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There is, as Strutt remarks at the close beautifully alluded to the popular super. of the foregoing account, something in it stitions connected with this tree, as well extremely captivating to the imagination, as the use made of it by our forefathers. in the thought, that these venerable There is a yew tree, pride of Lorton vale, trees witnessed the rearing of that noble Which to this day stands single in the midst

Of its own darkness, as it stood in yore: edifice, on whose ruins they seem to

Not loath to furnish weapons for the bands look in sympathetic decay. The slow Of Umfraville or Percy, ere they marched

To Scotland's leaths; or those that crossed the growth of the yew renders it probable that these trees are now above a thou And drew their sounding bows at Agincouri, sand years old.

Perhaps at earlier Cressy, or Poictiers.

Of vast circumference, and gloom profound, The Ankerwyke yew, near Staines, is This solitary tree ! A living thing supposed to be also above a thousand Produced too slowly ever to decay:

Of forin and aspect too magnificent years of age. The girth of this tree, at

To be destroyed. But worthier still of note thirty feet from the ground, is twenty Are those fraternal four of Borrowdale, seven feet. Its height is forty-nine feet

Joined in one solemn and capacious grove :

Iluge trunks! and each particular trunk a growth six inches; and the branches extend so as Of intertwisted fibres, serpentine shade a circumference of two hundred and Up-coiling, and inveterately convolved; seven feet. It is said to have been the

Nor uninformed with phantasy, and looks

That threaten the profane; a pillar'd shade, trysting place of Henry vill., and the hap Upon whose grassless floor of red-brown hue, less Anna Boleyn, when she was in that

By sheddings from the pining umbrage tinged

Perennially; beneath whose sable roof of boughs, neighbourhood. But it is yet more inter

As if for festal purpose, decked esting from the circumstance, that king

With unrejoicing berries, gliostly shapes

May meet at noontide : fear and trembling hope, John was compelled, by his barons, to

Silence and foresight, death the skeleton, sign the Magna Charta in its immediate And time the shadow ; there to celebrate, vicinity, on a little island in the Thames, As in a natural temple, scattered o'er

With altars undisturbed of mossy stone, between Runnymede and Ankerwyke. United worship; or in mute repose

To lie, and listen to the mountain flood ** Hore patriot barons might have musing stood,

Murmuring from Glaramara's inmost caves.
And planned the charter for their country's good;
And here, perhaps, from Runnymede retired,
The haughty John with secret vengeance fired,

CONVERSATION.
Might curse the day which saw his weakness yield
Extorted rights in yonder tented field.

“I have been dining out,” says Mr. Here, too, the tyrant Henry felt love's flame,

Wilberforce, in his diary, “and was And sighing breathed his Anna Boleyn's name; Beneath the shelter of this yew tree's shade, then at an assembly at the Chief Baron's. The royal lover woo'd this ill-starred maid." Alas! how little like a company of

Under a yew at Cruxton castle, tradi- Christians ! —a sort of hollow cheerfultion states, that Mary, queen of Scot ness on every countenance. I grew out land, consented to marry the unfortunate of spirits. I had not been at pains before lord Darnley, and that in remembrance of I went to fit myself for company, by a this circumstance, she ordered the figure store of conversation, topics, launchers, of a yew tree to be stamped upon her etc.” “These,” his biographer adds, “were coin. The tree has been dead some certain topics .carefully arranged before years; but a young tree, raised from it, he entered into company, which might is now in the Glasgow Botanic Garden. insensibly lead the conversation to useful Close to Dryburgh abbey is a large yew

subjects. His first great object was to tree, which, in 1837, was in perfect make it a direct instrument of good; health ; its head was fifty feet in diameter, and in this he was much assisted by his though the circumference of the trunk, natural powers, which enabled him to at a foot from the ground, was only twelve introduce serious subjects with a cheerfeet. This tree is supposed to have been ful gravity, and to pass from them by planted at the time the abbey was a natural transition, before attention founded, which was in 1150. At Mul flagged. He was also watchful to draw cross Abbey, in Ireland, is a very large

forth from all he met their own especial tree.

It is probably coeval with the ab information, and for some time kept a bey, which was renowned so early as the book in which was recorded what he had year 1180. An author, writing of it thus acquired. This watchful desire to fifty years ago, described it as a most pro make society useful, saved him from the digious tree, its branches forming a cano danger to which his peculiar powers pyover one of the courts in which itstands. exposed him ; and he never engrossed It is still in a flourishing condition. the conversation.” It would be well

Our poet of nature, Wordsworth, in de were there many imitators of this eminent scribing some celebrated yew trees, has | man in these respects.

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TYRE.

of Carthage, the rival of Rome. SucAntiquity speaks of three cities, cess was therefore to the conqueror only erected at different times, and bearing the harbinger of disappointment; he a similar designation : Tyre on the con- found Tyre stripped of its treasures, tinent; Tyre on the island, about half a and almost deserted; and, in the fury of mile from the former; and Tyre on the his wrath, he put the remnant of a vast peninsula; but it appears they were one, and luxurious population to a cruel and for an artificial isthmus is said to have immediate death, and consigned the joined the old and new cities.

place of their departed glory to utter Tyre was the most celebrated city of destruction. Phenicia. Every part of the known Insular, or New Tyre, however, soon world wafted treasures to its ports, and rose to distinction, became a mart of people of all languages thronged its universal merchandize, heaped up silver streets. It was the nursery of arts and as the dust, and fine gold as the mire of science, the city of a most industrious the streets. Surrounded by a wall, a and active people, the mart of nations, hundred and fifty feet high, built on the the vast emporium of the ancient world. very extremity of the island, and washed

Meanwhile the heart proved, as it has on every side by the ocean's billows, it done universally, to be deceitful above appeared impregnable. But the revival all things, and desperately wicked.” The of power was transient, for scarcely had pride of the Tyrians, their exultation a century elapsed, when Alexander over the calamities of Israel, and their desired to reckon it among his proud cruelty in selling them into slavery, possessions. brought upon them the judgments of Rarely, if ever, has the collision of God. Nebuchadnezzar came forth from human passions enkindled a more viothe north, with horses and chariots, and lent and sanguinary contest than_that companies, and much people, and con which immediately commenced. Furitinued the siege of Tyre for thirteen ously repelled by a desperate people, the years. Availing themselves of their phy- invaders had to contend with the rage of sical superiority over the invader, the the elements. A junction with the main Tyrians made their escape by sea; and land, rendered necessary by the previous hence the city, which was called the destruction of the isthmus, was almost daughter of Sidon, became the parent complete, when a storm arose, the waves

F

PHOTOGENIC DRAWING.-No. II.

dashed with resistless force against the ditors were astonished ; and well may mass, the waters penetrated the strong our feelings resemble theirs. But other foundation, and, like the sea-girt rock, predictions equally remarkable demand when riven by the earthquake, it sank at. our devout regard. Let us then dilionce into the abyss.

gently examine the inspired record, reSpeedily was this mischief repaired, membering that “ The prophecy came and military engines hurled arrows, not in old time by the will of man: but stones, and burning torches on the be holy men of God spake as they were sieged, but, to the unutterable dismay moved by the Holy Ghost," 2 Pet. i. 21. of the Tyrians, the Cyprian fleet ap

W. proached the harbour, and darkness was suddenly spread over the sky, another storm arose, the vessels fastened together, were torn asunder with a hor The first thing to be done in prerid crash, and the flotilla, once tremend paring for photogenic drawing is to proous in appearance and threatening de- vide ourselves with a suitable paper on struction, returned a wreck to the shore. which the sun itself may draw the obAlexander, dispirited by these events, jects it illuminates. Several methods had almost determined to raise the siege, have been proposed by different experiwhen a supply of eight thousand men menters, which we shall first give to having arrived, in compliance with his the reader as nearly as possible in their demand, from Samaria, then the asylum own words, and afterwards throw out of all the malcontents in Judea, he re a few practical hints. newed the conflict, and, at length, the Mr. Talbot recommends the following sceptre of Tyre was broken, the splendid process for the preparation of photogenic city was destroyed by fire, thirty thousand paper. were sold into slavery, fifteen thousand - Take superfine writing paper and escaped in ships; and two thousand vic- dip it into a weak solution of common tims remaining, when the soldiers were salt, and wipe it dry; by which the salt glutted with slaughter, they were trans- is uniformly distributed throughout its fixed to crosses along the sea-shore. surface. Then spread a solution of the

A few years ago, Asaad Kehaba, the nitrate of silver on one surface only, and Syrian, who is known to many in this dry it at the fire. The solution should country, was in the immediate neigh- not be saturated; when dry, the

paper bourhood of ancient Tyre, when the is fit for use. following conversation took place be “To render this paper more sensitive, tween him and some of the passers- it must be again washed with salt and by :

water, and afterwards with the same Of what are there here the ruins ? solution of nitrate of silver, drying it A great city.

between times. I have increased the For what was it famous ?

sensibility to the degree required for Its power and merchandize.

receiving thọ images of the camera obAre many people found here now? No! only a few

“In conducting this operation, it will What did

you

observe on the rocks as be found that the results are sometimes you passed ?

more, and sometimes less satisfactory, Nothing but the nets of the fishermen. in consequence of small and accidental

" True," said the Syrian," but I can variations in the proportions employed. tell you that in my bosom there is a book It happens sometimes that the chloride in which all this was foretold when Tyre of silver is disposed to blacken of itself was in the height of its power; and without any exposure to light. This there,” he continued, “it is said by the shows that the attempt to give it sensigreat and only true God, of this the bility has been carried too far. The obgreatest commercial city of the world, ject is to approach to this condition as whose merchants were princes, whose near as possible without reaching it, so traffickers were the honourable of the that the substance may be in a state earth, ‘I will make thee like the top of a ready to yield to the slightest extraneous rock. Thou shalt be a place to spread force, such as the feeble impact of the nets upon,' Ezekiel xxvi. 14; and of violet rays when much attenuated.” the fulfilment of these predictions, you Another kind of paper exceedingly and I are witnesses this day." His au delicate may be made, according to Mr.

scura.

Talbot, in the following manner : should be always marked to prevent the “Wash the paper over first with nitrate possibility of mistake when it is about of silver, then with bromide of potas- to be used. The thinner kinds of printsium, then with nitrate of silver again.” ing paper are very well suited for the

M. Daguerre recommends another photogenic drawing, as also the highly process. * Immerse a sheet of thin glazed writing papers. paper in hydrochloric ether, which has In the Edinburgh Philosophical Jourbeen kept sufficiently long to have be- nal, a method is given, by Mr. Ponton, come acid; the paper is then carefully of preparing a photogenic paper without and completely dried. The paper is using a salt of silver, and of this it will then dipped into a solution of the nitrate be necessary we should take some noof silver, and dried without artificial heat tice before we proceed to explain the in a room from which every ray of light manner in which the drawing is formed is carefully excluded. By this process upon the prepared medium. The subit acquires a very remarkable facility in stance used by this gentleman is a bibeing blackened on a very slight ex chromate of potash, into which the posure to light, even when the latter paper is immersed. A saturated soluis by no means intense. This paper tion of this salt should be used; and rapidly loses its extreme sensitiveness when the paper is thoroughly soaked, it to light, and finally becomes not more should be dried rapidly before a brisk

eadily acted upon by the solar beams fire, taking care to prevent the access than paper dipped into nitrate of silver of day-light. only.'

“When an object is laid in the usual Mr. Cooper, who exhibits and lec. way on this paper, the portion exposed tures on the Daguerreotype, at the Poly- to the light speedily becomes tawny, technic Institution, recommends another passing more or less into a deep orange process... “Soak the paper,” he says, according to the strength of the light. "in boiling hot solution of chlorate of | The portion covered by the object repotash. After a few minutes, it must tains the original bright yellow tint be taken and dried, and then covered which it had before exposure ; and the on one side with the nitrate of silver, object is thus represented yellow upon which may be laid on with a brush. an orange ground, there being several Sixty grains, he says, “ to an ounce gradations of shade or tint, according to of water when the paper is required the greater or less degree of transpato be very sensitive, or otherwise thirty rency in the different parts of the obgrains would be sufficient.”

ject. In this state, of course, the drawIt must, at first, appear an exceedingly ing though very beautiful is evanescent. easy task to manufacture a paper accord- | To fix it, all that is required is careful ing to either of the receipts we have immersion in water, when it will be mentioned; and yet in practice many found that those portions of the salt difficulties will arise, sometimes in the which have not been acted on by the manipulation, and sometimes when the light are really dissolved out, while those paper is to be used. There are, how- which have been exposed to the light ever, a few hints which, if regarded, are completely fixed in the paper. By will be the means of preventing much the second process, the object is obtained inconvenience and trouble.

white upon an orange ground, and quite tire process must be conducted with permanent. If exposed for many hours great care, and this is of the first im- together to strong sunshine, the colour portance. It must, on no account, be of the ground is apt to lose in depth ; done in a hurry, or the experimenter but not more so than most other colourwill certainly fail to accomplish his ob- ing matters.' ject ; it must always be commenced Being prepared with one of the sevewhen there is no lack of time. Be care ral kinds of photogenic paper, we have ful in the choice of paper, which must to produce a picture on it, which may be of an uniform tint and of even sur be done in two ways, both of which we face. The various washings must be shall explain. laid on as carefully as possible; and 1. Take a piece of the paper and, all the operations should be conducted placing it on a table with the prepared with the aid of a candle in a darkened side upwards, place on it the picture apartment or during the night. That which is to be represented face to face, and side of the paper which is prepared place them between two pieces of glass.

The en

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Expose the prepared face to the light, | to the purpose for which it is intended; the direct rays of the sun if possible, but that represented in the following and that part of the prepared paper which is not covered by the engraving or drawing will be blackened; those parts which are protected by the dark shades of the picture will remain white. AO We have mentioned above that the prepared paper and object may be placed between two pieces of glass ; but as it is im- diagram is the most convenient for portant to bring the two papers as closely the production of photogenic drawtogether as possible, a pad of woollen or ings. The instrument is a rectangular flannel may be placed at the back, and box, with a double convex lens, A, at being pressed upon by a piece of wood, one end, and a glass reflector, B, which is or a book cover, facilitates the action of generally a piece of looking glass, at the the light upon the prepared surface. other. Now supposing the rays of light Those of our readers who may attempt to proceed from an extensive landscape to make experiments themselves, will and pass through this small convex lens, find the leaves of plants and fine fabrics as we well know they may do, what will excellent specimens for trial.

be the effect produced ? They will be We have already stated that the lights in the first place thrown upon the reand shadows are reversed in every pho- flector, which is fixed at an angle of togenic copy from a natural object or forty-five degrees to the horizon. Now from an engraving. It is evident, how it follows from a law well known to ever, that if this copy be then made the opticians, that these rays will be reobject, the shadows will again be re flected to the top of the box immediately versed, and a natural representation be over the mirror; so that if a ground produced; but it will lose much of the glass, or any medium capable of receive sharpness and vigour of an original copy. ing the reflected image, be placed

The drawing being completed, it must there, a representation of the landbe fixed, or in other words a process scape may be observed. It has been must be adopted, by which the action proved by innumerable experiments that of the sun's rays upon the other parts reflected light has, in proportion to its of the picture may be prevented. Mr. power, as much influence upon the phoTalbot says that for this purpose it is togenic paper as the direct rays of the only necessary to dip the drawings into sun; hence it follows that if a piece of a saturated solution of salt and

water. the prepared paper be placed in the This is well known to retard the dis same situation as the ground glass, the coloration, and in some cases seems to reflected image, be it a landscape, a prevent it altogether, though it cannot figure, or an artificial object, will be be depended on as a certain means of formed on the medium. All that is accomplishing the object. Sir John therefore required to be done in using Herschel has proposed the use of a so the camera obscura for photogenic drawlution of the hyposulphite of soda, which ing, is to place upon the opening at the is without doubt the best substance that top of the box the prepared paper, and can be employed. The hydriodate of immediately to cover it with the lid c, potash dissolved in water and very much so that it may not be acted upon by any diluted, is also a good preparation with other light than that reflected from the which to wash the drawings and prevent mirror. The time required for pro, further change of colour ; but if it be ducing the necessary effect will depend not used in a very diluted state, it will on several circumstances, such as the destroy instead of preserve the picture, preparation of the paper and the intenby removing that which has been chang- sity of the light when the experiment ed into an oxide as well as the unchanged is made; the latter, however, is by far muriate.

the most important. On a bright sun2. But must now proceed to shining day, the drawing will be proexplain the second mode of producing duced in one half the time and with far the photogenic drawing; namely, by the more sharpness of outline, than on a dull aid of the camera obscura, an instru- wintry day, when the sun struggles with ment which must be itself first described. the mists by which its radiant beams are

It may be made in any form according | encumbered.

we

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