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"yet were sound," and little, if at all | 2 Sam. X. 12, were a species of fir; affected, by the action of the water and and the purposes to which these were ravages of worms, though the other applied, are exactly those for which the timbers had been much injured by their timber is now used among ourselves. attacks. Evelyn tells us, that on piles “ The king made of the almug trees of this wood, “most of Venice and pillars” (that is, rails or props) "for the Amsterdam is built, with so excessive house of the Lord, and for the king's charge, that the foundations of their house, harps also and psalteries for houses, as some report, cost as much singers." These last are also alluded as what erected on them, there being to in 2 Sam. vi. 5. " David and all driven in no fewer than thirteen thou- the house of Israel played before the sand six hundred and fifty-nine great Lord on all manner of instruments made masts of this timber under the Štadt of fir wood, even on harps, and on psalhouse of Amsterdam."
teries, and on timbrels, and on corThe ancient Greek and Roman navies nets, and on cymbals." were wholly constructed from these In the present day, the sonorous quatrees : hence Pliny observes, “It is lities of the wood, doubtless to be atpretty to consider that those trees which tributed to its hard and smooth grain, are so much sought after for shipping, cause it to be selected as the material of
uld most delight in the highest which the breasts of violins and soundmountains, as if they fled from the sea ing boards of other musical instruments on purpose, and were afraid to descend are made. For such purposes, it is cut into the water.” In modern times, the across the grain, and then, from the oak, is the timber most generally used fineness of the stripes or layers, prein constructing the wooden walls of sents a beautiful appearance. To this old England;" yet now, as in the days application of its timber, allusion is of Virgil,
strikingly made in the following address “Pines are for masts a useful wood,”
to the tree:and they are always formed of this tim
“Thy throne a rock ! thy canopy the skies! ber. These masts are, for the most And circled in the mountain's dark embrace, part, procured from the shores of the 'Mid what stern pomp thy towering branches Baltic. Thus Milton describes the stu
How wild, how lonely is thy dwelling place! pendous height of the spear of Satan :- In the rich mead, a God of love we trace,
We feel His bounty in the sun and shower; “His spear, to equal which the tallest pine
But here His milder glories shun our gaze, Hewn on Norwegian hills, to be the mast
Lost in the one dread attribute of
power. Of some great ammiral, were but a wand.”
I cannot choose but wish thou hadst a fairer
bower. Our native forests, however, yield timber in no degree inferior, though the
" Yet to the scene thy stately form doth give
Appropriate grace; and in thy mountain hold, supply is not equal to the demand. But Like flowers with zephyrs, 'at the shut of eve,' it is pre-eminently as " the builder's
But stateliness of form, and bearing bold tree," that the pine is distinguished ; its
Are not thy only boast : there dwells in thee deals or planks furnish a very consider- A soft, sweet spell (if we be rightly told,) able article of commerce. Being long,
Which waiteth but the touch of harmony,
To smooth the brow of care, and make e'en sorstraight, light, and easily worked, although strong, they are peculiarly adapt
" Thus be't with me, when storms of trouble rise, ed for rafters, joists, flooring, and all Which all of women born, alas! must know, the interior wood work of houses, the Built on a rock, and looking to the skies, frame work of machinery, scaffolding,
Like thee undaunted, may I meet the blow.
Not so, when callid to hear of others' woe: the beams of coaches, and an endless Then may soft pity touch some chord within, variety of purposes. It is generally
Prompting the tear of sympathy to flow,
And words of healing, such as gently win selected by gilders for frames, etc., be- The mourner's stricken heart, and pour sweet ing smooth and easy to polish, also for comfort in."-L. A. TWAMLEY. carving, as being easily worked, and holding glue better than any other wood. Nor is it only on account of the use We find mentioned in the Scripture, thus made of its timber, that we must that Hiram, king of Tyre, gave So- regard the pine as a meet emblem of a lomon cedar trees and fir trees accord- Christian heart, which, though enabled ing to all his desire," as materials for to trust and not be afraid, because his glorious temple. Josephus affirms rooted on the rock Christ, yet, like his that the almug trees of which we read, Divine Master, is ever ready “to
Thou with the storm hast dallied from of old.
And mountain rocks re-echo to the song,
rejoice with those that do rejoice, and I are annually consumed to supply the weep with those that weep.” Like the demand. Dr. Clarke enters into a full tree before us, it may be said of the description of the process, which is believer, that the sharper the blast that much the same as that adopted by the assails him, the more does his thanks- Highlanders for their local purposes. giving abound; the deeper his trial, He tells us, that the roots, logs, etc., the louder he sings; and thus, though being neatly tied in bundles or stocks sorrowful in himself, he is always re- of a conical shape, are placed in a hole joicing. The foliage of this tree, being of the same size and shape, which is composed of innumerable and sharp- dug on the side of a bank or hill. Havedged leaves, when agitated by the ing carefully covered the top with turf, wind, gives forth a mournful, murmur- firmly beaten down, they set fire to the ing sound, varying from loud to soft, stack, which is slowly consumed. A from sweet to shrill, as influenced by cast iron trough having been previthe gentle gale, or the gusty blast; ously fixed at the bottom of the funnel, sometimes, it is as the dash of the with a spout projecting through the billows of ocean on the strand, and bank, conveys the tar exuded from the again as melancholy melody. Hence wood, into barrels placed ready to reVirgil speaks of “the singing pines;" ceive it. Lampblack is produced from nor have modern poets been neglectful the soot, which is deposited on the top of the circumstance.
or sides of the cavity during the pro
cess of combustion : this is generally “ The loud wind through the forest wakes With sound like oceans, roaring, wild and deep,
the produce of the American forests. And in yon gloomy pines strange music makes, To obtain turpentine, much used in paintLike symphonies unearthly heard in sleep;
ing, an incision is made in the trunk, and The sobbing waters dash their waves and weep; Where moans the blast its dreary path along, the liquid exuding from it, is collected The bending firs a mournful cadence keep, in ladles, and poured into a basket or As fitful raves the wind the hills and woods sieve. The turpentine runs through inamong ”-DRUMMOND.
to earthern vessels ready to receive it. " And then there fled by me a rush of air,
The sediment in the basket is then disThat stirr'd up all the other foliage there, tilled with a quantity of water; the oil Filling the solitude with panting tongues; At which the pines woke up into their songs,
thus procured is oil of turpentine, and Shaking their choral locks.-L. Hunt. the matter which yet remains, rosin.
Tar water is well known on account of In Rowe's translation of Lucan, the the medicinal properties attributed to peals of loud applause, with which the
it, which were ready legions rent the air, are thus by bishop Berkely, but this remedy
so highly celebrated compared :
much neglected. Even the “Such is the sound when Thracian Boreas spreads fumes of melted rosin are said to
His weighty wing o'er Ossa's piny heads : have been found beneficial in asth-
matic complaints. Indeed, the air when At once their rattling branches all they rear, impregnated with the exhalations of And drive the leafy clamour through the air.
fir trees, is considered not only to A later poet says,
be refreshing and agreeable, but whole“ An idle voice the Sabbath region fills,
some for those whose lungs are delicate. Of deep that calls to deep across the hills, The ancients were accustomed to mix Broke only by the melancholy sound
some of the rosinous products of this Of drowsy bells for ever tinkling round Faint wail of eagle melting into blue
tree with their wines, as rendering them Beneath the cliffs and pine trees steady sugh." more pleasant and less injurious. The
fresh cones are sometimes boiled in The rosinous secretions of this tree whey as a remedy for seurvy, and Evelyn not only increase the durability and con- strongly recommends the chips as subsequent value of the timber, but are in stitutes for hops. themselves of great use to man, when Dr. Clarke tells us that the fir tree yielding tar, pitch, lampblack, turpen- is the summum bonum of the Norwetine, and rosin. The two latter are ex- gian peasants ; nor is it less useful to tracted from the trunk by incision; tar the Highlanders, furnishing them, as it is produced by burning the roots, chips, does, with wood for their buildings and etc., and is afterwards converted into furniture, food for their cattle, and fuel pitch by boiling. Large forests of the for their fires. In bad seasons, the pinus sylvestris in the north of Europe, | inner bark when kiln-dried and ground,
is often added to eke out the oaten | in its native haunts, towering in rugged meal of which their cakes are made. In- majesty amid the sublimest scenes of the deed, it is considered that the deficiency Scottish Highlands. in the home supply of this timber, is to "Oh! wild and bleak are Scotland's hills, be attributed to the numbers of young
Where headlong torrents roar, trees cut down for this purpose in 1812.
Where granite-peaked mountains frown,
All capped with snow wreaths hoar: The young shoots, as well as the bark, And broad and wide her moorlands stretch are said to be used for the same pur
With many a dark ravine,
Where legends tell of kelpie sprites, pose in Siberia. In this latter country, By fitful moonshine seen. ropes are also made from the bark, When winter winds shriek loud and high,
When floods tumultuous pour, and found to be strong and elastic. The
The lofty pine creaks gratingly inflammable properties of the wood, Amid the mighty roar. cause it to be valued above any other The lofty pine crowns Scotland's hills,
Nor recks he winter's blast, by charcoal burners.
His root clings firmly to the rock, Slips of the wood lighted, were and Like an anchor strong and fast."
L. A. TWAMLEY. still are, in some parts both' in Europe and America, used as substitutes for Within the vast districts yet covered candles. Hence a story is related of with the remains of those magnifia Highland chieftain, who won a large cent forests which once extended over bet in the following manner :-Being
the whole face of the country, are present at a party in England, when to be found scenes of unrivalled subsome massy chased silver candlesticks limity and interest, yet deriving their were much admired, he ventured to greatest attractions from the noble tree assert they were inferior to those he of which we are speaking. The “good daily used in the Highlands. A large green woods” of England are unequalled
was immediately staked that he for sylvan beauty; but those of the Highcould not prove his assertion. After lands combine within their limits all some time, which was allowed him to that is wild and grand in landscape bring the candlesticks to London, the scenery. “Here, the endless fir woods company assembled to decide the bet, run up all the ramifications and subwhen several handsome young High- divisions of the tributary valleys, cover landers, clothed in their national cos- the lower elevations, climb the sides tume, were seen standing round the of the lower hills, and even in many table, each holding a blazing fir torch cases, approach the very roots of the in his hand. It was universally owned giant mountains which tower over them; that these were the candlesticks com- yet with all this, the reader is mismonly used in Scotland, and that their taken, if he supposes that any tiresome value was superior to the finest silver uniformity exists among these wilds. candelabras.
Every movement we make, exposes to The too prevalent idea that the Scotch our view fresh objects of excitement, pine is a gloomy, unpicturesque looking and discloses new scenes produced by tree, has, no doubt, arisen from its be- the infinite variety of the surface. At ing generally planted for the sake of its one time, we find ourselves wandering timber, or else to serve as a sheltering along some natural level, under the screen to more tender plantations, or deep and sublime shade of the heavy the habitations of man. We then find pine foliage, upheld high over head by this tree, as Gilpin observes, in “ close, the tall and massive columnar stems compact bodies, in thick array, which which appear to form an endless cosuffocates and cramps them ; their la- lonnade; the ground dry as a floor beteral branches are gone, and their stems neath our footsteps, the very sound of are drawn into poles, on which their which is muffled by the thick deposition heads appear
stuck as on a centre." of decayed spines, with which the seaThe Scottish fir in murky file,
sons of more than one century have Rears his inglorious head, and blots the fair strewn it; hardly conscious that the sun
is up, save from the fragrant rosinous In such situations, we own, its chief odour which its influence is exhaling, interest is derived from the recollection and the continued hum of the clouds of its utility, arising from the very cir- of insects that are dancing in its beams cumstances which mar its beauty: but over the tops of the trees. Anon, the how different the sensations excited by ground begins to swell into hillocks, and its very name, to one who has seen it here and there the continuity of shade
is broken by a broad rush of light, above all, the bold and determined outstreamingdown some vacant place, and lines of Benmacdhuie, that king, of brightly illuminating a single tree of British mountains, and his attendant huge dimensions and grand form, which group of native Alps, sharply yet softly rising from a little knoll, stands out in delineated against the sky, look down bold relief from the darker masses be- with silent majesty on all below.” hind it, where the shadows again sink The principal forests now existing in deep and fathomless among the red and Scotland are those of Abernethy and grey, stems, whilst nature luxuriating Rothiemurchus onthe Spey, Glentanner, in the light that gladdens the little Braemar, and Invercauld, in Aberdeenglade, pours forth her richest High- shire, besides many thousand acres more land treasures of purple heathbells and recently planted on the banks of the bright green bilberries, and trailing Findhorn. Those of Braemar and Inwhortleberries, with tufts of fern irre- vercauld on the Dee, may in fact be gularly intermingled. Anon, the re- considered as one, and it is to them that pose of the forest is interrupted by the above description particularly applies. the music of distant waters stealing The value and abundant supply of on the ear,
and we hurry forward with timber yielded by these forests, may, the sound growing upon us, till all at in some degree, be estimated from the once the roar and white sheet of a following inscription, which is to be cataract bursts
our astonished seen in the hall of Gordon Castle:senses, as we find ourselves suddenly “In the year 1783, William Osbourne, and unexpectedly standing on the fear- Esq., merchant of Hull, purchased of ful brink of some deep and rocky ra- the duke of Gordon, the forest of Glenvine, where the river pouring from more, the whole of which he cut down above, precipitates itself into a profound in the space of twenty-two years, and abyss, in one continued turmoil of foam built, during that time, at the mouth and mist. The cliffs themselves are of the river Spey, where never vessel shaken and the pines quiver where they was built before, forty-seven sail of wildly shoot with strange and fantastic ships, of upwards of nineteen thousand wreathings, from the crevices in their tons burden. The largest of them, of sides, or where, having gained some one thousand and fifty tons, and three small portion of nutriment on their others, little inferior in size, are now summits, they rear themselves up like in the service of his Majesty and the giants aspiring to scale the gates of Honourable East India Company. This heaven. By and by, pursuing the wind- undertaking was completed at the ex. ings of the stream, we are conducted pense (of labour only) of above 70,0001. by it into some wide plain, through To his grace the duke of Gordon, this which it flows, sparkling among the plank is offered, as a specimen of the opposing stones, where trees of all ages growth of one of the trees in the above and growths stand singly, or in groups forest, by his grace's most obedient seror groves, as nature may have planted vant,
WILLIAM OSBOURNE." them, or the deer allowed them to rise, The above inscription, on a brass plate, while distant herds are seen maintaining is appended to the plank, which is six their free right of pasture, where on all feet two inches long, and five feet five sides the steeps are clothed thick with the in breadth. The tree from which it portly denizens of the forest, and the view was taken is supposed to have been the is bounded by a wider range of the Cairn- largest ever cut down in Scotland, and gorum mountains.
And finally, we was known by the name of the Lady climb the rough sides of some isolated of the Glen. The Dunmore fir, sixtyhill, and when toil-worn and breath- seven feet high, and eleven feet three less, after scrambling for an hour up in circumference at the ground, is one the steep and slippery ascent we reach of the handsomest specimens now standthe summit, what a prospect opens to ing, and the largest in the Lowlands. us, as we seat ourselves on some bare These observations on this interesting rock! The forest is seen, stretching tree, would be very incomplete, were away in all directions from our feet, the peculiar adaptation of its every part mellowing as it recedes into the furthest to the situation in which the God of valleys among the distant hills, climb- nature has fixed its habitation, allowed ing their bold sides, and scattering off to pass without notice. The roots, unin detachments along their steeps, and like those of almost every other tree,
wander in a direction nearly horizontal ; , boldly confront the impious, hardened thus accommodating themselves to the oppressor of his harassed people, and scanty depth of soil in which they are in the name of the Lord call down upon found. As the tree advances in age, the guilty land of Egypt, plagues, the they frequently appear above the sur-like of which had never been seen among face of the ground, and are therefore them. See the unlettered fishermen of composed of fibres much more tough Galilee, filled with the Holy Ghost, and woody, than those of other trees fluently proclaiming in every tongue which take a perpendicular direction. the wonderful works of God, when the The accrose leaf, general to the other duty had been laid on them by the trees of this order, which are all natives parting command of their risen Lord of exposed or alpine heights, by allow- to preach repentance and remission of ing the wind and snow to pass through sins in his name to all nations. The the interstices, secures the tree from fearful Nicodemus, too, can go in boldly the resistless fury of the former, or an to Pilate, and crave the corpse of one overpowering weight of the latter. Obs who had just suffered the death of a serve, too, the numerous scaly cover- malefactor, when there was a needs-be ings over each bud, the germ of future that to avoid collusion, and to remove cones and future trees. The leading any ground for mistrust, the body, the shoot of each tree is not developed till human nature of Christ as the seed of after those of the side branches, and the woman, bruised by Satan's power, thus is secured the preservation of its should be laid in a sepulchre “wherein valuable trunk, rather than the increase never man before was laid," and thus of its comparatively useless and short- the triumph of him who conquered lived branches. In the woody substance death, and him that had the power of of the scales of the cones, and their firm death, be established beyond the power adherence together for so long a time, of doubt. Then, “why sayest thou, O and till the seed is ripened, no less than Jacob, and speakest, OʻIsrael, My way in their immediate explosion, as soon is hid from the Lord, and my judgas this is fit to germinate, we again trace ment is passed over from my God," he the watchful care of Providence for the hath forgotten to be gracious; I shall security of so vital a part of the tree, one day perish by the hand of my eneso peculiarly exposed to the conflicting my ?". Never did he disappoint the soul clements and extremes of temperature. that waited for him, or delay the aid And thus the lofty pine may speak a required when the right time was come. word of comfort and encouragement, to Have we warrant to require strength the troubled soul that will learn from for trials ere the hour of trial arrives, it a lesson of firm reliance, simple trust or reason to despond because strength on the wisdom and power of its God. is not given in anticipating the day of Has he placed in the chill and barren evil ? Does not his word run thus ? regions of our earth, a tree so well cal. “ As thy day, thy strength shall be," and culated to supply the necessities of their not until the clouds of eventide close inhabitants, and also adapted it to the upon the last rays of the setting sun, situation assigned for it? does not he shall it be light. fear not then, neither know also how to temper the blast to be afraid, believe only, and in thus gothe shorn lamb, and to stay the rough ing forward, though it be even into a wind in the day of the east wind ? Ne
sea of trouble, or through a trackless ver did he assign a duty without im- desert of perplexity, the cloudy pillar parting grace for the right discharge and the fiery column shall daily direct of it, or appoint to frail and feeble man thy way, and impart to thee the shelter a burden without bestowing strength to or the light which thy necessity requireth. sustain it. Review the history of the “ Does each day upon its wing generations of old, and trace the oper
Its allotted burden bring,
Load it not betimes with sorrow, ations of his hand in every object that
Which belongeth to the morrow. meets the eye, and say whether the Strength is promised, strength is given, humble and sincere follower of such a
When the heart by God is riven;
But foredate the day of woe,
Seek thou it by fervent prayer,
The all-glorious world above,
And whate'er thou need'st below, timid Moses, endued with Divine power,
And alone thou bearest the blow.
He thou trustest will bestow."