign against settlers. Thus the natives were driven Tyrone, without reinforcements. These into more compact bodies; not half the were sent, but the season was so far adscanty number of English colonists was vanced, that he consented to a truce with introduced, while that broad line of the rebel leader, till the following spring. demarcation was drawn between the ori Finding that the queen was seriously ginal inhabitants, and the great land displeased, while his enemies were busy owners, which has produced so much against him, Essex hastened to England, mischief in later times. Even at that and arrived at Nonsuch on September 28, period, this wrong policy produced such when he hastened into the queen's apartvexation and expense, that many states- ment, just as he was, his dress soiled and men thought Ireland had better be aban- disordered with travelling post.

The doned, only that the king of Spain would queen received him more favourably SEPTEMBER, 1840.

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than he expected; but in the latter part | threatened by lord Cobham and Raleigh. of the day, she sent him orders to confine The lord-keeper Egerton, chief justice himself to the rooms which he occupied, Popham, and others, proceeded thither and expressed her anger to those who from court, being sent by the queen to had accompanied him: she now habitu- inquire the cause of the proceedings ally indulged in coarse and even profane going forward. After some altercation, language, when excited, and highly dis- Essex left these nobles in charge of a pleased. A little reflection showed that part of his followers, and hastened into Essex was much to blame in thus hastily the city, with about two hundred men, leaving his post of duty. Harrington calling upon the citizens to arm themgives a lively description of his own re selves. The principal citizens being ception. The privy council were directed usually assembled at that hour, to hear to examine Essex; they severely censured the sermon at Paul's Cross, Essex hoped his proceedings in the conduct of the to have found them ready and willing to war, and in quitting Ireland without join him ; but a message, early in the leave. He was afterwards subjected to a morning, from the queen to the lord fuller inquiry before commissioners; he mayor, had put that officer on luis guard. was then removed from his offices, and Essex was generally beloved; but the ordered to remain a prisoner in his own people neither understood the matter, house, till the queen should be pleased to nor followed him. His plan having allow him to be at liberty.

failed, he was intercepted at Ludgate on Essex remained six months under his return, by a party of soldiers. A skirthis restraint, during which period he mish took place; Essex retreated by water expressed himself with humility and to his own house, when he found that the contrition, declaring that he had done noblemen, whom he had detained, had with ambitious projects and all the vani- been released. After a parley with a ties of this life. At times he seemed to number of armed men, who invested the be under deep religious feelings. But house, Essex surrendered, and was conwhen he was allowed to leave his house, ducted to the Tower with the earl of the queen forbade his appearing at court, Southampton. The queen evinced much and refused to continue a patent for the courage and composure during this monopoly of sweet wines, by which he short but dangerous disturbance. Being made considerable profit. Irritated at told, while she sat at dinner, that the these proceedings, he concerted with city had revolted, she appeared unsome friends, to go to court at the head moved, only observing, “ He that placed of an armed party, when his enemies her in that seat would preserve her in might be removed by force, and access it." The earls of Essex and Southampto the queen gained ; the public support ton were tried for treason on the 19th, was to be obtained by promising the re and found guilty. It is plain that it was formation of evils in church and state. a rash, ill-concerted design, undertaken He communicated his plans to the king in the hope of removing the principal of Scotland, charging Cecil with an in- advisers of Elizabeth, whom Essex contention of bringing in the Spanish prin- sidered to be his personal enemies, and cess, as the successor to the throne. resolved to effect his ruin; but he also James had for some time acted with thought to establish his own power, and much duplicity, negociating both with to carry into effect measures of his own. Elizabeth, and the popish monarchs of The statement of Bacon, who had to the continent, to whom he professed take part as one of the queen's counsel at himself inclined to adopt Popery. He this trial, and who conducted himself now prepared to assist Essex, whose with moderation towards the prisoners, house in the Strand was the resort of a

appears to convey a correct view of the number of discontented characters, which to defend is lawful; but to rebel was covered by the daily performance of in defence is not lawful ;” and that Divine service there; but the attention “ Essex had planted a pretence, in his of government being roused, open mea- heart, against the government, but for sures were hastily resolved upon. excuse he laid the blame upon his parti

On the morning of Sunday, February cular enemies." Essex afterwards eon8, 160), the earls of Rutland and South- fessed that his plans were deeper Jaid, ampton, with other friends of Essex, and further extended than he had adresorted to his house, in consequence of mitted on his trial. The popularity of messages telling them that his life was Essex caused some hesitation, as

case:

secret.

carrying the sentence into effect: the Towards the close of 1601, the parqueen also was unwilling to order the liament granted a large subsidy for the death of one who had been her favour- Irish war, but also firmly demanded reite, but his daring proceedings rendered dress of grievances in the monopolies ; it unsafe to allow him to survive. On by these, the vending of articles, some the 25th he was beheaded in the court even of necessity, were restricted by the of the Tower. Southampton's life was queen's patent to certain individuals, spared, but he was kept a prisoner to the who either retailed the articles at an unend of this reign. Only a few of the reasonable profit, or sold the privilege most active followers of Essex were ex of dealing in them for considerable ecuted.

sums, which in the end were levied The king of Scotland sent a special from the purchasers, so that the prices embassy to London, with instructions to of many commodities had been very communicate with the partizans of Essex, greatly advanced. The queen, or her if they retained any influence, which was advisers, endeavoured to check these renot the case. Cecil possessed the chief monstrances; but the public feeling, as power; he knew that Elizabeth could vell as that of the parliament, was so not long survive; this led to overtures, unequivocally declared, that Cecil conthe details of which are not known ; but vinced her it was necessary to give way. it was agreed that Cecil should procure Elizabeth sent for the speaker, and dean addition to the yearly pension king clared that she never had consented to James received from England, and pro- give a patent, unless she believed it mote his succession to the throne, but would be beneficial to the public; but that the arrangement should be kept she would at once revoke all that were

injurious to her subjects, and suspend Lord Mountjoy was sent to Ireland, the rest till their validity could be legally as governor ; he was successful against ascertained. This proceeding gave geTyrone, who had been encouraged by a neral satisfaction. plenary indulgence for his sins, sent by In September, 1602, we find Elizapope Clement viII., and by the promise beth endeavouring to act with the vigour of efficient aid from Spain. In Septem- of her early life; at the age of sixtyber, 1601, d'Aguilar landed at Kinsale seven she went a progress as usual. She with four thousand Spanish troops, and rode out to view rather than to join the called

upon the people to join him sports of the field; but actually took part against Elizabeth, who had been declared in the dances she delighted to witness. to be deposed by several popes. Their Who should be her successor, was now efforts were in vain. Tyrone was de- the general inquiry; but no one dared feated, and in January, 1602, the Spa- to start the question, though many corpish general surrendered upon condition responded secretly with the Scottish ft being allowed to return to Spain. monarch. Mountjoy pursued his success : Tyrone The unlimited height to which the Tuoffered to submit upon terms, but the dors had carried the royal prerogative queen would not consent that any should appears, when the decision of such a quesbe granted. Her counsellors were anxi tion could be supposed to depend upon ous that Ireland should be brought into the will of the reigning monarch. One a state of peace during her life. With chief opponent of James was the Jesuit. much difficulty the firm resolve of Eli-Parsons, who had the insolence to ex* zabeth was shaken ; but before any final press his indifference as to the successor, instructions were sent, the intelligence of so that he be a Catholic ;” adding, the approach of her decease was made that nothing should induce him to favour known to Mountjoy. He acted with de- the pretensions of any one who was not cision. Tyrone, in a conference, agreed a Papist: an unblushing instance of to renounce his regal title and foreign the manner in which the pope and his alliances, upon the promise of a full par votaries assume power over thrones and don for himself and adherents, and the kingdoms. The pontiff sent breves adrestoration of his lands and earldom. dressed to the English Papists, exhortHardly had this been effected, when the ing them to refuse to aid any

claimant death of Elizabeth took place, but the who would not engage to support Popery. Irish chieftain had gone too far to recede ; The moderate party, designated as the the arrangement was completed, though English Papists, were not willing to enwith considerable reluctance on his part. I tertain such extravagant views ; they

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