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Christ's COMMISSION TO THE APOSTLES--BLISSFUL ANTICIPATION.
It may not be so with all, but it is fond of engravings, is a treat absolutely with many, that the very sight of these inexhaustible. Historical subjects, landremnants of former ages, drives away scapes, seascapes, architectural designs, much of doubt, and brings much of portraits, animals, birds, fishes, insects, certainty to the mind. We do, in ge- trees, shells, fossils, fruit, flowers, and neral, but half credit the annals of an ornaments by the most eminent artists, tiquity : we are, in a degree, sceptics, English and foreign, are kept in the while professing to believe the records nicest order. The connoisseur and amaof holy Writ; but these munimy cases teur may here revel in boundless va. reprove us, and seem to say to us, “See riety. The library is, perhaps, after all, and believe.” While our sight and still more generally valuable than any senses are, beyond a doubt, convinced other part of the Museum, containing as it that these are the remains of ancient does, almost every book from which pleaEgypt, our faith is confirmed in the sure and information can be derived. The recorded verities of Scripture. Yes, it manuscripts are very numerous, and the is a truth, and we feel it as such, that persons in the reading room, where I “Joseph was brought down to Egypt; am making my closing remarks, sufficiand Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh, ently testify by their numbers and busy captain of the guard, an Egyptian, attention, how highly they estimate the bought him of the hands of the Ish- advantages of the institution. melites," Gen, xxxix. 1. It is a truth that Joseph sent for his father Jacob to dwell with him in the land of Egypt,
CHRIST'S COMMISSION TO THE APOSTLES. and that “when he saw the wagons
Our Lord's commission to the apostles which Joseph_had sent to carry him, for preaching the gospel, was extenthe spirit of Jacob revived." “ It is sive as the human species. The middle enough,” said he; “ Joseph my son is wall of partition between Jews and yet alive: I will go and see him before Gentiles being demolished, those first I die," Gen. xlv. 27, 28. The mi- ministers of Christ were not only perracles that God performed for his peo- mitted, but required, as Providence gave ple, rise to our remembrance, and the opportunity, to proclaim the glad tidings plagues that were spread over the land, wherever they came, without any ex.
When Moses stretched his wonder-working rod, ception of nations, of or of chaAnd brought the locust on the foes of God; racter. The prerogatives connected with When countless myriads with despoiling wing, carnal descent from Abraham, the coveScourged the hard heart of the Egyptian king.
I have wandered from one piece of nant made at Sinai, and the Mosaic sculpture to another. Here the chisel economy, being all abolished, those amof Phidias, and there that of Praxiteles bassadors of Heaven were commanded has been at work giving an inestimable through Jesus Christ, by faith in his
to publish pardon, and proclaim peace, value to stone. the relics of the Athenian temples; the blood, among all nations, beginning at
Jerusalem.-Booth. statues of Theseus, Illyssus, and the Fates; the frieze of the Parthenon ; the alto-relievo representations of the strifes
BLISSFUL ANTICIPATION. of the Centaurs and the Lapithæ ; the How divinely full of glory and pleaTownley marbles, and the Egyptian sure shall that hour be, when all the collection of sculpture, have all been millions of mankind, that have been revisited, and I could now sit me down deemed by the blood of the Lamb of opposite this huge hieroglyphical sar- God, shall meet together and stand cophagus, and muse and moralize. The around him, with every tongue and temples of olden time; the artists of every heart full of joy and praise! How genius and talent, whose works are be- astonishing will be the glory and the fore us, and those to whose fame they joy of that day, when all the saints have vainly sought to give immortality shall join together in one common song “Where are they?" The mutilated of gratitude and love, and of everlasting marbles and time-worn inscriptions of thankfulness to this Redeemer? With the most splendid works of art seem to what unknown delight, and inexprespress on the reflective mind the lesson, sible satisfaction, shall all that are saved
Gratefully enjoy the things of time, from the ruins of sin and hell, address but forget not those of eternity.”
the Lamb that was slain, and rejoice The print room, to those who are l in his presence !--Dr. Watts,
POWERSCOURT WATERFALL, COUNTY
ing surface of the moss-clad rocks, and WICKLOW, IRELAND.
partly dashing, in angry mood, against
some projecting cliff, whence being reThe glen of the waterfall is a deep jected, it seems to vanish like the floatmountain recess, environed on every ing mists of morn. In the broken and side, except the entrance, by steep and varied foreground, a sloping bank prolofty hills, adorned with wood and rock trudes, worn by the mountain torrent, and broken ground, and sweeping down which has bared the tenacious roots of from every side with the greatest bold the great monarch of the wood ; conness and variety. The head of the re fident in strength, he seems to discess is crossed by a mural precipice of regard the persevering efforts of the denuded rock, down the front of which stream that rolls so rapidly at his feet, the river Glenisloreane falls perpen to undermine his throne so long endicularly a depth of three hundred feet. joyed: more in the distance still, less A velvet turf is spread over the undu venerable oaks, candidates for that prelating surface of the bottom of this glen, eminence yielded by the leafy tribe to and majestic oaks of picturesque forms the royal inhabitant of the grove, fling clothe the mountain sides, and climb the their shady branches over the verdurerocky precipice in front.
clad lawn, and afford cool shelter to the At à distance, the fall is seen partly “ deer that desire the water brooks.”— gliding in frothy streams down the slop Fisher's Views in Ireland.
THE SCOTCH FIR.
universal importance to mankind than (Pinus Sylvestris.)
this, whether we view it with reference to its timber or secretions. Gigantic in size, rapid in growth, noble in as. pect, robust in constitution, these trees form a considerable proportion of every wood or plantation in cultivated countries, and of every forest where nature remains in a cultivated state.” Th
They clothe the interminable plains of northern Europe and America, and mantle the craggy heights of the Himalaya and the Andes. But, although this order ranks among its many species, the goodly cedar, the tufted larch, the spiry, spruce fir feathered to the ground, the fanciful arancaria, the silver fir, of graceful symmetry, the gloomy cypress, and the arbor vite ; still our native species is universally allowed to be in
ferior to none of its brethren, either in a, Male catkin. b, Another shedding its pollen useful properties, or picturesque granc, Female catkin. d, Ripe cone. e, Cone expand deur of appearance. ing to discharge its seeds. f, Winged seed.
Cesar has stated in his Commentaries, NATURAL ORDER. Coniferæ, or Pinaceæ. LINNEAN ARRANGEMENT. Monæcia Mona
that the abies was not found in Britain, delphia.
and hence much discussion has arisen, Barren Flowers placed at the end of the branches and many ingenious arguments brought of the preceding year, and at the base of the forward to explain his meaning, as it young shoots ; in a deciduous catkin of numerous naked spreading stamens, connected by a common
is an indisputable fact, not only that stalk. Calyx none. Filaments two or more, and
the Scotch fir is indigenous to our very short, with a scale at their base, Anthers island ; but that at that early period the two on each stamen, erect, wedge-shaped, crowned by a jagged, membranous crest. Fertile Flowers greater part of, at least, our northern on the summit of the shoots of the current year, districts, was completely overrun with generally in clusters of two together. Catkin egg, trackless forests of this tree. shaped, or roundish, afterwards enlarged, conical and pointed, composed of numerous, imbricated,
tion admits of a very easy solution, if close, woody scales.
Scales oblong, swelled at the upper extremity into a sort of pyra
we consider, that by abies he intended mid truncate at the summit. Style, one to each
the silver fir, a native of the southern germen. Stigma simple. Seeds iwo within each, parts of Europe, and but recently inrecurved scale, oval, each crowned with a mem troduced among us.
The mistake evi. branous wing. The apex of the cone opens when the seeds are ripe, and changes in colour from dently arose from the name for having green to reddish brown. Leaves linear, smooth, been injudiciously applied to our native obtuse, and acuminated, arranged spirally on the branches in pairs within a scale.
A tall, straight species, instead of that of pine, to which tree, with scaly, reddish brown bark. Flowers in botanical genus it undoubtedly belongs. May and June; but the cone does not attain its The pinus sylvestris was well known size till the autumn of the following year.
to the ancients, and a native of the -The pine, long-haired, and dark and tall, Alps, and many parts of Gaul ; and In lordly right predominates o'er all."
Cesar, in the passage alluded to, says
that Britain had all the trees of Gaul, The fir, the Scotch fir, never out of place.” excepting the fagus and the abies.
Both the spruce and silver firs are found The Scotch fir, or pine, is the only in many parts of France and Italy, but species of the natural order, Abietinæ, are not indigenous in England. The indigenous to this country; an order difference between the two genera of equally distinguished by the remarkable pinus and abies, is very slight, though resemblance which prevails throughout easy to be distinguished; in the former, the numerous and widely diffused fa- the leaves are long and spirally inserted milies of which it is composed, their on the branch, two, three, or five being extreme utility to man, and their pe- grouped within one sheath ; in the latter, culiar adaptation to the situation in they are short, and inserted singly in which they are placed. " No order," whorls round the branch. The habits says Lindley, can be named of more and properties of the two genera are
ge peat mosses, or bogs, which are found
remarkably similar, and they are often / wood, is quite fresh and elastic. Many indiscriminately mentioned by the poets, vestiges yet remain of the vast forests, as applied to the same purpose.
which there is every reason to believe, “ The adventurous fir that sails the vast profound of Scotland, though they suffered much,
once extended over the hilly regions
in consequence of the scarcity of Nor: “The pine, with whom men through the ocean
way deals during the last war, being felled,
more than otherwise would have been The firre that oftentimes doth rosin drop.”- the case. Of the principal, yet remain
ing, we shall have occasion to speak Although an undoubted native of hereafter; but in those districts which Scotland, the Scotch pine is found in are now open, the remains of roots on every part of the north temperate zone, the surface, and extensive peat mosses from grim Kamtschatka's desert plains, in which scarcely any other timber is to the rocky chain of Caucasus. On found, prove that they formerly exthe Alps, the Apennines, the Tyrol, tended much further. In the neighand the Pyrennees, it skirts the region bourhood of Aberdeen, this submerged of eternal snows; and, in connexion timber is so abundant, that it forms with the spruce fir, extends over vast an article of trade, as the vast quantity districts in Lapland, ssia, Germany, of turpentine which it contains renders Norway, Sweden, and Austria. Of the it superior to any other fire wood; and Scandinavian forests, Dr. Clarke thus among the peasants, slips of it are used speaks :-“ If the reader cast his eyes as a substitute for candles. upon
map of Sweden, and imagine The pine attains to the greatest perthe Gulf of Bothnia to be surrounded fection in mountainous districts, in situby one continuous, unbroken forest, as ations and soils in which scarcely any ancient as the world, consisting prin other tree will thrive. Its very name cipally of pine trees, with a few min betokens that it is a native of the moungling birch and juniper trees, he will tain, being derived from the Celtic have a general and tolerably correct word, pen or pin, signifying rock or notion of the real appearance of the mountain, and is retained in the various country; If the sovereigns of Europe languages derived from this as a comwere to be designated, each by some title,
Thus the tree is known To characteristic of the nature of their domi as peinge, in the Erse ; pinna, in
nions, we might call the king of Sweden, Welsh ; pymbaum, in German ; piner, Lord of the Woods; because, in survey in Anglo Saxon; pin, in French; and ing his territories, he might travel over a pino, in Italian. Hence also the term Apgreat part of his kingdom, from sunrise pennines (or Alps pennines) mountains to sunset, and find no greater subjects covered with pines, and the Spanish towns than the trees of his forests. The po Pennafiel and Pennaflor, etc., which are pulation is everywhere small, because amid the mountains ; nor is it unlikely the whole country is covered with wood.” that the Scotch ben is derived from the
Such was, no doubt, in former times, same word. The more bleak and exweli the condition of a large proportion of our posed the situation, and the more sterile
island. The famous levels of Hatfield the soil, the better timber is produced,
Chase, when drained in the seventeenth because its growth is slower. A light fed century, discovered vast multitudes of hazelly loam, or the debris of granite,
trees, of various sorts, the roots in their is best adapted to it. On clay or bog natural position, and the trunks lying its growth is stunted, and it soon dies; beside them; one third, at least, of on a rich soil, it grows rapidly, but the them are pines, and some of these were timber is inferior and perishable, bethirty feet in length. In the extensive ing composed, for the most part, of in every part of Scotland, and afford The botanical student is aware that the fuel little inferior to coal, the remains dicotyledous plants of our northern coun
of pine trees are very abundant, and tries deposit every year a fresh portion principally in the most exposed districts; of wood within the bark, and that the even when the damp and cold have re circles, which are said to mark the yearly duced the birch to a pulp, and the oak increase of the trunk, are produced by to splinters, the heart of the pine, pre the check given by the severity of winserved by the resinous properties of the ter to the flow of the sap. He will also
readily understand that the extreme grows older, it assumes a richer brown, durability and hardness of this timber and often becomes deeply furrowed. is occasioned by the very trifling annual The leaves are evergreen, but fall every addition made to its circumference; so fifth year; they are arranged spirally that the hard substance of the yearly on the branches in twos, within a scaly circles greatly preponderates over the sheath. When young, they are of a sap wood. Thus the best timber, which bright hue, but afterwards assume a is known by the name of red deal, is fine bluish tint, probably on account of their grained, hard, and solid; and the trunk, peculiar form, by not allowing much when severed, presents the appearance scope for the influence of the solar rays, of a close and compact series of fine so necessary to enable a plant to decircles : the white deal is less resinous, posit carbonic acid. This acid is concoarser, and more spongy, and much sidered to be of a dark blue colour, more liable to decay. It was formerly which when seen through the yellowish imagined that these were two distinct green tint of the cellular tissue of the species; but it seems now to be satis- leaf, produces the refreshing green, by factorily proved, that this great differ- which nature everywhere clothes the ence arises solely from a variety of soil, earth, and thus soothes the tired eye. situation, and climate. A northern as The barren, or staminiferous flowers pect is likewise desirable ; for it has of the pine appear in the month of May, been observed that where trees have at the extremity of the shoots of the been much exposed to the mid-day sun, preceding year, and below those of the the whole southern half of the tree was current year. The pollen is of a yelfrequently little better than sap wood, low colour, and so abundant that when while the northern half contained only ripened, it is sometimes carried by the a layer or two at the circumfer- wind to a distance, and has often been
The most valuable timber is that the cause of much alarm to the superproduced in natural forests, or by stitious Highlanders, who have believed planting in large masses ; the trunks themselves to be visited by a shower being then drawn up, and destitute of of brimstone. The cones generally apside branches, sometimes even to the pear in pairs above the shoots of the height of fifty or sixty feet, yield planks current year; their colour varies, being which are long, straight, and free from sometimes yellowish or red, though knots, a circumstance so peculiar to this more frequently of a purplish green. tree, that Ovid describes it as un- They do not attain their full size till knotty fir."
the autumn of the following year, nor The stem of this tree is remarkably is it till the succeeding spring that their straight and taper ; in favourable situ- scales expand, beginning from the upper ations, it attains the height of from end, and thus allow the seeds to fall. eighty to one hundred feet, though the They are then in a fit state to sow. diameter of the trunk rarely exceeds Each seed is furnished with a large, four feet.
oval wing, and inclosed within this “ Nod the cloud-piercing pines their troubled membranaceous covering, being attached
to the axis of the cone. As the cones “ Straighter than straightest pine upon the steep remain on the tree for some months Head of an aged mountain."-SPENSER.
after the seeds have fallen, we discover “ The slender fir that taper grows."-DYER.
on a pine tree, at the same time, speciThe branches are disposed so that the mens of them in all their various stages. tree, when young, presents a pyramidal As a timber tree, our native pine is appearance ; but the branches afterwards inferior in value to none within the assume a horizontal direction ; the lower north temperate zone. In strength and ones, however, as in the other species durability, it is only surpassed by the of this order, have a remarkable ten- oak, and for many important purposes dency to decay, and fall off as it ad is even superior to it. By the experiments vances in age. In fact, some natural- which have been recently so successfully ists have considered them rather as made, to raise the remains of the galgigantic fronds, or leaves ; and thus lant ship, in which the abietinæ form a connecting link between the monocotyledonous and dico
“ Brave Kempenfelt went down,
And twice four hundred men,' tyledous tribes. The bark in young trees is thin, and easily scales off; as it | it has been discovered that the fir planks