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as much fine French tawny cloth as never would wear cloth stockings again. should make him a gown, and sent it to Knitted worsted stockings were also the taylor's to be made. John Drakes, esteemed. The dress of Mary Stuart, a shoemaker, of Norwich, coming to at her execution, is described : she the said taylor's, and seeing the knight's wore blue worsted stockings, with silver gown cloth lying there, liking it well, clocks; a head dress of fine lawn, edged caused the taylor to buy him as much of with bone lace, a mantle of black satin, the same cloth, and price, to the same faced with sable; her pourpoint was of intent; and farther bade him to make it black figured satin ; a bodice of crimson of the same fashion, that the knight satin, and a skirt of crimson yelvet. would have his made of. Not long after, The frame for making stockings was inthe knight coming to the taylor's to vented in 1599, by William Lee, of St. take measure of his gown, perceiving the John's College, Cambridge, and was a like cloth lying there, asked of the taylor curious specimen of mechanism at that whose it was. Quoth the taylor, "It is period. John Drakes' the shoemaker, who will The female costume then, as in other have it made of the self-same fashion days, was still more fantastic than the that yours is made of." "Well,” said garb of men; the representations are the knight, “in good time be it ! I will," numerous, and must be familiar to the said he, “have mine made as full of cuts reader, Stubbes describes the gowns : as thy shears can make it.” “It shall “Some with sleeves hanging down to be done,” said the taylor ; whereupon, the skirts, trailing on the ground, and because the time drew near, he made cast over the shoulder like cow-tails; haste to finish both garments. John some with sleeves much shorter, cut up Drakes had no time to go to the taylor's the arm, drawn out with sundry colours, till Christmas-day, for serving of custom- and pointed with silk ribbons." ers, when he had hoped to have worn his The upper articles of female dress gown; perceiving the same to be full of were usually of costly materials; velvet, cuts, he began to swear at the taylor for satin, cloth of gold, and embroidered making his gown after that sort, "I have work, are enumerated in the descriptions done nothing," quoth the taylor, “but of dress in the higher ranks; the middle that

you bid me; for as sir Philip Cal- classes wore gowns of woollen, often throp's garment is, even so have I made costing from 10s. to 14s. the yard, with yours. “By my latchet, or shoe tie,” such ornaments on their heads and necks quoth John Drakes, “I will never wear as they could afford. The women usually gentleman's fashion again !"

wore caps or coifs, sometimes a sort of Laws were frequently passed to check bonnet; the variety of form was endless. excess in apparel. Only the higher The coverings for the head, worn by men, classes of laymen were permitted to were also various ; to encourage the capwear coats or gowns of costly materials, pers, who were home manufacturers, a but a gown of some sort was worn by all law, was passed, in 1571, ordering that engaged in civil occupations, unless of all persons, above six years of age, the lowest classes. The forms of the under the degree of nobility, should gowns varied, and they were often richly wear caps of wool, knit and dressed in ornamented with gold, pearls, jewels, England, under a penalty of four groats. and lace. Furs were much valued ; False hair began to be worn towards also the feathers of birds, frequently the the close of the sixteenth century ; so whole skin. Henry vii. paid 1l. 4s. for that it was dangerous for children, with

estryche” (ostrich) skin for a sto- fine locks, to wander into lonely places, macher, whether for himself or his queen The addition was by tying in false locks, does not appear.

rather than by periwigs. The queen of The hose assumed the form of trow- Henry vii., as early as 1494, paid for sers, usually tight about the leg. Silk frontlets 31. 13s. 4d. The barber of hose or stockings are mentioned as early that monarch was paid 21. 12s. for shavas the reign of Henry viii., but they ing the king from the 25th day of March were scarce articles even twenty years to June 25th. later, when a pair of knit silk hose was Farmers and countrymen wore clothes presented to the queen by her silk woman, of russet cloth or leather; the citizens were in the third year of her reign. It was dressed much as the children of Christ's considered an article of value, and she hospital, in London, now are attired : yelis said to have declared roundly, that she I low stockings or hose were common.



Serving men often wore liveries of the oaths, and unseemly conduct, were subcolours adopted by their masters, if per-ject to fines. sons of rank; but blue was the colour Proceeding to the close of this period, usually worn by men servants. The we find, that in the reign of queen Elijackets of the London firemen and water- zabeth, the ruff, the stomacher, and the men, preserve the costume of this farthingale, or large round petticoat, beperiod : badges, with armorial bearings, came common. The ruff led to the inor some device assumed by noble fami- vention of starch, which was severely lies, were commonly worn on the sleeve. censured by some of the writers of the The number of retainers, or serving day. The use of it was first taught by men, very great. The Tudor a Flemish woman, named Plasse, who princes limited the number by severe came to London in 1564, and taught the laws, to break down this remnant of art, charging each scholar four or five feudal customs, and lessen the mass of pounds for instruction; the starch was idle, useless followers, ready at all times then made by the starcher herself, and to insult or injure any one who displeased was frequently coloured red, blue, or their master. Lord Burgley, who

The kirtle was a sort of under purple.

may be considered as an economist, and hav- gown, the skirt of the upper robe being ing a well-regulated family, had a hun- drawn to each side. dred servants. But, at that period, in addi

Under all the finery which appeared in tion to the common servants, and to young the garb of both sexes, too often, there persons who were in the family to receive was only a scanty supply of dirty body instruction, rather than as servants; it was linen, though these articles were freusual for retainers to grow grey, and to quently made of costly materials. Stubbes be kept till they died in their services. describes men's shirts of cambric and Fidelity was thus encouraged. Shak lawn, wrought with needlework, the speare has well described one of these meanest costing a crown, but sometimes retainers, but rather as a specimen of as much as ten pounds. A lady's shift is a past age, than as common in his own described, in a ballad, as one half of fine day. The aged Adam offers the son five holland, the other of needlework. On hundred crowns, saved in his father's new year's day, 1530, the lady Elizabeth service, and declares,

presented her brother, prince Edward, with us

a shyrte of cam'yke, of her own Master, go on; and I will follow thee To the last gasp, with truth and loyalty,


In 1577, the earl of From seventeen years, till now almost fourscore, Essex, then a student at Cambridge,

paid Mrs. Croxton, in Cheapside, 408. That fashion which causes the bond for four shirts, at 10s. a piece; and 10s. between master and servant to be dis- for six handkerchiefs. Also, for a broad solved continually, is indeed a bad one. riding hat, 8s. Handkerchiefs were often It proceeds from covetousness that thinks wrought with silk and gold. It is needto save, and from pride that refuses to less to say, that such linen seldom visited obey; with selfish desire for indulgence, the wash tub, or the running stream, that shrinks from needful services, if then resorted to for cleansing linen. out of the common course; but in the The variety of articles of dress, worn result, the master spends more, and the even by children, is shown by a letter servant has to endure more, than if from lady Brien, who had the care of mutual forbearance, and due considera- the princess Elizabeth, upon the death tion, were not too often forgotten by of her mother. The governess applies, both. The injunctions of holy writ, on “ that she may have som rayment; for this subject, are very clear and strong ; she hath neither gown nor kertel, nor and are for the welfare of both classes. petecot, nor no manner of linnin for Servants are exhorted to obedience, not smokes, nor cerchefes, nor sleves, nor with eye service; masters are to for- rayls, nor body-stychets, nor handcerbear threatening, and to do that which chers, nor mofelers, nor begins." The last is just and equal.

article was a close cap worn by children. Harrington's orders for household In the reign of queen Elizabeth, the servants, in 1566 and 1592, show earnest male dress became more inelegant. Large desire to preserve decorum in a numer- trunk hose, long waisted doublets, with ous family, and this, at a time when the short cloaks and ruffs, are seen in the manners were far less polished than at pictures of those times. The doublets the present day. Absence from prayer, were sometimes quilted or stuffed with

Here lived I.”

five or six pounds of wool; the breeches carried a short sword, and a small round were also stuffed, and so large, that the shield or buckler. Street frays were seats of the parliament house being found common, and whatever weapons were at too narrow for the new fashion, others hand were used, both for attack and deof greater width were fixed. The cloaks fence. Even the apprentices had their were of all lengths and colours, and for bats or clubs ready: When attending general use, took the place of gowns; their masters or mistresses at night, they they were often of costly materials, lined usually carried lanthorns; the nobility and bordered with fur. The anecdote of were attended, at night, by torch bearers. Raleigh's attracting the notice of queen The variety of jewellery, worn by Elizabeth, by spreading his new plush men and women, was very great; the cloak over a dirty puddle, that she might forms were often elegant, highly wrought step upon it, is well known. The cover- and expensive. The lists of articles, preing for the head varied from the flat cap sented to queen Elizabeth by her courtof the citizen to hats rising in a peak or iers, contain many articles of this desharp point, a foot or more above the scription. Three may be inserted, sehead. The best hats, felted of beaver, lected almost at hazard. In 1582, “a came from abroad, and cost 20s. or 30s. juell being a shipp of golde, garnished each. They were ornamented with fea- with six faire dyamondes, and other thers and embroidery, and even with gold small dyamondes and rubyes; the sayles bands of “massie goldsmiths' work.' spredd abrode, with a word enamuled on

The hair was worn in divers fashions, them." A juell of golde, being a “ sometimes polled, sometimes curled, catte and myce playing with her, garor suffered to grow at length, like wo- nished with smale dyamondes and perle.” men's lockes, many times cut off above “A flower of golde, garnished with or under the ears, round as by a woodden sparckes of diamonds, rubyes, and dish.” The variety of beards was great, ophales, with an agathe of her majestis' some shaven from the chin, not a few phisnamy (portrait) and a perle pencut short, some made round, like a rub- dante, with devices painted in it.” These bing brush; others with a peak, or now articles were carefully delivered to the and then suffered to grow long, “the officers whose duty it was to take charge barbers being grown to be so cunning in of them. Rings, chains, and other orthis behalf as the tailors."

naments, were prized by all ranks. The The armour, worn by nobles and the beaus, as well as the belles, of Elizabeth's military, was chiefly plate armour, often reign, wore jewels, or ribands in their ears. elegant in form and workmanship. Henry During the “twelve nights' reign” of VII. paid for garnishing a sallett, or head the lady Jane Grey, she had the crown piece, 381. ls. 4d. As the use of fire- jewels delivered to her : these, and other arms prevailed, armour was less trusted to. valuables, she was afterwards required to

The clergy wore their official costume. give up. Mary seems to have looked The higher orders, in the days of Popery, very sharply after them; for sundry artilike Wolsey, indulged themselves in cles not being forthcoming, the lord splendid apparel, often in addition to their treasurer had to apply for her majesty's sacerdotal robes. The latter were costly: gracious acquittance of what were dethe father of queen Catherine Parr left ficient. Some are very singular to apto the abbey of Clairvaux, the vast sum pear in a list of royal possessions, of 1,6001., equal to 20,0001. at the pre- little piece of a broken ring of gold," sent day, "to buy copes and vestments." “Four old halfpence of silver, xvi.d. After the Reformation, these fine trap- two farthings and two halfpence,”. “A pings nearly disappeared. Queen Eli- pair of twichers of silver,” “Two shavzabeth enforced the use of the surplice, ing clothes, and fourteen pair of gloves or white robe, in the public services; but of divers sorts." Jane had previously given in common life, the clergy were required up coin to the value of 5411. 138. 2d. to wear black gowns, “befitting scholars.” Shoes varied in shape and material.

Physicians and lawyers wore their In the reign of Mary, square toes were dress made full, and of a grave charac- fashionable ; an act, however, was passed ter. They usually walked with canes or to limit the width of the toes to six

Swords or daggers were worn inches. Expensive buckles, and roses by all ranks of laymen, excepting the on the shoes, were introduced. Boots lower orders. The serving man, when and spurs were often worn by men, when attending his master abroad, frequently I not on horseback, Shoes were com

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monly fitted for each foot. Shakspeare In her early days, queen Elizabeth describes an eager tailor newsmonger, was averse to fine clothes, and unwillwith slippers, in his haste, “thrust upon ingly complied with her sister Mary's contrary feet.” We read of archers in orders that she should wear finer apscarlet boots, with yellow caps. Ladies parel; but she soon became fond of began to wear corked shoes, or slippers, splendid garments : at her death, her with raised heels.

wardrobe contained three thousand difWoodstock noted for gloves. ferent habits; but any one who looks Henry vii., in 1497, paid there 5s. 4d. through the long list of new year's prefor sixteen pair of gloves. But gloves sents to the queen, will observe, that a were often richly worked, and often per- large proportion of them were gifts on fumed. One of Elizabeth's ministers those occasions; and many of them, wrote to the ambassador in Spain, to send probably, never were worn by Elizabeth. a pair of perfumed gloves for himself, In those of 1578, we find, a pettycote and another for his wife; they were to of tawny satten, reysed with four borders be scented with orange flowers and jas- of enbrawdory, silver and golde, with min. Perfumes were the general remedy hoopes, lyned with orange, collored for ill scents and the want of ventila- | sarceonet." A gowne with hanging tion, thus increasing the evil. Elizabeth sleves of black vellat, alov' with small was very much displeased with ill scents, wyer of golde, like scallop shelles, set and would rate a courtier as a sloven,' with spangills, embrawdred with a garde, if he appeared with shoes having the with sondry byrds and flowers enbossed smell of new leather. Mary Stuart with golde, silver, and silke, set with complained much of ill scents during sede perle.” In that year, considerably one of her abodes at Tutbury. Even more than a hundred articles of dress now, though our houses are more airy, were presented to the queen; and in yet proper ventilation too generally is some other years a still larger quantity. neglected. Perfumed pockets, scent It was then customary, at times, to wear boxes, and pomanders, or balls of per- the garbs of different nations. fumes, were abundant and costly in the Harrison, in 1586, after describing the sixteenth century; also, oils, tinctures, vanity and variety of fashionable dress, and pomatums.

Among the expenses of laments, “how much cost is bestowed, Henry. vii. is a payment "to a Lum- now a daies, upon our bodies, and how bard, (a foreign merchant,) for muske little upon our soules ! How manie and awmber, 171. 5s."

sutes of apparell hath the one, and how It was common for gentlewomen to little furniture hath the other ! How long wear small mirrors at their girdles, or to time is asked in decking up of the first, have them set in the fans they carried; and how little space left wherein to feed these fans often were expensive articles. the latter." He then speaks of the diffiFans were often made of ostrich or other culty the tailor has in fitting his customfeathers. In 1578, lord North paid for ers, and what reproachful language he one 33s. 4d. A fan, presented to Eliza- had to bear. That advance in civilizabeth, in 1589, was " of swanne down, tion, which teaches mutual forbearance, with a maze of green velvet, embroidered was then little known, though it is bewith seed pearles, and a very small coming to every rank of life. chayne of silver gilte ; and in the mid- The attention paid to dress, and the dest a border, on both sides, of seed numerous changes in the apparel of this pearles; sparkes of rubys and emeralds, century, strongly impress upon the mind and thereon a monster of gold, the head the declaration of holy writ, " that the and breast mother of pearl.”

fashion of this world passeth away.” Articles of dress, at this period, being Nor is the direction, given by St. Peter, often so costly, it was common to leave to the females of his day, less important. them by will to relatives and friends. “ Whose adorning let it not be that outOne person, of middle rank, thus be- ward adorning of plaiting the hair, and queathed his best black gown, guarded and of wearing of gold, or of putting on of faced with velvet; his shepe-coloured apparel," etc. 1 Peter iii. 3—6. gown, guarded with velvet, and faced with coney or rabbits' fur; his short gown, faced with wolf, and laid with billiment, an inferior sort of lace; and In the sixteenth century, trades were another short gown, faced with fox. followed as regular occupations, after the


manner of later times, but on a far more beth had more enlarged views; she enlimited scale; the large factories of our couraged commercial transactions, and days were not then known. In the sometimes furnished capital for difficult woollen trade, then the principal manu- enterprises. facture of England, the large clothiers, In foreign commerce, merchants such as Winchcombe, styled Jack of New- formed companies, to raise capital, to bury, employed hundreds, perhaps thou- afford mutual protection, and to keep sands of workmen, who wrought mostly out interlopers. Among these compain their own houses. The large num- nies were the Merchants Adventurers, ber of Flemish refugees, sheltered by and the Russian company. Towards Elizabeth, gave a new impulse to this the close of the reign of Elizabeth, the trade, and the wealth of the nation was East India Company began; but not in much increased thereby. The cutlery a permanent or connected form. Inditrade was much enlarged by these stran- viduals subscribed sums of money, as gers; the neighbourhood of Sheffield best suited their views; fleets were fitted became the seat of this manufacture. out, and commodities exported, in lieu We find the earl of Shrewsbury sending of which the products of the east were a box of Hallamshire whittells, or knives, brought home. The cargoes being sold, as a present.

the amount realized was divided among The general progress of society caused the adventurers, in proportion to the cathe demand for iron to increase largely: pital each had supplied. The first fleet The art of casting iron was practised sailed in May, 1601, with a charter of about 1550. This soon became a very privileges, under captain James Lançasimportant and increasing branch of ter. The capital subscribed was 68,3731. trade, and consumed large quantities of It returned in September, 1603, when fuel. The iron works of Sussex and the adventurers realized a handsome Kent soon cleared those districts, once profit. covered with forests; and had it not Several other voyages, upon the same been found practicable to smelt the iron principle, followed; the clear profits stone with pit coal, the trade must long realized, varied from doubling to trebling ago have been extinct in England. The the original outlay. It is to be remarked, iron trade now is only carried on in dis- that the amount of bullion sent out much tricts where pit coal abounds. But exceeded the value of the goods exeven in Lancashire, in the seventh year ported. of queen Elizabeth, the furnaces were Foreign commerce was also largely stopped, because the cattle required the increased by the discovery, or rather retops and croppings of trees for suste- discovery of America, at the close of nance in winter. The raising of artifi- the fifteenth century, though this result cial food for their supply was not then was indirect, rather than direct, so far practised.

as England was concerned. The word Mining much increased : considerable re-discovery is used advisedly, as there sums were expended in such adventures, is no reason to doubt but that the Northwith all the vicissitudes that attend these men made continual voyages from Iceoperations at the present day. A con- land to North America, from the tenth siderable quantity of silver, at one time, to the twelfth centuries; this, however, was found in Cornwall. But the ab- does not lessen the merit and perseversurdity of attempting the transmutation ance of Columbus. Towards the close of metals still continued, and even in- of Elizabeth's reign, plantations, or set. creased.

tlements were formed on the main land In London, and other large cities, the of North America, in consequence of different trades had their several gilds, the voyages and discoveries of Cabot. or companies, and for the most part the Tobacco and potatoes were introduced artizans of the same line lived near to- by sir Walter Raleigh; the latter valugether. Their rules tended to cramp able root being planted by him in Irethe progress of trade; the true princi- land; but Hawkins is said to have ples of commerce were then little under brought it first from New Spain, in stood.

1565. Mary, in her short reign, interfered The discovery of Newfoundland, in with the progress of commerce, by de- the reign of Henry vii., has been noticed; manding loans from the merchants, and among the expenditure of that monarch, sometimes stopping exportation. Eliza- we find, “To him that found the new

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