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fices. The whole of these amounts pro- liament to do this, when many and great duced on the average 300,000l., per were the taxes levied before without any annum, while the regular expenditure advantage to the subject. How was was about 40,0001. for the royal house - this our realm then pestered with stranhold, 2,0001. for the queen's private gers, strange rulers, strange gods, strange expenditure, and 30,0001, for the navy. languages, strange religion, strange coin; Thus she was enabled to discharge the and now how peaceably rid of them debts of the crown, to assist the Pro- all !" While mentioning the coins of this testants of Scotland and France with realm, it is important to notice the Latin money, and to pay forces when there inscriptions placed upon them by queen was occasion for them. Extraordinary Elizabeth, which_when Englished are, circumstances at times caused unusual upon the gold, “This is the Lord's work, expenditure, when it became necessary and it is wonderful in our eyes ;” and on to apply to parliament; but these ap- the silver, “I have chosen God for my plications were so rare till towards the close help.” She uttered the first sentence of the reign, that there was seldom any with fervent devotion, when the intellidifficulty to make grants. In the latter gence of her accession to the throne was part of her reign, the contest with first communicated. The selection of Philip, with other foreign princes, and these mottoes for her coin was not a especially the war in Ireland, occasioned mere matter of form; there is clear a larger expenditure, consequently more proof that her mind was deeply imfrequent applications to her parliament. pressed by the remembrance of past Among the objectionable sources of in- mercies, while the dangers which beset

resorted to by Elizabeth was her on every side continually taught her raising money by lottery. The first the need of help beyond human supwhich is noticed by historians, was in port. 1567, though it is probable similar un- The enforcement of uniformity as to dertakings had previously been made on religious rites and ceremonies, was so a smaller scale." It consisted of 400,000 strictly required as to break the unity tickets, at ten shillings each, the pro- of the Protestant church, about the duce was to be applied to the repair period at which we have arrived. In and increase of the ports and havens of this as in every case where such disputes the realm. The prizes consisted chiefly arise, each party was eventually carried of plate. Active exertions were made farther than they at first intended ; so to promote this gambling scheme. The true it is that the beginning of strife government wrote to the justices in is as the letting out of water, and so various parts, commanding them to help important is it that we should avoid the agents for the disposal of tickets, all matters which unnecessarily excite and to urge the purchase of them on divisions. The adoption of six articles patriotic motives. Large placards, five proposed to the lower house of convofeet long, were printed, and other means cation, in 1562, might have prevented used to give publicity. In the Losely some of these painful results. These manuscripts is an account of many of the articles chiefly proposed to abolish all adventurers and their disappointments. festivals derived only from the Romish The reform in the coinage was a

church ; and that the cross in baptism, work of considerable difficulty. All the and the posture at receiving the sacramoney in circulation was reckoned above ment, and the habits of the clergy, should its real value, while a great portion was be left more at liberty. Forty-three of utterly worthless. After fixing a re- the clergy present voted in favour of gular value for each denomination of these articles, with proxies making a coin ; the queen received at that rate total of fifty-eight votes. Only thirty-five all but the most worthless, much of opposed them, but their proxies, being which was counterfeit, and gave in ex- more numerous, made fifty-nine votes. change good coin, both gold and silver. Thus the strict enforcement of uniThe slow process of exchange caused formity in matters which made the oria temporary stagnation of trade ; but ginal grounds for division in the Prowhen it was effected, very beneficial testant church of England was carried results followed. Strype says of Eliza- | into effect by a minority; and the debeth :-"She at her great cost restored ciding vote was from one who had not to her people ine coin from a base; and been present at the discussion. Among she took but few taxes from her par- I those who would have granted the liberty

66 All

THE SPRING.

president of the North, a post of diffi- there were also seasons of scarcity, but culty in the state of Scottish affairs. the deliverance from Mary's persecuWe shall find that he distinguished him- tions encouraged the Protestants to sup. self in suppressing a rebellion in the port these lesser evils. Strype says, northern counties. He was honest, her loving subjects rejoiced, though the brave, and loyal, employed in all diffi- envious Papists murmured and grudged. cult services, yet not sufficiently valued God did, past all human expectations, or rewarded, owing to the intrigues of prosper the queen's doings." Leicester, with whom he was personally at variance; so that the queen, more than once, found it difficult to keep them from breaking out into deadly feuds. The seasons of external nature, in He died in 1583, universally regretted the course of the year, are a part, and as one of the few statesmen of undevi. a considerably interesting part, of what ating integrity.

makes up our condition during our The native population of Ireland was sojourn on this earth ; and good men, in a state of determined hostility to their from the psalmist downward, have not English lords during the whole of this been content that the effect of these reign. One of them, claiming to be seasons upon them should be confined the rightful earl of Tyrone, assumed to the mere external material condition ; the title of O'Neal, in the close of queen but have been desirous that the vicissiMary's reign; thereby laying claim to tudes of nature should minister to the the sovereignty of Ulster. So deter- welfare of the mind. The spring seamined was his opposition to England, son, especially, has been regarded as that he condemned one of his followers fertile of what might afford salutary to death for eating English biscuit. instruction in a pleasing vehicle. We But when the earl of Sussex gathered are now at the commencement of this a force against him, Shan O'Neal sub- genial season ; and, before its flowers mitted and attended the court of Eliza- and bloom are past, we might do well beth, with a band of native followers, to endeavour to draw from it something to make excuse for past violence. The not quite so transient. queen promised that justice should be The vast importance, to us, that this done, respecting his claims to the earl- season should regularly and infallibly dom of Tyrone. But on his return, he return, in its time, is obvious, the inlistened to the Popish priests, and pro- stant it is mentioned. But it claimed himself a chastiser of heretics, instantly recollected how entirely we are burning the cathedral of Armagh be- at the mercy of the God of nature for Protestant worship had been cele- return.

then lord deputy, marched against him joined face of the earth, to wait in total deby some of the natives who had feuds pendence for him to cause the seasons with Shan O'Neal. The latter sought to visit our abode, as helpless and iman alliance with some Scots, lately potent as particles of dust. If the power settled in Ulster ; but was slain in a that brings them on were to hold them drunken brawl, which arose while ca- back, we could only submit or repine rousing in their camp. This was in -and perish. His will could strike 1565. Soon afterwards, the greater part with an instant paralysis the whole of Ulster was declared to be forfeited moving system of nature. A suspension to the crown, and the title of O'Neal of his agency, and all would stop; or suppressed.

a change, and things would take a new Upon the whole, the first ten years and fearful course! Yet we are apt to of this reign were the most peaceful. think of the approach of the desired The foreign and domestic foes of Eliza- season in some other light than that beth had not yet concentrated their of the certainty that God will cause it to bitter hatred to rende their efforts so

With a sort of passive irreligion, formidable as they were in subsequent we allow a something, conceived as an years. This period, however, was not established order of nature, to take the without domestic troubles. The soldiers place of the Author and Ruler of nature, withdrawn from France in 1563, brought forgetful that all this is nothing but the home a pestilential disease, which raged continually acting power and will of in London during the next twelve months: 1 God; and that nothing can be more

not so

come.

absurd, than the notion of God's having | certain cheerful cast in the light, even constituted a system to be one moment though shining over an expanse of deindependent of himself.

solation ; it has the appearance of a Consider next: This beautiful vernal smile; a softer breathing of the air, season-what a gloomy and unpromising at intervals; the bursting of the buds ; scene and season it arises out of; it is the vivacity of the animal tribes ; the almost like creation from chaos; like first flowers of the season ; and, by delife from a state of death. If we might rees, a delicate dubious tint of green. be allowed in a supposition so wide from It needs not that man should be a poet probability, as that a person should not or a sentimental worshipper of nature, know what season is to follow, while to be delighted with all this. contemplating the scene, and feeling May we suggest one analogy to this ? the rigours of winter, how difficult it The operation of the Divine Spirit, in would be for him to comprehend or renovating the human soul, effecting its believe that the darkness, the dreariness, conversion from the natural state, is bleakness, cold—the bare, desolate, and sometimes displayed in this gentle and dead aspect of nature, could be so gradual manner, especially in youth. changed; but if he could then, in some In many cases, certainly, it seems viokind of vision, behold such a scene as lent and sudden (resembling the tranthat now spread over the earth, he sition from winter to spring in the norwould be disposed to say, “It cannot thern climates;) but in the more gradual be;" " this is absolutely a new creation,” | instances, whether in youth or farther or another world.

on in life, it is most gratifying to perMight we not take an instruction from ceive the first indications; serious thoughts this, to correct the judgments we are and emotions; growing sensibility of prone to form of the Divine govern- conscience; distaste for vanity and folly; ment? We are placed within one li- deep solicitude for the welfare of the mited scene and period of the great suc- soul; a disposition to exercises of piety; cession of the Divine dispensations—a a progressively clearer, more grateful, dark and gloomy one--a prevalence of and more believing apprehension of the evil. We do not see how it can be, that necessity and sufficiency of the work so much that is offensive and grievous and sacrifice of Christ for human reshould be introductory to something de- demption. To a pious friend or parent, lightful and glorious. “ Look how it is more delightful than if he could fixed, how inveterate, how absolute, have a vision of Eden, as it bloomed how unchanging." “ Is not this a cha- on the first day that Adam beheld it. racter of perpetuity ?" If a better, But we may carry the analogy into nobler scene to follow is intimated by a wider application. It is most gratithe spirit of prophecy, in figures ana- fying to perceive the signs of change logous to the beauties of spring, it is on the great field of society. How like regarded with a kind of despondency, the early flowers, the more benignant as if prophecy were but a kind of sacred light, the incipient verdure—are the poesy, and beheld as something to ag- new desire of knowledge, and the schemes gravate the gloom of the present, rather and efforts to impart it; the rising, zeathan to draw the mind forward in de- lous, and rapidly enlarging activity to lightful hope. And do we allow our promote true religion. We might add judgments of the Divine government, the developement of the principles and of the mighty field of it, and of its pro- spirit of liberty. In the moral spring, gressive periods, to be formed very we hope we are advanced a little way much upon an exclusive view of the beyond the season of the earliest flowers. limited dark portion of his dispensations The next observation on the spring which is immediately present to us ? season is, How reluctantly the worse Such judgments should be corrected by gives place to the better. While the the spring blooming around us, so soon winter is forced to retire, it is yet very after the desolation of winter. The man tenacious of its reign; it seems to make that we were supposing so ignorant and many efforts to return; seems to hate incredulous, what would he now think the beauty and fertility that are supof what he had thought then ?

planting it: for months we are liable Again : How welcome are the early to cold, chilling, pestilential blasts, and signs and precursory appearances of the sometimes biting frosts; a portion of spring--the earlier dawn of day ; a the malignant power lingers or returns to lurk, as it were, under the most things in the best order, which is not cheerful sunshine, so that the vegetable always in the most exact accordance with beauty remains in hazard; and the lux- truth and nature. Next to the freedom ury of enjoying the spring is attended of speaking, is the freedom of letter with danger to persons not in firm writing, as an exhibition of character. health.

It is scarcely possible to read a letter, It is too obvious to need pointing out, without forming some idea of the perhow much there is resembling this in the son by whom it was penned. Formerly, moral state of things; in the hopeless letter writing was a rare occupation. advance of improvements in the youth-Excepting the merchant, and the man ful mind; in the early, and, indeed, in of business, (who wrote just because they the more advanced stages of the human had something to communicate, which character; and in the commencement they simply did and closed their sheet,) of all improvements in human society. persons in the middle classes of society

We may contemplate next, the lavish, made quite an affair of writing a letter. boundless diffusion, riches, and variety There was a due portion of news to of beauty in the spring. Survey a single collect, such as would be interesting to confined spot ; or pass over leagues; or the party addressed. Sometimes great look from a hill. Infinite affluence labour was bestowed in dictating and every where! And so, too, you know turning a few sentences of compliment, that it is over a wide portion of the globe condolence, and congratulation. There at the same time. It is under your feet; was the dictionary to refer to, to settle extends all around you ; spreads out to all doubtful points in the matter of orthe horizon. And all this created within thography. There was the ink glass a few weeks ! To every observer, the to be filled; for, in all probability, immensity, variety, and beauty are ob- since the last occasion of writing a letter vious. But to the perceptions of the it had fallen into the condition of that skilful naturalist, all this is indefinitely | immortalized by the poet ;* and there multiplied. Reflect what a display is was the aid of some friend to be sought, here of the boundless resources of the who possessed skill and a penknife for great Author. He flings forth, as it rectifying gaping or spluttering quills. were, an unlimited wealth ; a deluge of Perhaps there was the rough copy to beauty-immeasurably beyond all that be made on a slate, and then transferred is strictly necessary; an immense quan- to the gilt edged sheet. Among the tity that man never sees, not even in humble classes, few even presumed to asthe mass.

It is true, that man is not pire to the arduous undertaking; the vilthe only creature for which the gratifi- lage schoolmaster was letter writer general cation is designed; but it is man alone, to the parish, unless some kind young of the earth's inhabitants, that can take mistress volunteered her aid to the conany account of it as beauty, or as wis- fiding damsel; or some anxious parent, dom, and power, and goodness.

or dutiful child, engaged the judicious Such unlimited profusion may well counsel and assistance of their minister assure us that he who can (shall we say) in conveying to the absent object of afford thus to lavish his treasures so affection the expressions of their sofar beyond what is simply necessary, licitude; the thanks for such a favour can never fail of resources for all that being generally coupled with an exis, or ever shall be necessary.---Foster. pression of satisfaction in its being ex

actly what they wished to say, only so

much better; and done too, in so little DESPATCHES FOR THE PENNY POST. time, it was really quite astonishing !

"Out of the abundance of the heart Well, these times have passed by. the mouth speaketh", and every meet- The schoolmaster and the schoolmistress ing of friends affords an occasion for are abroad, and vast numbers now the display of character; perhaps the oc- can write their own letters. Still one casional, unexpected, and chance meet- great obstacle remained in the way of ing for a few hasty minutes, still more so doing. It was the heavy expense of than the regular visit, the appointed postage. Many a wished-for letter was interview ; for in the former case, truth suppressed, because the person who would peeps out unawares and without dis- have written could not afford the postage, guise, while in the latter there is oppor- and knew perhaps that the individual to tunity to prepare, and arrange, and set * Cowper “On an ink glass dried in the sun."

whom it would have been addressed | dress, and have had my straw bonnet could not afford it better; or a modest turned, and shall wait your answer person fancied that no leiter of his or before I purchase the trimmings. I hers could be worth tenpence or a shil- have borrowed the newspaper to look ling postage. I have heard of one old at the monthly fashions; but then you woman who actually broke herself of know there is so much time lost in taking snuff* that she might save “the printing, that before we can get a sight brass” to pay for letters from her two of them, the things are quite out of absent children; I myself know a mother date; besides, neither blue nor yellow suit with five children so scattered about that my complexion so well as red. It is it would cost her four shillings and a a good thing this penny postage; we penny to receive a letter from each of shall be able to have down the fashions them; and yet she thought it very hard every week instead of waiting a whole if more than a fortnight elapsed without month. Nancy desires her love, and hearing from every one; and then the wishes to know whether you would letters to be sent back cost four and a advise her to an artificial flower, or to penny more. It was really a little in- satin and blond under her bonnet. Do come; and yet who could accuse either not fail to reply by return of post, or mother or children of extravagance in we shall not have time to get out our spending that

money in intercourse, dresses by Sunday. whatever else they might pinch to spare

Your affectionate cousin. it ? Well, that time, too, is gone by!

II. thanks to our legislators; and now we may send a letter from the Land's end (A large sheet so closely written in to John-o-Groat's for one penny. Who lines longitudinal, latitudinal, and diadoes not rejoice in it ? and who that has gonal, that an ordinary reader would an absent relative or friend, or that can require the aid of powerful magnifiers even sympathize in the comforts of to decipher the whole. From the comothers, has not cause to rejoice in it? mencement and conclusion, which being

Those who are accustomed to indulge less closely crossed, are somewhat more the exercise of contented grateful feel- legible than the rest, it may be inferred ings, will not fail to consider this one that the correspondents are, or have among the many minor mercies, which been, school-fellows.) justly claim from us the thankful ac- Dearest MATILDA,– From the seaknowledgment, “ The lines are fallen son of repose, I snatch a few precious to me in pleasant places, I have a goodly moments to unbosom myself to the heritage.” “England! with allthy faults, friend of my heart (the little ones are I love thee still! My country !” Even all in bed, and the teachers gone down those who are disposed, like the Israelites to supper.) Dearest Matilda, you can of old, to eat and grumble, will no doubt little imagine what a desert this place avail themselves of the privilege, now seems without you. so amply extended to them, for holding communications with their absent friends; (We may leave it to our reader's imaand the post-office will daily issue forth gination to fill up nine-tenths of this ten thousand spontaneous effusions of letter.) the heart, ten thousand unerring dis- And now, farewell, dearest Matilda. Do plays of character. Perhaps the inser- not fail to send me a long letter by retion of a few specimens of letters sent turn of post. On Friday morning I shall by the first penny post delivery, may listen with eager impatience for the postnot be altogether uninteresting to the man's ring. Do not, do not disappoint readers of the Visitor.

I shall write again to you on

Saturday. This penny postage is really I.

a good thing. It will be at least a shilMY DEAR Cousin,--Please to send ling a week in one's pocket during abme word by return of post, which is sence ; but I scorn the paltry thought. the most fashionable-scarlet or rose- Believe me, at whatever expense, colour; as I am making up my poplin

Unalterably yours, • It is to be hoped that experience has now so

JULIA SOPHIA. fully convinced her of the pleasures of cleanliness, that she will be under no temptation of returning

III. to the dirty practice. It would be easy to suggest fifty better modes of applying the spare “brass."

MY DEAR PARENTS, --Through the

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