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is often added to eke out the oaten | in its native haunts, towering in rugged meal of which their cakes are made. In- majesty amid the sublimest scenes of the deed, it is considered that the deficiency Scottish Highlands. in the home supply of this timber, is to “ Oh! wild and bleak are Scotland's hills, be attributed to the numbers of young

Where headlong torrents roar, trees cut down for this purpose in 1812.

Where granite-peaked mountains frown,

All capped with snow wreaths hoar: The young shoots, as well as the bark, And broad and wide her moorlands stretch are said to be used for the same pur

With many a dark ravine, in Siberia. In this latter country,

Where legends tell of kelpie sprites, pose

By fitful moonshine seen. ropes are also made from the bark, When winter winds shriek loud and high,

When floods tumultuous pour, and found to be strong and elastic. The

The lofty pine creaks gratingly inflammable properties of the wood, Amid the mighty roar. cause it to be valued above any other The lofty pine crowns Scotland's hills,

Nor recks he winter's blast, by charcoal burners.

His root clings firmly to the rock, Slips of the wood lighted, were and Like an anchor strong and fast."

L. A. TWAMLEY. still are, in some parts both' in Europe and America, used as substitutes for Within the vast districts yet covered candles. Hence a story is related of with the remains of those magnifia Highland chieftain, who won a large cent forests which once extended over bet in the following manner :

:--Being the whole face of the country, are present at a party in England, when to be found scenes of unrivalled subsome massy chased silver candlesticks | limity and interest, yet deriving their were much admired, he ventured to greatest attractions from the noble tree assert they were inferior to those he of which we are speaking. The “good daily used in the Highlands. A large green woods” of England are unequalled

was immediately staked that he for sylvan beauty; but those of the Highcould not prove his assertion. After lands combine within their limits all some time, which was allowed him to that is wild and grand in landscape bring the candlesticks to London, the scenery. “Here, the endless fir woods company assembled to decide the bet, run up all the ramifications and subwhen several handsome young High- divisions of the tributary valleys, cover landers, clothed in their national cos- the lower elevations, climb the sides tume, were seen standing round the of the lower hills, and even in many table, each holding a blazing fir torch cases, approach the very roots of the in his hand. It was universally owned giant mountains which tower over them; that these were the candlesticks com- yet with all this, the reader is mismonly used in Scotland, and that their taken, if he supposes that any tiresome value was superior to the finest silver uniformity exists among these wilds. candelabras.

Every movement we make, exposes to The too prevalent idea that the Scotch our view fresh objects of excitement, pine is a gloomy, unpicturesque looking and discloses new scenes produced by tree, has, no doubt, arisen from its be- the infinite variety of the surface. At ing generally planted for the sake of its one time, we find ourselves wandering timber, or else to serve as a sheltering along some natural level, under the screen to more tender plantations, or deep and sublime shade of the heavy the habitations of man. We then find pine foliage, upheld high over head by this tree, as Gilpin observes, in" close, the tall and massive columnar stems compact bodies, in thick array, which which appear to form an endless cosuffocates and cramps them ; their la- lonnade; the ground dry as a floor beteral branches are gone, and their stems neath our footsteps, the very sound of are drawn into poles, on which their which is muffled by the thick deposition heads appear stuck as on a centre.' of decayed spines, with which the seaThe Scottish fir in murky file,

sons of more than one century have Rears his inglorious head, and blots the fair strewn it; hardly conscious that the sun horizon." -MASON.

is up, save from the fragrant rosinous In such situations, we own, its chief odour which its influence is exhaling, interest is derived from the recollection and the continued hum of the clouds of its utility, arising from the very cir- of insects that are dancing in its beams cumstances which mar its beauty : but over the tops of the trees. Anon, the how different the sensations excited by ground begins to swell into hillocks, and its very name, to one who has seen it here and there the continuity of shade

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is broken by a broad rush of light, above all, the bold and determined outstreaming down some vacant place, and lines of Benmacdhuie, that king, of brightly illuminating a single tree of British mountains, and his attendant huge dimensions and grand form, which group of native Alps, sharply, yet softly rising from a little knoll, stands out in delineated against the sky, look down bold relief from the darker masses be with silent majesty on all below.” hind it, where the shadows again sink The principal forests now existing in deep and fathomless among the red and Scotland are those of Abernethy and grey, stems, whilst nature luxuriating Rothiemurchus onthe Spey, Glentanner, in the light that gladdens the little Braemar, and Invercauld, in Aberdeenglade, pours forth her richest High- shire, besides many thousand acres more land treasures of purple heathbells and recently planted on the banks of the bright green bilberries, and trailing Findhorn. Those of Braemar and Inwhortleberries, with tufts of fern irre- vercauld on the Dee, may in fact be gularly intermingled. Anon, the re- considered as one, and it is to them that pose of the forest is interrupted by the above description particularly applies. the music of distant waters stealing The value and abundant supply of on the ear, and we hurry forward with timber yielded by these forests, may, the sound growing upon us, till all at in some degree, be estimated from the once the roar and white sheet of a following inscription, which is to be cataract bursts upon our astonished seen in the hall of Gordon Castle:senses, as we find ourselves suddenly “In the year 1783, William Osbourne, and unexpectedly standing on the fear- Esq., merchant of Hull, purchased of ful brink of some deep and rocky ra- the duke of Gordon, the forest of Glenvine, where the river pouring from more, the whole of which he cut down above, precipitates itself into a profound in the space of twenty-two years, and abyss, in one continued turmoil of foam built, during that time, at the mouth and mist. The cliffs themselves are of the river Spey, where never vessel shaken and the pines quiver where they was built before, forty-seven sail of wildly shoot with strange and fantastic ships, of upwards of nineteen thousand wreathings, from the crevices in their tons burden. The largest of them, of sides, or where, having gained some one thousand and fifty tons, and three small portion of nutriment on their others, little inferior in size, are now summits, they rear themselves up like in the service of his Majesty and the giants aspiring to scale the gates of Honourable East India Company. This heaven. By and by, pursuing the wind- undertaking, was completed at the ex. ings of the stream, we are conducted pense (of labour only) of above 70,0001. by it into some wide plain, through To his grace the duke of Gordon, this which it flows, sparkling among the plank is offered, as a specimen of the opposing stones, where trees of all ages growth of one of the trees in the above and growths stand singly, or in groups forest, by his grace's most obedient seror groves, as nature may have planted vant, WILLIAM OSBOURNE." them, or the deer allowed them to rise, The above inscription, on a brass plate, while distant herds are seen maintaining is appended to the plank, which is six their free right of pasture, where on all feet two inches long, and five feet five sides the steeps are clothed thick with the in breadth. The tree from which it portly denizens of the forest, and the view was taken is supposed to have been the is bounded by a wider range of the Cairn- largest ever cut down in Scotland, and gorum mountains.

And finally, we was known by the name of the Lady climb the rough sides of some isolated of the Glen. "The Dunmore fir, sixtyhill, and when toil-worn and breath- seven feet high, and eleven feet tbree less, after scrambling for an hour up in circumference at the ground, is one the steep and slippery ascent we reach of the handsomest specimens now standthe summit, what a prospect opens to ing, and the largest in the Lowlands. us, as we seat ourselves on some bare These observations on this interesting rock! The forest is seen, stretching tree, would be very incomplete, were away in all directions from our feet, the peculiar adaptation of its every part mellowing as it recedes into the furthest to the situation in which the God of valleys among the distant hills, climb- nature has fixed its habitation, allowed ing their bold sides, and scattering off to pass without notice. The roots, unin detachments along their steeps, and like those of almost every other tree, wander in a direction nearly horizontal ; , boldly confront the impious, hardened thus accommodating themselves to the oppressor of his harassed people, and scanty depth of soil in which they are in the name of the Lord call down upon found. As the tree advances in age, the guilty land of Egypt, plagues, the they frequently appear above the sur-- like of which had never been seen among face of the ground, and are therefore them. See the unlettered fishermen of composed of fibres much more tough Galilee, filled with the Holy Ghost, and woody, than those of other trees fluently proclaiming in every tongue which take a perpendicular direction. the wonderful works of God, when the The accrose leaf, general to the other duty had been laid on them by the trees of this order, which are all natives parting command of their risen Lord of exposed or alpine heights, by allow- to preach repentance and remission of ing the wind and snow to pass through sins in his name to all nations. The the interstices, secures the tree from fearful Nicodemus, too, can go in boldly the resistless fury of the former, or an to Pilate, and crave the corpse of one overpowering weight of the latter. Obw who had just suffered the death of a serve, too, the numerous scaly cover- malefactor, when there was a needs-be ings over each bud, the germ of future that to avoid collusion, and to remove cones and future trees. The leading any ground for mistrust, the body, the shoot of each tree is not developed till human nature of Christ as the seed of after those of the side branches, and the woman, bruised by Satan's power, thus is secured the preservation of its should be laid in a sepulchre "wherein valuable trunk, rather than the increase never man before was laid," and thus of its comparatively useless and short- the triumph of him who conquered lived branches. In the woody substance death, and him that had the power of of the scales of the cones, and their firm death, be established beyond the power adherence together for so long a time, of doubt. Then, “why sayest thou, O and till the seed is ripened, no less than Jacob, and speakest, o Israel, My way in their immediate explosion, as soon is hid from the Lord, and my judgas this is fit to germinate, we again trace ment is passed over from my God," he the watchful care of Providence for the hath forgotten to be gracious; I shall security of so vital a part of the tree, one day perish by the hand of my eneso peculiarly exposed to the conflicting my ?" . Ñever did he disappoint the soul elements and extremes of temperature. that waited for him, or delay the aid And thus the lofty pine may speak a required when the right time was come. word of comfort and encouragement, to Have we warrant to require strength the troubled soul that will learn from for trials ere the hour of trial arrives, it a lesson of firm reliance, simple trust or reason to despond because strength on the wisdom and power of its God. is not given in anticipating the day of Has he placed in the chill and barren evil ? Does not his word run thus ? regions of our earth, a tree so well cal- " As thy day, thy strength shall be," and culated to supply the necessities of their not until the clouds of eventide close inhabitants, and also adapted it to the upon the last rays of the setting sun, situation assigned for it? does not he shall it be light. Fear not then, neither know also how to temper the blast to be afraid, believe only, and in thus gothe shorn lamb, and to stay the rough ing forward, though it be even into a wind in the day of the east wind ? Ne- sea of trouble, or through a trackless ver did he assign a duty without im- desert of perplexity, the cloudy pillar parting grace for the right discharge and the fiery column shall daily direct of it, or appoint to frail and feeble man thy way, and impart to thee the shelter a burden without bestowing strength to or the light which thy necessity requireth. sustain it. Review the history of the " Does each day upon its wing generations of old, and trace the oper

Its allotted burden bring, ations of his hand in every object that

Which belongeth to the morrow. meets the eye, and say whether the Strength is promised, strength is given, humble and sincere follower of such a

When the heart by God is riven;

But foredate the day of woe, God, has not cause to trust and not be afraid, and to cast every burden on the

One thing only claims thy care,

Seek thou it by fervent prayer, Lord, assured that he is able and will

The all-glorious world above, ing to sustain it. See the meek and Scene of righteousness and love, timid Moses, endued with Divine power,

And whate'er thou need'st below,

Load it not betimes with sorrow,

And alone thou bearest the blow.

He thou trustest will bestow."

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gay,

NOTES ON THE MONTH.

delights us, as we pass through leafless By a Naturalist,

groves, and along hedgerows, ruddy NOVEMBER.

with the clustering berries of the hawSay not that the present month, thorn, we, at least, hear the piping gloomy as it may be, is destitute of call notes of troops of birds, expressive interest to the lover of nature; he deems of contentment, mingled with the caw "all seasons fair,"

of the rook, whose black squadrons are

scattered over the fields; and the chat“ And finds in winter many a view to please : The morning landscape fringʻd with frost-work tering of the restless magpie.

At this season, many birds, which The sun at noon seen through the leafless

, trees, during the summer were only associThe clear calm ether at the close of day.”

ated in pairs, now collect into flocks November, however, is a month of fogs of considerable numbers, and thus rove and mists; and “driving sleets deform the country in quest of food. Of this the day:" the leaves which, seared and singular law, the skylark is an instance. withered, still remained on the branches These well-known songsters, to whose of the forest, are now stripped off by varied and delightful minstrelsy no one the rude wind, and covering deep the can listen without pleasure, now contender shoots and the various plants that gregate in immense troops, spreading love the woodland glade, form a natural over ploughed lands and turnip fields, matting to protect them from the severi- searching for grain seeds, and tender ties of the season; and then decaying leaves. All are not natives of our island, as spring comes on, become resolved for the numbers are increased by accessions into a light mould for their nutriment from the northern parts of the contia wise and beautiful arrangement. nent, driven from their own countries

But the vegetable world is neither by the inclemency of the season. Bedead, nor are the tuneful mute, as poets ing greatly esteemed as delicacies for feign. The trees have indeed lost, or the table, hundreds are now devoted to are quickly losing their foliage ; but slaughter: the gun thins their ranks, but new buds, embryo leaves folded up, the net still more so; and whole flocks, and protected by a close envelope, have while sleeping, unsuspicious of danger, been pushed forth, waiting for the breath are captured during the darkness of of spring to develope them; the stalks the night. From the neighbourhood of and leaves of some plants have perished, Dunstable, (and also from Holland) the but the roots remain housed in the bo- London markets are supplied. Great, som of the earth, as if dormant, till however, as is the destruction of these warmer suns restore their vital energies. birds at this season, there is no perOthers indeed, like the frail insects of ceptible diminution of them during the the summer, the ephemera and the spring and summer; we may then walk butterfly, have passed away; but not through the corn fields and clover lands, until they had scattered their seeds and hear and see them in abundance, abroad, which are waiting to fill, in Another beautiful bird, which now colFlora's kingdom, as it is called, the place lects into flocks, is the yellow hammer, which their parent plants had occupied : (Emberiza citrinella,) which may be and thus, in the vegetable world, is pro- observed flitting along the hedgerows, vision made for the safety and non-ex- and crowding the farmer's stack yard, tinction of species. Shall we then say, attracted by the scattered corn. The that death reigns, at this season, over chaffinch (Fringilla cælebs) is another the meads and woodlands ? It is only example; but it is remarkable that the a needful repose, the quiescence of hy- males of this species form flocks distinct bernation. But are the tuneful mute ? from those of the females; the latter The swallow, it is true, no longer twitters being very few in number, most having

on the straw-built shed;" the thicket' migrated, while the males are stationary no longer resounds with the melody of with us. This curious fact is noticed the nightingale, and the strains of the in few works of ornithology; Mr. Selby, thrush and the blackbird have ceased. however, distinctly mentions it: “ All But listen : the song of the robin is the British ornithologists,” he says, clear and lively; the short, shrill pipe scribe this species (the chaffinch) as perof the wren occasionally breaks upon manently resident with us, and nowhere the ear; the sparrows on the eaves are subject to that separation of the sexes, and chirping ; and if no full chorus of music | the consequent equatorial movement of

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the females, which is known to take place place in hard weather chiefly, and thicken in Sweden and other northern countries, as the severity increases. As some kind The fact, however, is otherwise, as the of self-interest and self-defence is, no experience of a series of years has evinced doubt, the motive for the proceeding, that these birds, in a general point of may it not arise from the helplessness view, obey the same natural law in the of their state in such rigorous seasons, north of England. In Northumberland as men crowd together under great caand Scotland, this separation takes place lamities, though they know not why? about the month of November, and from Perhaps approximation may dispel some that period to the return of spring, few degree of cold, and a crowd may make females are to be seen, and those few each individual appear safer from the always in distinct societies : the males ravages of birds of prey, and other danremain, and are met with during the gers." It requires little reflection to perwinter in immense flocks, feeding, with ceive the futility of such conjectures ; other granivorous birds, in the stubble here, and indeed in numberless instances lands, as long as the weather continues besides, the ultimate end to be fulfilled, mild, and the ground free from snow; by the operations of animals ever guided and resorting, upon the approach of by an instinct implanted within them, storms, to farm yards and other places eludes our scrutiny. of refuge and supply.'

Among the rarer birds which now There is reason to believe that this visit our coast, may be noticed the separation of the sexes, and migratory great northern diver, (Colymbus glacimovement of the females, takes place in alis.) This beautiful species, so deother species. Selby asserts, that it does structive among fishes, is a native of in the case of the snow bunting, (Em- the polar regions, and also of Norway, beriza nivalis,) which visits us from Sweden, and Russia ; and it is a rethe north in winter; and he asserts that markable circumstance, that the indithe first flights of woodcocks which ar- viduals which are to be found in the rive, (and which stay only a few days bays of Scotland, and the northern porto recruit their strength, and then pass tions of our island, are all, or nearly southwards,) consist almost exclusively all, the young of the year, in that state of females, while the later flights of of plumage in which it was considered woodcocks, (which remain with us dur- by the older naturalists to be a distinct ing the winter,) are as exclusively com- species, and to which they gave the posed of males. This curious point in scientifie title of Colymbus immer. Adult ornithology requires farther elucidation : birds, characterized by the plumage of an attention to it on the part of field the upper parts being tessellated with naturalists, and of persons who have op- square white spots on a black_ground, portunities of making the requisite ob- are very seldom to be seen. The Frith servations, may lead to very interesting of Forth is a favourite resort of these conclusions.

young divers, in consequence of the shoals It may be asked, Why do birds which of herrings which congregate there, and live only in pairs during the summer, which furnish a sumptuous repast to these congregate at this season of the year ? and other ocea birds, which are apA satisfactory answer is not easy, and pointed to thin their numbers. The prostill less so would be an answer to the pensity of the young to wander to a question, Why, in some species, do the greater distance, than do the adults, from sexes form distinct flocks, of which those their native shores, which is remarkable composed of males live with us through in the instance of the northern diver, is the winter, while those consisting of common to many other oceanic species. females migrate southwards ? With re- It might be supposed that with an gard to the first question, it occupied exhaustless supply of food around them, the attention of the ingenious author and clothed as they are with deep, of the “ Natural History of Selbourne, warm, waterproof plumage, that none but he comes to no conclusion. “Ás of our indigenous oceanic birds would these animals," he observes," are actu- migrate to more southern regions: many ated by instinct to hunt for necessary of them, however, do so, visiting more food, they should not, one would sup- congenial seas during the winter, and pose, crowd together in pursuit of sus- returning in spring to their old haunts tenance, at a time when it is most likely for the purpose of breeding and rearing to fail ; yet such associations do take their young. Such is the case with the

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