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government to Peche-le. By the naThe city of Peking stands in a vast tives, Peking is generally called Kingplain, in latitude thirty-nine degrees, too, or King-sze, (the residence of the fifty-five minutes, longitude one hun- court,) and is looked upon as a sacred dred and sixteen degrees, forty-five spot, the nearest portal to heaven. It minutes, east of Greenwich, according has undergone great changes since its to some, twenty miles more westward, foundation : it is now divided into the and belongs to Shunteen-foo. It is situ- old and new city ; the latter, which lies ated about sixty miles from the great to the north, was built by the Tartars, wall, and one hundred from the sea. and contains the imperial palace, and The Pe-ho flows at some distance to is hence called Nuy-ching, (inner city ;) the east of the city, but as the Chinese the former, which lies to the south, bears cannot do without communication by the name of Wae-ching, (outer city.) water, they have dug canals and tanks, It is said to occupy an area of twentywhich stand in connexion with the Tung- seven miles in circumference, not inhwuy: This is a small river, which, cluding the suburbs. The wall which after having joined another branch, flows surrounds it is thirty feet in height, and into the Pe-ho, and facilitates the water of the enormous thickness of twenty communication with the capital.

feet; nine gates lead through it, which The Chinese court has been fre- reminds one very strongly of ancient quently removed from one part of the Babylon. A ditch around completes empire to the other. Kublai, the Mongol the fortification of a city, which, in the conqueror, fixed it at first in Shan-se eyes of the Tartars, is impregnable. province, and then established it at The wall is faced with many lofty towers Peking. This is an ancient city, founded and battlements, so as to form sufficient during the reign of the Han, and the room for planting batteries. The streets capital of the Ketans, the founders of leading to the nine gates are very spathe Leaou dynasty. It seems to be the cious, but lined with low houses, and same as the Kambalu of Marco Polo, not being paved, are, in wet weather, though the site of that city appears to almost impassable. In entering no capidiffer from the present situation of tal will a traveller be so much disapPeking. The founder of the Ming dy- pointed as in entering Peking; for after nasty lived at Nanking, (the southern having eyed the city with wonder, and court,) but one of his successors, Yun- passed the gate, the romantic fairy-land glo, transplanted the seat of the supreme I vanishes at once. If, however, he can


content himself with the sight of gaudy ven and cartlı, the words Keën and shops, and a promiscuous crowd, conti- Kwan-(the two dual principles, heanually thronging the streets, he may ven--the moving power, earth-the restill be reminded, that he is in the capi- ceiving mother,) distinguish their retal of China.

spective palaces. In the Fung-seën. The northern city being built in the teën, the tablets of the deceased imform of a parallelogram, facing the four perial ancestors are kept, and it is here quarters of the globe, consists of three that the emperor prostrates himself, in inclosures, one within the other. The order to obtain blessings from the manes innermost contains the imperial palace, of his ancestors, and to show his filial where his majesty and the royal family piety. Six palaces are occupied by the live; the next, though designed to be imperial females, and one by the emthe residence of the immediate officers peror's stewards, and there are others and attendants of the palace, is now

besides kept for similar purposes. To occupied by the industrious Chinese ; our taste, the buildings appear gorgeous, whilst the third constitutes the open but to the Chinese they have indescribcity. The wall which surrounds the able charms. imperial sacrum is laid over with yellow The second inclosure, called Hwangbricks, mounted with high towers, and ching, (august city,) is six miles in built very regularly, so that the whole circumference, and surrounded with a has a neat appearance. All the walks, wall twenty feet in height. Many temwhich lead to the principal halls, are ples, dedicated to idols, are destined to paved with large slabs of white and grey adorn, or rather to disgrace the Hwangstone. The Wao-mun, or meridian ching. We notice the Shay-tseih-tan, gate, is the most splendid of all; the an altar erected to honour the gods of emperor alone can pass through it by the land and of grain, the most sacred means of the southern avenue, and idols, constituted by the ancient kings obwhenever he honours it with his pre- jects of adoration. From them, though sence, a gong and a bell, hung in the merely deified personages, every blessing tower over the gate, are sounded. Here of the country descends ; a plentiful he distributes presents to foreign ambas- harvest, a tree in full blossom, a well sadors, views the captives, which his stored granary are the gifts of the Shay. invincibles have taken, and shows him- tseih, the Ceres of China. The face of self, whenever he has to dispense mercy: the altar is of party-coloured earth, the The emperor receives congratulations, and north side is black, the south red, the visits of ceremony in the Tae-ho-mun, east green, the west white, and the (the gate of great harmony,) which is centre yellow. However, heaven's son à splendid Chinese edifice one hundred does not place his entire confidence and ten feet high. The Chung-ho- in those vain idols; he has in their teen, and the Paou-ho-teen, are likewise neighbourhood a large arsenal, where halls of ceremony; but nobody can visit every thing is prepared for the dethe Keën-tsing-kung, except those who fence of the country. The principle receive a special call. It is the palace of latitudinarian toleration is here carried of heaven's rest, for this is the significa- to extremes ; the Russian priests retion of its name, and serves as a cabinet, side not far from the Tibetean Lamas; where ministers of state assemble for whilst the idols of thunder and wind, consultation, and candidates for office, in the adjacent temples, keep them both to obtain their appointment. Twice it company. The emperor spends his leihas been made the scene of social en- sure hours in artificial parks, gardens, joyment; on one occasion, when Kang- and summer houses. The most remarkhe invited all who had passed the age able are the King-shan, a hill raised and of sixty ; on the other, when Keën- well planted with cypress; the Se-yuen, lung issued a similar invitation to an or western park, with an artificial lake, immense number of persons in their and several landscapes, summer houses, dotage. The Kwan-ning-kung is the cupolas, etc. Yet the monarchs are so abode of the empress, who has also a much devoted to military tactics, that flower-garden near her dwelling. Ad- even in this retreat of sweet repose, the jacent to her palace is a library, con- annual examination of candidates for taining most of the books that have been military rank are held. Au immense published in the empire. Their ma- statue of Budhu is paraded in one of jesties being the representatives of hea- the temples. This is now an idol, which the Chinese orthodoxy of state has de- | from the ground, with a simple inscripclared to be illegal, and consequently tion Shing, holy or sage. Whether the excommunicated; how, notwithstanding, monarch is seated upon it or not, the it has gained access to the imperial city, mandarins knock head upon the pave. and stands there in open defiance of all ment, to show their veneration and serprohibitions, we are unable to tell. It vility to the potentate. To introduce would be tedious to describe all the order amongst the immense crowd, buildings—the palaces alone exceeding which collects at every audience, brass two hundred. Lest, however, the reader plates nailed upon the pavement, with should form too high an estimate of the an inscription indicating the name and city, we must inform him that some of rank of a certain officer, point out to the palaces even would scarcely serve for each individual his proper place, so that a stable, and that the far-famed gardens every one has space enough to lie down might be mistaken for a mere jungle. prostrate, and 'ko-tow (knock head) The writer has seen imperial gardens, without injury to his neighbour. Imwhere there was nothing growing but mense stores of valuable articles, such brambles and briers ! and the buildings as gold, silver, ivory, furs, etc., are kept in which were so filthy and dilapidated, near this palace, and only opened, when that, for night quarters, he would have an emperor ascends the throne, or a preferred an Irish cabin. There are | lady is raised to the rank of emsome remarkable exceptions; and a- press. mongst these, we number the splendid Yet the numerous fanes in the Hwanggardens of Yuen-ming-yuen. The five ching are too few for the superstition tribunals which decide upon all import of the dragon. There are also temples ant affairs of state, hold their sittings in the Chinese city, or Wae-ching, here, in buildings belonging to the which he occasionally visits. Such is palace. The medical college, the astro- the Teën-tan, or celestial altar, where nomical board, the imperial observatory, the azure heavens are adored : this is are all in its environs. But no insti- rather a splendid and large building, tutión reflects so much lustre on this the wall which surrounds it is half a city as the Han-lin-yuen, (the national mile in circumference ; between it and college,) wh all Chinese learning and the outer ditch is a roof, supported by literature are concentrated. Even the one hundred and sixty pillars. Before censors of the empire have their seat the principal entrance, on the left hand, here. Mantchoo, Chinese, and Russian is a pavilion of stone, adorned with a learning flourish in it; all religions, statue in bronze, representing a man in though some of them are proscribed, deep contemplation, and on the other share the honour of being sanctioned in the monument of time.

The emperor its precincts. A mosque, a Greek church, himself sacrifices here at the winter sola Roman Catholic church, pagodas dedi- stice, to the azure heavens. The Seëncated to different idols, are here mingled, nung-tan is erected in honour of the just as if there were no religious distinc- inventor of agriculture ; but the spirit tion: one church, however, is wanting of the heavens and the earth, and the

-a temple dedicated to "the only true planet of Jupiter, have all their re. God, and Jesus Christ, whom he has spective altars. Sacrifices are offered sent.”

before them to the five sacred mounWe have already mentioned the Tae- tains, the five predominant mountains, ho-teën, (hall of great harmony,) but and the five common mountains; their have not yet spoken of the imperial meaning we leave the reader to guess, throne, and the great hall of audience, nor can we discover what they have to which it contains. It is one hundred do with agriculture. But this is not and thirty feet long, and almost square ; sufficient; the rivers have also their the imperial dragon, which is the of- representatives, and receive their regular ficial badge of heaven's son, is painted sacrifice upon an altar, where their on the green lackered ceiling; but the form is engraved. Nothing, however, walls are only whitewashed, and, in is so remarkable as the field which the the absence of all decorations, the Chi- emperor annually ploughs. But here nese seem to intimate, that true gran- we merely observe, that the grain prodeur is best represented in the most duced by the emperor's manual lasimple garb. This applies also to the bour is ihought much superior to comthrone, a lofty alcove, raised some feet / mon grain, and is therefore used to make cakes for the sacrifices offered up as "the towering ash,” combining, as it to heaven.

does, in equal degree, majesty and beauThe Chinese city bears all the marks ty, dignity and grace ? How noble the of an industrious people, constant in the sweep of its lofty trunk and “ umbrapursuit of gain: mercantile bustle per- geous arms !" How light and airy the vades every corner of it. The police, ramifications of its sprays, nor less so which consists here of soldiers, keeps the feathery foliage, which clothes them a sharp look-out to prevent robberies, with a pendant mantle of the brightest theft, etc., Peking, like almost all cities, and loveliest green. How splendid its and perhaps more so than any other, silvery stem, embossed with lichens of a being a sink of iniquity.

golden hue. “Its knotty bloom," GilThe suburbs included, we do not pin declares, "not only enriches the hesitate to say that the city numbers spray, but is itself one of the most beautwo millions of inhabitants. "It is natu- tiful among the minute appearances of rally a great place for trade, and would nature : the seminal stems are of an be still greater, if any European mer- olive tint, and each of them tipped with chants were established here to carry a black seed.” But on business.— Gutzlaff.

The rocky cliff for the wild ash's reign," and all its external charms appear to yet greater advantage from their contrast with the rugged sublimity of the scene around, when the tree is found, as it not unfrequently is,

“ At anchor in the refted rock," waving its graceful form on the sides of some craggy precipice, or rooted in the fissures of a rocky bank, and bending over some mountain streamlet, or foaming torrent, “ Narcissus like, viewing its own charms." In such a situation have

our poets often delineated it. B

“ Tall ash tree, sown by winds, by vapours nursed, In the dry crannies of the pendant rocks.


« Nature seems to ordain



“The ash asks not a depth of fruitful mould,
But, like frugality, on little means
It thrives, and high o'er creviced ruins spreads

Its ample shade, or in the naked rock, Explanation of cut.-a, flower. b, winged seeds. That nods in air, with graceful limbs depends." c, single flower. d, seed divested of its wings.


"Amid the brook, LINNEAN ARRANGEMENT. Fraxinus Excelsor.

Grey as the stone to which it clung, half root, Diandria Monogynia.

Half trunk, the young ash rises from the rock:

And there its parent lifts its lofty head, Calyx none, or in four deep segments. Corolla And spreads its graceful boughs; the passing none, or in four deep segments. Filaments two,

wind short. Anthers large, purplish, with four furrows. With twinkling motion lifts the silent leaves, Germen superior, egg shaped, two celled. Style And shakes its rattling tufts.”-SOUTHEY. short. Stigma cleft. Capsule green, with a flat leaf-like termination, two celled, each cellone

Nor is it only on account of its picseeded, frequently remaining on the tree after the leaves have fallen. Leaves stalked, consisting of turesque beauty that this tree ranks so five or six pairs of lance shaped, opposite leaflets, high among the trees of the forest. Exdeeply serrated, with a terminal leaflet. Flower buds large and black, blossom in loose panicles.


should never be exalted Flowers in April or May.

above intrinsic worth, but we are under no "All know that in the woods the ash reigns queen, temptation to this error, while the ash is In graceful beauty soaring to the sky.”

our subject. If it is distinguished as the GARCILASSE.

beauty of our woods, it is yet more enIr the mighty oak, renowned for nobled by its general utility. As a timstrength and grandeur, reign the undis- ber tree, it is only inferior to the oak; turbed monarch of our sylva, what other and though that tree will ever remain tree is so fit to partake his forest throne | unrivalled for the peculiar purposes to which it is applied, perhaps the ash is poisonous morasses, are

" clothed with more generally useful. Toughness and flocks,” and our valleys, heretofore imelasticity are the peculiar characteristics penetrable forests, are " covered with of its wood, and it is the combination of corn." 6. Without the industry of the these two qualities which have rendered farmer, the manufacturer would have no the tree so valuable in peace and in war, goods to supply the merchant, nor the to the ancient and the modern, to the merchant find any employment for the prince and the peasant.

mariners; trade would be stagnated, and

riches of no advantage.” “ Tough bending ash Gives to the humble swain his useful plough, Ye generous Britons, venerate the plough,” And for the peer his prouder chariot builds."

and promote, by every means in your But it is the sequestered scenes of rural

power, the interests of those labourers, life, that we must contemplate, if we who, in the sweat of their brows, prepare would rightly appreciate the value of the

for you the staff of life, who labour ash, the husbandman's tree. Smile not

that ye may take your rest. If to them at the lowly name, ye children of afflu- has been assigned the literal fulfilment ence, ye great ones of the earth, who

of the primeval curse by that God who estimate surrounding objects only by the “ hath made of one blood all nations of gratification they afford your senses, or men for to dwell on all the face of the the degree in which they minister to earth,” on you devolves the duty of inyour own imaginary wants. That “the fusing, by acts of sympathy and words king himself is served by the labour of the

of kindness, some drops of sweetening into field,” is the inspired declaration of the their bitter cup. " Blessed is he that wisest of the sons of men; and shall we considereth the poor, the Lord will delithen regard with scornful pride, or care- ver him in time of trouble," Psa. xli. 1. less indifference, those humble, but in

" The use of the ash is (next to that valuable labours, by which“

our own,

of oak) one of the most universal. The our native isle," has attained her present carpenter, wheelwright, and cartwright lofty station among the nations of the

find it excellent for ploughs, axletrees, earth; distinguished alike for the extent wheelrings, and harrows: like the elm, of her commerce, the variety of her it is excellent for tenons and mortises ; manufactures, and the undaunted bravery nothing is like it for our gardens, palisade of her sons “first on the listed plain or hedges, hop yards, poles and spars, hanstormy sea;" ennobled by her patronage of dles and stocks, for tools, spade trees, the arts, and liberality to the distressed ; etc. In fact, the husbandman cannot in patriots and in statesmen fertile ;” the

be without the ash.” Such is old Evefavourite abode of liberty, and the suc- lyn's testimony; and although the now cessful champion of freedom.

universal application of iron may have unto us, O Lord, but unto thy name be partially supplanted this timber for many the glory," will the Christian patriot

of the purposes to which he alludes, it is exclaim, while with glowing heart he

still used in no inconsiderable degree for contemplates the wondrous transforma- agricultural implements. For oars, its tion by which “this island, spot of un- combination of strength with lightness reclaimed rude earth,” in former times renders it peculiarly adapted, nor less so the prey of every invader, has become for the purposes of the cooper and turner. the

empress of the seas, the mistress of By cabinet-makers this timber is highly the world. But while we thus attribute

valued, as the roots and knotted protuthe prosperity of Britain to its true

berances on the trunk are beautifully source, the great First Cause of all ter

veined and susceptible of a high polish. restrial good, to

“Some ash is so curiously cambletted and veined, I say, so differently from

other timber, that our skilful cabinetFor ages safe beneath his sheltering hand;"

makers prize it equally with ebony; and what may we regard as the instruments when our woodmen light upon it, they by which he wrought the mighty work, may make what money of it they will. as the foundation stones of the glorious The truth is, the bruscum or molluscum building ? Behold the acorn from which to be frequently found in this wood, is the giant oak has sprung-the ash, the nothing inferior to that of maple, being husbandman's tree, the material of those altogether as exquisitely diapered, and implements by which our pastures, once waved like the lines of an agate.” With

6. Not

“ Him who has hid us and our favoured land

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