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out interruption large tracts of country, , other examples, that of an ermine which affording it food and concealment: it is was shot on the 9th of May, 1814, in only hunted during the severest months a garb intermediate between its summer of winter, and a sufficient number remain, and winter dress. On all the under after the season is over, to replenish the parts, the white had nearly disappeared, stock. Still the annual destruction is in exchange for the primrose yellow, immense; for in 1833, the importation their ordinary tinge in summer ; but of ermine skins, into England alone, the upper parts of the body had not amounted to 105,139.
fully acquired their summer colour, We have, on several occasions, al- which is a deep yellowish brown. There luded to the change of colour, from a were several white spots, and not a few brown, or richly tinted dress, to white, with a tinge of yellow; and upon exwhich occurs in so many of the northern amining these white and yellow spots, mammalia and birds; and we have men- not a trace of interspersed new short tioned, that the ultimate cause of this hair could be discerned : this would phenomenon may be concealment from certainly have been the case if a change natural enemies, by the approximation of colour is effected by a change of fur. of hue to that of snows which now Besides, while some parts of the fur cover the face of the country, and also on the back had acquired their proper the preservation of the animal heat, colour, even in those parts, numerous which is more completely retained when hairs could be observed, of a above the temperature of the surround- yellow; and in all the intermediate ing atmosphere by a white than by a stages from yellowish brown, through dark vestment. The mode, however, yellow to white, proving that the white by which this change is accomplished, hairs were regaining their summer hue. yet remains to be pointed out; it in- Again, in reference to the analogous volves many difficulties, and some inter- change in the plumage of the ptaresting points of physiology. In the in- migan, he observes that the young birds stances alluded to, namely the ermine, have their first plumage mottled, chestthe variable hare, the ptarmigan, etc., nut, brown, and black, similarly to the question naturally arises, Is it by that of their parents; but they become a moult, or casting off
, of the old fur white in winter, and again mottled in or feathers, and the growth of a new spring. Now these young birds, procovering, that the change of colour is vided the change of colour is effected produced ? or does the change depend by moulting, must therefore produce upon the fading of the brown or other three coverings of feathers in the course colours into white, and the return of of ten months. This is a waste of vital the old colour again in the same iden- energy, which no bird, in its natural tical hairs or feathers ?' The late colonel state, can be supposed to be capable Montagu, whose name stands so high of sustaining, as moulting is the most among the practical naturalists of our debilitating process thèy undergo. In country, evidently considering both hair birds of full maturity, two moultings and feathers, when completely developed, must be necessary; one on the approach to be extra vascular, or, in other words, of winter, one on the return of spring. to have neither circulation, nor a power It is, however, remarkable, that in these of secretion, or absorption, thus ex- changes the range of colour is from presses his opinion :-“Some species of brown, through grey to white, a transibirds seem to change their winter and tion so nearly resembling that which summer feathers, at least in part; in takes place in the fur of the ermine, some, this is performed by moulting that Dr. Fleming is disposed to regard twice a year, as in the ptarmigan; in the change of colour as being effected others, only additional feathers in the old feathers, and not by the acthrown out; but we have no concep- cession of new plumage, in place of the tion of the feathers changing colour, old, the change being independent of the although we have been informed of such ordinary annual moulting of the birds. happening in the course of one night." In corroboration of Dr. Fleming's,
Dr. Fleming, on the contrary, con- we may adduce the following statement tends for a change of colouring, and by sir John Ross, in his Appendix to not of hairs or feathers, and adduces, the Narrative of a “Second Voyage in in confirmation of his opinion, among search of a North-West Passage,” etc.
It relates to that little animal, the Hud- Quadrupeds. “ Within the last nine son's Bay lemming, an individual of years," says the writer, “I have had the which lived for several of the winter good fortune to meet with two ermines months in his capin. “Finding that, (stoats in their white dress) alive, and unlike what occurred
in our tame hares, in two of the most different winters that under similar circumstances, it retained have occurred for many years: the one its summer fur, I was induced to try the was in the extremely severe winter of effect of exposing it, for a short time, to January to March, 1823; and the other the winter temperature. It was accord- was in the almost as extremely mild ingly placed on deck, in a cage, on the January of the year 1832. In conse1st of February; and next morning, quence of the months of December, after having been exposed to a tempera- 1831, and January, 1832, having been ture of thirty degrees below zero, the so extremely mild, I was surprised to fur on the cheeks, and a patch on each see this stoat clothed in his winter fur; shoulder had become perfectly white. On and the more so, because, about three the following day, the patches on each weeks or a month before, I had seen a shoulder had extended considerably, and stoat in its summer coat
, or brown fur. the posterior part of the body and flanks I was therefore naturally led to consider, had turned to a dirty white : during the whether the respective situations, which next four days, the change continued but the brown and the white stoats, seen by me, slowly; and at the end of a week, it was this warm winter, inhabited, could alone entirely white, with the exception of a account for the difference of the colours dark band across the shoulders, pro- of their fur, in any satisfactory manner. longed posteriorly down the back, form- The situation, then, where the brown stoat ing a kind of saddle, where the colour of was seen, is in north latitude fifty-four the fur had not changed in the smallest degrees, thirty-two seconds, nearly ; and degree. The thermometer continued be west longitude one degree, nineteen tween thirty and forty degrees below zero seconds, nearly, upon a plain, elevated a until the 18th, without producing any very few feet above the river Tees, in further change, when the poor little suf- the county of Durham. Again, the place ferer perished from the severity of the where I met with the ermine, or white cold. On examining the skin, it ap- stoat, on the 23rd of January, 1832, is in peared that all the white parts of the fur the North Riding of Yorkshire, in north were longer than the unchanged por- latitude fifty-four degrees, twelve seconds, tions ; and that the ends of the fur only nearly; and west longitude one degree, were white, so far as they exceeded in thirteen seconds, nearly. It is situated length the dark-coloured fur ; and by at a very considerable elevation, and in removing these white tips with a pair of the immediate neighbourhood of the scissors, it appeared in its dark summer lofty moorlands, called the Hambledon dress, but slightly changed in colour, Hills. These constitute the south-western and precisely of the same length as be- range of the Cleveland hills, which rise fore the experiment."
in height from one thousand one hunHere then, in an animal which does dred, to one thousand two hundred feet not naturally become white in winter, above the sea. At this time, the ermine we find, when cruelly subjected to an ex- was making its way toward the hills, tremely low temperature, that the hairs where, no doubt, he lived, or which he not only elongate, adding fulness to the frequently haunted ; and consequently,
but they actually begin to assume the great coldness of the atmosphere, a white tint, which, had the animal lived, even in so mild a winter, upon so elewould doubtless have disappeared on the vated and bleak a spot as that moorland return of warmer weather.
range, would satisfactorily account for It may here be observed, that this the appearance of the animal in its white change is not one dependent upon sea- fur; although the place is in a direct son, but upon temperature; for in mild line, more than twenty-three miles to winters, and in sheltered situations, this the south of the fields, near the Tees, inchange does not occur. This fact is well habited by the brown stoat in question.' illustrated by J. Hogg, Esq., in a paper The comment on this statement is, that, if published on the subject, in the fifth this change be the result of a law connected volume of Loudon's Magazine, and re- with season only, and therefore produced ferred to by Professor Bell in his British | by a renewal of fur, it would take place,
whether in cold or mild winters, in cold | lutely an alteration of colour, and not or sheltered situations.
produced by moulting, is proved by the The opinion of colonel Montague, fact, that he examined the bird, day by therefore, that hairs and feathers are day; the change, he states, commenced thoroughly extra-vascular, is certainly at the base of each feather, the tip be
We cannot, it is true, trace ing the last part that altered in colour. the vessels either of absorption, secre- Now, although these and many other tion, or circulation, which pervade the experiments prove beyond a doubt, that plumelets of a feather, or the body of feathers do both assume and lose colour; a hair ; but still, when facts prove that and that in some birds the change in changes of colour undoubtedly occur in their livery is to be attributed to this feathers and hairs, we are constrained, circumstance alone, still it is not prethough we cannot detect their vascularity tended that it is exclusively the case by our glasses, to admit the conclusion. in every instance. Various birds, be
In the first part of the transactions sides a change of colour, acquire ornaof the Zoological Society of London, mental plumes on the approach of the there is a very masterly essay by one breeding season, which they moult off of our most exact and observant natur- as soon as that period is over, and with alists, Mr. Yarrell, “on the laws which them lose the rich tints which overappear to influence the changes and spread the rest of their plumage. In plumage of birds,” and in this, many our notes for the past month, we inexperiments are detailed which bear stanced the grebes. upon the point.
The ruff, (7'ringa pugnax,) may,
also A herring gull was examined at be cited. In spring, the male of this bird Christmas, when Mr. Yarrell found assumes a full frill, consisting of elongated · that several of the tertial wing feathers feathers, arising from the neck and throat, had their basal halves of a blue grey, while tufts spring, one from each side the remaining parts mottled with brown. of the head behind the eyes ; and it Two notches were made with scissors is farther remarkable that in no two on the webs of these feathers, as marks individuals is the colour of this ornaof reference to the two colours then mental temporary frill alike, nor in the present.
Some other feathers were same bird for two successive years. The wholly mottled with brown, and were following instance of this partial moulttherefore marked with only one notch. ing, is from Mr. Yarrell's paper alThe bird was re-examined in April ; ready alluded to. About the 24th of the tertial feathers which when marked, May, the male of the beautiful manwere of two colours, Mr. Yarrell now darin duck (Anas galericulata) comfound to be entirely of a blue grey; menced moulting off his ornamental the brown having disappeared, one was breeding plumage ; and by the 3rd of even tipped with white; the other fea- July he so much resembled the female, thers, which when marked were wholly that it was a matter of some difficulty mottled, were now for two thirds of to distinguish them, except by a close their length of a pure white, the ter- inspection. He remained in this state minal third alone remaining of a mottled until the 22nd of August, when he brown.
began to shed the feathers which were In another example, namely, the black to be replaced by others of a more briltailed godwit, (Limosa melanura,) black liant colour, and on the 25th of Sepmarkings began on the lowest part of tember, he appeared in his perfect the breast and belly on the 24th of breeding plumage. In this last moultFebruary; three days afterwards, Mr. ing, the bird did not shed all his feaYarrell 'observed, that the feathers on thers, but only those that gave place the upper part of the head, neck, and to new ones of a more brilliant colour. breast, began to change colour from Thus far have we been led, by obdusky brown to red. On the 29th, he serving the changes which take place found that the scapularies, the wing in the fur of the stoat, and variable coverts, and the tertials had begun also hare, and in the plumage of the ptarto change their colour. By the 29th migan, during the rigours of winter, of April, the bird had arrived at the to enter into the laws on which these full colour of the breeding plumage. phenomena are based. They speak of That the change going on in this bird Almighty power and wisdom, and prove since the 24th of February, was abso- how in the minutest, and as we thought
to Paul. I mean this class to include, not | Many, very many come this way; they only children, but all who are drawn to walk uprightly as they deem, in an fear God in a quiet and peaceful manner. even path for some time, when sud
“These often appear like lonely wan- denly being overcome by temptation, derers, passing for melancholy people in drawn aside by some besetting sin, they the blithesome world; but their laughter break forth into some glaring immois not before men, and they have sweet rality. Then is the ground taken from sunny hours little recked of.
under their feet. Then do they plunge “Look at the map, road No. 2. 'Pha- in the ditch, and their own clothes ab. risaical security.' *I am found of them hor them. Then are there terrors, and that sought me not,' Isa. Ixv. 1. Ah! earthquakes, and gaspings in the soul ! this hot, bitter, burning zeal; this pha- And, oh glorious signs! this is often risaical security of heart is the worst, the time of dawning mercy. the most dangerous of all. I shudder "These poor, terrified, self-condemn. at it; for this road goes straight by the ed, stand afar off from others. They dare
The cross is a small and con- not company with the holy. What is temptible object to travellers who hurry the house of God to them? What is on this way. They are hot with run- the blessed book to them? There is ning, and driving, and working, and a throbbing in the conscience, a shunfighting, and doing God service, as ning and trembling in the heart, a they think ; too proud and restless to hiding of the face. They are not dream of such a thing as lying down so much as worthy to lift up their eyes at the foot of the cross.' Had it been toward heaven ; but beat upon he some great thing that had been required breast, saying, 'God, be merciful to me of them, they would have done it. " Ay! a sinner! Luke xviii. 13. and some of them are doing great things “Little reck they where they are ! in their own estimation ; for they are These are at the foot of the cross, not without zeal and courage. Their though they see it not. Their eyes are lives are in their hands, and they will holden for a season, that they should die for the shadow and the name of not know Him.' religion, while they know nothing of “But they shall know him presently. its substance and power.
He will bear with their cries a little “ This is the worst path, the most dan- longer, for he loves them ; then he gerous, the most hopeless. He says so will show them his side and his hands, whose word is truth. Verily I say and they will cry out, “My Lord, and unto you, That the publicans and the my God!' John xx. 28. harlots go into the kingdom of God ". The adulterous woman came this before you,' Matt. xxi. 31.
way; Mary Magdalene came this way; “Yet some come this way. “I was the dying thief came this way. Oh, dark, found of them that sought me not.' and miry, and terrible as the road is, They run furiously, and would pass by a goodly company come this way. the cross ; but Jesus stops them ere “ And now let me be comforted in the they pass.
matter of those I love; so that they are running by with great speed, but one call-coming to God and going to glory, what ed to him out of heaven, “Saul, Saul, does it matter which way? What is why persecutest thou me?' Oh, what that to me? And that they are comvoice is that which melts his heart, and, ing, I will hope because I ask not their takes his false strength away? What salvation of myself. He has put the cry voice is that which makes him lie so into my heart who hath said, Ask, and low and humble in the dust ? It is it shall be given you,' Matt. vii. 7. a voice from the crucified Redeemer. “I do not often pray peradventurously 'I am Jesus of Nazareth, whom thou per- for any body and every body. I would secutest,' Acts xxii. 8. Yes, hard and dan- if I had leisure. I would if it were not gerous and hopeless as it seems, some for this ceaseless and mighty yearning come even this way on their road to glory. for the safety of those I love. I pray
“ Look at the map once more, at the for those whom God brings into my road No. 3. A plunging in the ditch.' heart, and allows me to bring before * Neither do I condemn thee: go, and him when I pray. I bring them to sin no more,' John viii. ll. •Í am the foot of the cross, and my prayer is, not come
to call the righteous, but Father, glorify thyself in them, that sinners to repentance,' Matt. ix. 13. I they also may glorify thee.'”
Sir Thomas More and his Family. From an ancient Picture.
soverayne will arise, warm his shirte by
the fyre, and se ye have a fote shete TEENTH CENTURY: WITH MISCELLANE- made in this manner: fyrst, set a chayre OUS PARTICULARS RELATIVE TO THAT by the fyre, with a cuyshen under his
fete, then sprede a shete over the chayre,
and se there be redy a kerchife and A considerable number of pictures re- combe; then warme his petycote, his main, which were executed during the doublet, and his stomachere ; and then seventeenth century, representing the put on his hosen, and his shone or slypcostume of that period. The above pers, then stryke up his hosen mannerlv, engraving is from an old picture repre- and tye them up; then lace his doublet, senting sir Thomas More and his chil- hole by hole, and laye the necke dren; it gives a good idea of a respectable clothe, and kimbe his heed ; then look family in the reign of Henry viii. In ye have a basyn and an
ewer with the middle are sir John More in his warme water and a towell, washe his robes as a judge ; and his son, sir Tho- hands; then knele upon your knee, and mas More, as chancellor. On one side aske your soverayne what robe he will are two females standing, Elizabeth, were, and put it upon him; then do his daughter of sir Thomas, and her com- gyrdell about him, and take your leve panion, Margaret Gige. Behind is the mannerly.” The obsequious chamberyouthful wife of sir John. On the other lain was then to go to the church or side is Alice, the wife of sir Thomas ; chapel, and make "the soverayne's before her are Cecilia and Margaret, closet” ready; then to the chamber, and daughters of sir Thomas ; John More, make the bed; to beat the feather bed, a youth, standing by the side of his “but loke ye waste no feders.” The father ; the figure next him is Paterson, process of putting to bed was similar, the fool or jester kept by sir Thomas, but of course reversed, and concluded afterwards given, by him, to the lord with driving out the “dogge or catte.” Mayors of London. Various articles of Such was the process with Henry VII. furniture, books, a clock, and a viol, are and Henry viii. represented.
The following anecdote, from Camden, The articles of dress, worn by persons shows what ridiculous fashions were of rank, are described in the directions often in vogue, and the increasing desire given to a chamberlain, “how to dress of the middle classes to imitate their his sovereign,” at the commencement of superiors. this period. “At morne, when your Sir Philip Calthrop bought on a time