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vapour must have been, that the waters An eminent meteorologist, Mr. Da- would begin to collect above the firniell, having proved the necessary exist-mament, and divide themselves from ence of the turbid state of the aqueous the waters which were below the firatmosphere, previous to the creation of mament. The clouds would thus be the firmament, makes the following acute confined to definite planes of precipiand judicious remarks :

tation, and exposed to the influence of These complicated and beautiful con- the winds, and still invisible sun. The trivances, by which the waters are col- gathering together of the waters on the lected "above the firmament,” and are third day, and the appearance of dry at the same time “divided from the land, would present a greater heating waters which are below the firmament,” surface, and a less surface of evaporare inferior to none of those adaptations ation, and the atmosphere during this of Infinite . Wisdom, which are perpe- revolution would let fall its excess of tually striking the inquiring mind; in condensed moisture; and upon the fourth the animal and vegetable kingdoms. day it would appear probable, even to Had it not been for this nice adjust- our short-sighted philosophy, that the ment of conflicting elements, the clouds sun would be enabled to dissipate the and concrete vapours of the sky would still-remaining mists, and burst forth have reached from the surface of the with splendour upon the vegetable surearth to the remotest heavens; and the face. So far, therefore, is it from bevivifying rays of the sun would never ing impossible that light should have have been able to penetrate through appeared upon the earth before the apthe dense mists of perpetual precipi- pearance of the sun, that the present tation.

imperfect state of our knowledge will Nor can I here refrain from pointing enable us to affirm, that, if the recorded out a confirmation, which incidentally order of creation be correct, the events arises, of the Mosaic account of the must have exhibited themselves in the creation of that atmosphere whose won- succession which is described. The arders we have been endeavouring to un- gument, therefore, recoils with double ravel. The question has been asked, force in favour of the inspiration of an How is it that light is said to have been account of natural phenomena, which, created on the first day, and day and in all probability, no human mind, in night to have succeeded each other, the state of knowledge at the time it when the sun has been described as not

was delivered, could have suggested; having been produced till the fourth but which is found to be consistent with day ? The sceptic presumptuously re- facts that a more advanced state of sciplies, This is a palpable contradiction, ence and experience have brought to and the history which propounds it must light. If, however, it were reasonable be false. But Moses records that God to expect that the ways of God should, created on the first day, the earth co- in all cases, be justified to the knowledge, vered with water, and did not till its or rather the ignorance, of man, the second revolution upon its axis, call the boldest philosopher might well pause, firmament into existence. Now, one before he applied the imperfect test of result of the previous inquiry has been, a progressive philosophy to the deterthat a sphere unequally heated and co- mination of the momentous questions vered with water, must be enveloped involved in these considerations. in an atmosphere of steam, which would necessarily be turbid in its whole depth with precipitating moisture. The exposure of such a sphere to the orb of day would produce illumination upon The crazy habitation of the body will it; that dispersed and equal light, which decay. You may repair the broken now penetrates in a cloudy day, and tiles and damaged roof ; you may rub which indeed is “good :" but the glo- up the dim window-lights, and oil the rious source of light could not have rusty hinges of the doors; you may been visible from its surface. On the patch up and plaster over the shattered second day, the permanently elastic fir- walls, and paint the outside of the temament was produced; and we have nement, till the passer-by wonders at its seen that the natural consequences of fresh appearance; but, for all this, the this mixture of gaseous matter with old house must come down at last.



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shalt tread the olives, but thou shalt not In Syria, the vintage begins about the anoint thee with oil; and sweet wine, middle of September, and continues for but shalt not drink wine,” Micah vi. 15. about two months. It is earlier in Pa. To the custom of treading grapes and lestine, where the, grapes are sometimes olives, reference is frequently made by ripe even in June or July; this arises the inspired writers. Thus the glorious probably from a triple pruning, in which conqueror, who appeared in vision to case there is also a third vintage. The Isaiah, said, “I have trodden the wine first is in August, the second in Septem- press alone ; and of the people there was ber, and the third in October.

none with me: for I will tread them in Joyous, indeed, was the season when mine anger, and trample them in my the grapes were plucked off, and carried fury; and their blood shall be sprinkled to the wine press, which was built in the upon my garments, and I will stain all vineyard, whose site was carefully chosen my raiment,” Isaiah Ixiii. 3. As the in fields of a loose, crumbling soil, on a clothes of the treaders were sprinkled rich plain, a sloping hill rising with a with the juice of the grapes, so were the gentle ascent, or, where the acclivity was garments of the Redeemer with the very steep, in terraces turned as much as blood of his enemies, who were as easily possible from the setting sun. The wine and completely crushed by his almighty presses were either built of stone, or power, as are the full ripe clusters of the hewn out of a large rock. The grapes vine, beneath the feet of men. The were thrown into the upper part, to be same figure is employed in the book of trodden by men, and the juice flowed out Revelation, xiv. 18—20, to express the into receptacles beneath, as appears from fearful destruction which awaits the adverthe engraving. The treading of the wine. saries of God and of man. Happy, unpress was laborious, but it was perform- speakably happy are they, in every age, ed with singing, and sometimes accom- who are numbered among the friends of panied with musical instruments. Christ!

Oil of olives was expressed in the same way, before the invention of mills. The existence of this practice in Pales

IGNORANCE IN SOUTH AFRICA. tine is evident, from the language of With regard to the origin of man, Moses: “Let Asher dip his foot in and the different species of animals, all oil ;" and from the threatening, - Thou that the wisest of the wise could say on shalt sow, but thou shalt not reap; thou the subject was, that the animate creation

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came out of a great cave in the north | they think when they hear you talking country, where their footsteps, said about dead men living again ?" To this they, are still to be seen in the har- allow me to add another of the many dened rock. Once I heard a man of in- facts that I might give, which will illusfluence telling his story on the subject ; trate their universal ignorance and darkI, of course, could not say that I believed ness on a subject to which most nations the wondrous tale, but very mildly give credence. I visited a chief some hinted, that he might be misinformed; hundred miles beyond our missionary on which he became indignant, and swore station at Lattakoo. This chief was illusby his forefathers and his king, that he trious for war and conquest, and had behad visited the spot, and paid a tax to come the terror of the interior. The visit see the wonder, and that consequently at the time was considered a hazardous his testimony was indubitable. I very one; but the veteran chief received me soon cooled his rage by telling him, that with great respect, and treated me with as I should likely one day visit those re- much kindness. In one of my interviews gions, I should certainly think myself with this man of war and blood, while very fortunate, if I could get him as a seated amidst fifty or sixty of his nobles guide to that wonderful source of ani- and counsellors, including rain-makers, mated nature. Smiling, he said, “Ha, and others of the same order, in the and I shall show you the footsteps of the course of my remarks the ear of the very first man. This is the sum total of monarch caught the startling sound of a the knowledge which the Bechuanas pos- resurrection. " What !” he exclaimed sessed of the past, prior to the period with astonishment, " what are these when they were visited by your mission- words about the dead ? the dead arise !" aries.

Yes," was my reply; "all the dead Let us now look at their measure of shall arise." “Will my father arise ?” knowledge with regard to futurity. It"Yes," I answered;

your father will is generally believed, that all the nations arise.” " Will all the slain in battle of the globe have some indistinct notions arise ?”

- Yes.”

" And will all that respecting a future state. Not so with have been killed and devoured by lions, the Bechuana tribes inhabiting the in- tigers, hyenas, and crocodiles, again reterior of Southern Africa; for among vive ?" "" Yes; and come to judgment.” them there did not exist one single idea “And will those whose bodies have been on the subject of immortality. That left to waste and wither on the desert man possessed a never-dying soul, and plains, and scattered to the winds, again that man should rise again, and live for arise ?” he asked, with a kind of triumph, ever, was to the Bechuanas preposterous as if he had fairly fixed me. “Yes,' I in the extreme; and I assure you, that replied; “ not one shall be left behind.” had the missionaries not shown, by the Turning to his people, to whom he spoke tenor of their lives, that they were men with a stentorian voice, as sincere as they were cautious in what- wise men, whoever is wise among you, ever they said or did, they would have the wisest of past generations, did ever been viewed as madmen, worthy only of your ears hear such strange and unheardbeing cast into a chasm, and covered up of news ?” And addressing himself to with stones; the ordinary punishment of one, whose countenance and attire showed the madman !

that he had seen many years, and was A native of respectability, and of quick something more than common, “ Have and superior understanding, who had a you ever heard such strange news as very high esteem for me, after hearing ihese ?” “No," was the sage's answer: me frequently endeavouring to impress “ I had supposed that I possessed all the the doctrine of immortality on the minds knowledge of the country, for I have of his villagers, among whom I was so- heard the tales of many generations. I journing, turning to me, and with great am in the place of the ancients, but my seriousness, said, “ Friend, I fear greatly knowledge is confounded with the words that the people will think you are mad, of his mouth ; verily, he must have lived if you continue to teach that there is long before the period when we were another world, and that the dead shall born.” The chief then turning, and ad. arise; the thing was never heard of be- dressing himself to me, “Father," he fore, and you must know that the thing said, laying his hand on my breast, “I is impossible. The people consider that love you much. Your visit and your you are wise and good, but what will / presence have made my heart white as

- Hark! ye


milk. The words of your mouth are were very much esteemed in the family. sweet like the honey ; but the words of a Hence my uncle was quite willing for resurrection are too great to be heard. I Frank to carry out his good-natured prodo not wish to hear about the dead rising posal of drawing a plan, and marking again! The dead cannot arise! The out the ground. Frank was a universal dead shall not arise !”. “Why," I in- favourite ; for he loved to do any body quired, can so great a man refuse a good turn. Even his recreations had knowledge, and turn away from wis- some useful or benevolent object. He dom? Tell me, my friend, why I must sought and found his pleasures in pronot add to words, and speak of a resur- moting the happiness and comfort of rection !” Raising his arm, which had others. It was one of the great advanbeen strong in battle, arid quivering his tages of my childhood and youth to be adhand as if grasping a spear, he replied, mitted as a sharer in his schemes and

I have slain my thousands, and shall pursuits. The evening before we were they arise ?” Never before did the light going to Wood's-end, on the aboveof Divine revelation dawn upon his savage mentioned business, Arthur invited Frank mind, and, of course, his conscience had to accompany him for a day's shooting never accused him, no not for one of the with some friends of his, who lived a few thousands of deeds of rapine and mur- miles from my uncle's. Frank declined der which had marked his course through the invitation ; partly on account of his a long career. Men and brethren, is not prior engagement, and partly, I believe, this truly walking in darkness, and dwell. because he knew my uncle had not á ing in the land of the shadow of death ? very exalted opinion of some of the party

Probably, by this time, there may be with whom Arthur was going. This some present, who are ready to say that somewhat offended Arthur. . He ridithe natives in the interior of Southern culed Frank for making such a fuss, ás Africa are nations of socialists. Yes, he called it, about keeping an engageindeed they are ; for if ignorance of the ment with a poor man.

For his part, adorable Jehovah, and of man's redemp- he thought that Frank degraded himself tion, and of endless bliss and endless by having any thing to do with such peowoe, constitute the leading features of ple at any time; and at all events, if he socialism, they are truly socialists of the chose to exercise his benevolence, and first order! The socialists of this coun- play the amateur architect, he might try are only sinking into those múrky surely take his own time; the man could and doleful regions where such nations as well wait upon him another day. have already sünk, and if the modern Frank replied, that the man had obtained disciples of that self-degrading, self-de-a holiday on purpose to meet him, and stroying system, would only send over a might not be able to get another day. deputation, they might pick up some Besides, he wanted to set about his hints to enable them to accelerate their building directly, to get it covered in be. downward progress. Ah! they would fore winter. He would not, on any acreceive an abundance of awful warnings count, disappoint him : indeed, he consufficient to deter the boldest blasphemer sidered an engagement voluntarily enamong them from taking another step tered into, to confer a kindness on an towards that dreadful vortex of infidelity. inferior in rank and station, yet more No language can depict their real state binding than an engagement to meet a and character like the words of inspira- company of equals for one's own gratifition, Rom. iii. 10_18.-Rev. Robert cation. . Sentiments like these, Arthur Moffat.

could not at all enter into. He went off

in a huff, wishing Frank much joy of “ IT SERVES HIM RIGHT.. his plebeian acquaintance, and charging My cousin Frank once met with a him, by all means, to be punctual in severe accident, which confined him for keeping his appointments. Why Arthur several weeks to the bed or the sofa. should speak with so much contempt of It happened, as we were returning from an intelligent, respectable, and exemplary a spot on the outskirts of the estate, cottager, I could not well understand; where Frank had been designing the especially as he never seemed to think plan of a cottage for one of the labourers, himself 'degraded by talking familiarly to be built on a slip of land given him by with captain Tankerville's groom, who my uncle. George Collins and his wife was by no means the most respectable of had been long in my uncle's service, and his order.

It was very

Arthur started at break of day; and I tions and our nerves. We were not withbelieve was scarcely thought of again out emotions of terror in passing through until he made his appearance in the the wood ; and, in truth, danger awaited eyening. I have often noticed of Arthur us, though not the kind of danger we Longley, and other people of his stamp, had been led to apprehend. Poor Frank that though, while present, they make a stumbled over the roots of a tree which great bustle, and seem to draw general protruded above the level of the path, attention, in absence they are soon and threw himself forward down a hol. forgotten. Nobody seems to think of low place with such violence, as comthem as being wanted to complete the pletely stunned him. Real troubles pleasure of a cheerful happy circle ; still effectually dispel imaginary terrors; and less does any one sigh for their presence despite the dread of robbers, from which and assistance to help them out of any I was not before altogether free, I trouble that may occur.

ran through the wood alone, nor once different with Frank. When absent, he stopped till I reached my uncle's house, was sure to be missed. He was so no- to call assistance for my suffering cousin. tionable, and active, and good humoured, A carriage was immediately sent to conthat his presence was always welcome, vey him home, and a man on horseback and his absence considered a drawback to the town to fetch a surgeon. During on the enjoyment of the pleasantest the short interval that elapsed between party. Scarcely day passed without my leaving the wood and returning, its being said by his friends, in their Frank had recovered from his swoon, little perplexities and troubles, “Let us and been carried by George Collins and ask Frank ;" or, “If Frank were here, his son to the roadside. They assisted he would help us.”' Frank was not one in placing him in the carriage, and then, who sought applause ; but by rendering with countenances expressive of deep himself amiable and serviceable, as a concern and sorrow, took their leave. natural consequence he was beloved. An hour afterwards they were at the hall Even the servants of the family seemed gates, watching for the departure of the to look upon it as a pleasure to do any surgeon; for they could not go to bed thing for Frank; but a hardship to do any in peace without knowing what the docthing for Arthur. I hope these opposite tor said of the good young gentleman, examples, set before my eyes in early

who had met this accident in consequence childhood, were not altogether in vain. of his kind exertions to serve them.

But I was going to tell about our My heart warmed at this mark of gratevisit to the acre at Wood's-end, where ful solicitude in the poor family, and I George Collins was to erect his cottage, was glad to impart to them a share of and in returning from which Frank met the satisfaction and joy with which I had with his accident. We started soon after heard the opinion of the surgeon, that breakfast, furnished with camp stools, although my cousin had sustained a very drawing implements, and a huge basket severe sprain, and a violent contusion, of sandwiches and tarts, which we then there was every reason to hope no perthought quite superfluous, but which manent ill consequences would ensue; the kind-hearted and forecasting Mrs. but that, with proper attention, he would Rogers insisted on our taking, and soon be restored to ease and activity. which, after the lapse of four or five Just after this, Arthur returned from hours, proved very acceptable. We were his day's pleasure, and hearing what had busy and happy till the dusk of evening happened, instead of sympathizing in came on, and then Mrs. Collins entreated the general concern of the family, illus to allow her husband and son to see naturedly exclaimed, “Well, it serves us home; at least to see us safe through him just right; if he had been with me the wood, where, according to tradition, grouse shooting, it would not have haprobberies had been committed ; though pened." "At that moment, Mrs. Rogers nothing of the kind had occurred for the came, and asked me whether I had taken last twenty years. To make the good care of Mr. Frank's valuable diamond woman easy, we accepted the proffered shirt pin, for it was not to be found service, and set forward, preceded by among his clothes. I had seen nothing the boy with a stable lantern, and fol- of the pin ;' but knowing that Frank lowed by the father with our baggage. prized it very highly, not only on acI do suspect that the stories we had been count of its intrinsic worth, which was hearing had some effect on our imagina- | considerable, but as a family relic, given

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