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24. Observe the omission of the copula und.

26. Sich etwas zu gute thun is a very idiomatic phrase for 'gratifying one's self in something.' We also say with a kind of Latinism, sich ein Bene thuft.

27. Another expression is auf der Stelle seiti.

PAGE 48.

3. Eine Kreisstadt is the principal town of a circle, i. e. the subdivision of a province. Comp. p. 46, 20.

6. Schulz Schultheiß (Schuld, heißen), lit. one who orders the fulfilment of duties, the chief magistrate of a town,—allmonatlich=jeden Monat. Thus we have alljährlich, alltäglich.

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10. Besoldung Gehalt, p. 47, 26.

12.

The 3weigroschenstücke are 'thrown down' on the table to test their metal by the sound.

17. Frederick called himself the first servant of the State, not out of mere fancy (Laune), but in serious earnest.

19. The omission of the definite article before the superlative höchste Ehre is very unusual.

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21.

More usually we should say in einem entlegenen Grenzort.

30. durchbringen includes the notion of transporting safely and unobserved.

PAGE 49.

I. The sentence begins very emphatically with und, which may be rendered in English by translating and after all.'

10. Immanuel Kant, the great philosopher of Königsberg in Prussia, 1724-1804.

21. Frederick's queen and himself resided apart after the Seven Years' War.

23. The 'quiet gardens' are the park of Sanssouci. Frederick has sometimes been called der Einsiedler von Sanssouci.

PAGE 50.

2. follen should be translated by the verb to be; it was not to exist for ever.'

3. The 'machinery' of the Prussian State broke under the weight

of the attack of Napoleon, in the battle of Jena, 1806.

4. Intelligenz = Verstandeskraft.

5. Patriotismus = Vaterlandsliebe.

8. The first division of Poland took place in 1773. See Carlyle, XXI. 4.

14. This is another instance of a shortened conditional clause, instead of wenn schon...gewesen waren.

17. ausschmücken, 'to dress up,' denotes the putting forth of these weak arguments in the most plausible manner possible.

19. Comp. p. 43, 20.

20.

We might also employ the genitive Blutes, and even Strömé Blut would not be altogether unexampled. There is also the compound Blutströme.

25. Landgewinn=Landerwerb (comp. 1. 10 and 17).

26. Siegesfanfare=schmetternde Musik zur Feier des Sieges. The word Fanfare is originally French and does not seem to occur in any of our classical writers; there are instances quoted from Heine, Freiligrath, and Scherr.

28—p. 51, 12 is translated by a good hand' in Carlyle's Frederick the Great, XXI. 4.

PAGE 51.

2. 'The great ancestor' is the Great Elector, Friedrich Wilhelm. 6. We might also say mit Ausnahme einiger altsächsischen Territorien (or Landstriche, to employ an expression of German growth).

8. Völkerwanderung is the term technically employed to denote the migrations of the German tribes of the Goths, Lombards, Franks, Burgundians, &c. in the period embracing the fourth to the seventh centuries after Christ-migrations which caused the downfall of the great Roman Empire of the West and terminated in the establishment of a number of Germanic kingdoms.

14. The independence of Prussia proper was recognised in the treaty of Oliva (a monastery near the city of Danzig), May 3, 1660.

15. It may be interesting to hear the judgment of Frederick the Great on the 'resolute' act by which Frederick I. acquired the royal title. He says in his Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire de la maison de Brandebourg, p. 116 (Leipzig, 1875); “C'était une amorce que Frédéric III jetait à toute sa postérité, et par laquelle il semblait lui dire: 'Je vous ai acquis un titre, rendez-vous en digne; j'ai jeté les fondements de votre grandeur, c'est à vous d'achever l'ouvrage.'

16. Poland was then a republic of nobles with an elective king at their head.

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19. Catharine II. succeeded Peter III. on the throne of Russia. She reigned 1762-1796.

21. Pommerellen is the ancient name of the country around the city of Conitz.-Kulm on the Weichsel (Vistula), one of the oldest towns in that country, seat of a bishop and formerly an influential part of the confederacy of the Hansa.-Marienburg, on the Nogat, was founded by the knights of the German Order (Deutschherrenorden) in 1276; it is still famous for the splendid palace of the Hochmeister, who used to reside there.

22. Ermeland ('Varmia' in olden times) is the name of a diocese, the bishop of which resides at Frauenburg.-Elbing is an important town not far from the Baltic, on the river Elbing, which comes out of a lake called Drausensee.

25. Urzeit=allerälteste Zeit. The common idiom is in the plural, seit Urzeiten.

PAGE 52.

1. Danzig "existed as early as the sixth century, and was an important place about 990, when St Adalbert preached Christianity in Prussia. Its possession was long a matter of contest between Poland, Pomerania, Denmark, and Brandenburg, but in 1310 it came into the possession of the knights of St John. It developed and prospered, and was one of the principal towns of the confederacy of the Hansa. When the Order lost its power and energy in the 15th century, Danzig became one of the gems of the Polish crown; in 1793 it was incorporated by Prussia. The site of Danzig is so beautiful that A. von Humboldt once called it the Naples of the North....The various channels of water which cross the town have procured it the name of the Venice of the North." Daniel, Manual of Geography, p. 924.

5. Rival(e)=Nebenbuhler.

7. Fürstenschloß, 'a princely palace,' not exactly one inhabited by princes.

9. Die Niederung means a marshy lowland.

12. Marienwerder was founded as early as 1232, by the first Hochmeister in Prussia.

14. Grenzstrich = Grenzland.

17. Pelplin is now the residence of the bishop of Kulm.

19. Grundherr, 'lord of the manor' (Grund in the same sense as in the well-known phrase unser Grund und Boden).

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23. drei Viertheile: the abbreviated form drei Viertel is more commonly used.

25. Kirchspiel, 'parish.'-Und is employed emphatically instead of und in der That.

31. seine, i. e. des polnischen Adels.

PAGE 53.

3. Nicht gleich is more emphatic than ungleich or verschieden. 9-54, 5 is translated in Carlyle's Frederick the Great, XXI. 4.

13. Glockenrecht is the privilege of having a church with steeple and bells.

15. 'Wring the Lutheran, he is sure to give thee the dollar.'

24. Pfaffe, originally a word of good sense, has now got to be exclusively employed in a contemptuous manner. The honourable term is der Pfarrer or der Geistliche.

30. Carlyle observes that Roskowski is 'a celebrated symbolical nobleman.' We are unable to state how far the fact related here may be supported by historical evidence.

PAGE 54.

1. brandschaßen means to impose a fine upon a city with the threat of burning it in case of refusal (einer Stadt eine Schahung auflegen mit der Drohung, im Fall der Nichtleistung zu brennen und zu sengen, Sanders).

13. Der große König is, of course, Frederick II.—wenig geneigt is almost synonymous with the more familiar adj. abgeneigt.—Das Land is here employed in the sense of das offene Land, in opposition to the towns, 'the country.'

17. Trostlosigkeit is idiomatically used to denote utter dilapidation and decay. We thus say, das sind wirklich trostlose Zustände, 'this is indeed a hopeless case!'

18-56, 15 is translated in Carlyle's Frederick the Great, 1. c.

20. alt=althergebracht, 'long established.'

26. Höfe Bauernhöfe, 'farmsteads.'

28. noch heute, 'even nowadays,' in the present advanced state of historical investigation.

30. The Neze is the most considerable tributary of the Warthe, which is itself the main tributary of the Ober. The Netze comes out of a small lake near Brdow, and serves to supply the canal described below, p. 58, 27 sq.

PAGE 55.

4.

Factionen Parteien.

5. sich schlagen is idiomatically employed for 'to fight.' Compare the French se battre.

9. Die Ziegelbrocken=die zerbröckelten Ziegel. The compound· Ziegel. brocken is not registered in any extant dictionary; we may, however, compare the analogous Lavabrocken, which is used by Goethe (see Sanders, 1, 221).

16. zumal=zumeist or ganz besonders. 17. figen. See page 3, 27.

20.

altheimischheimisch seit alter Zeit.

26. Der Hausrath is less usual than tas Hausgeräth, in which the collective sense is more distinctly expressed.

27. Weihwasser, 'holy water' = geweihetes Wasser; comp. Weihnacht, 'Christmas.'

28. wüst, ‘uncivilized, savage.' Properly used of a place, 'waste.'

PAGE 56.

2.

This should be understood as if it were wenn die Leute ja (wirklich) einmal Bienenstöcke hielten.

4. Bark they had clandestinely pealed off the trees of the lords of the manor.

5. erstehen means to purchase after bargaining.

9. auch sogar. So again 1. 15.

13. Hakenpflug is a peculiar kind of plough without wheels, much in vogue among the Slavonic tribes. In Carlyle's translation it is rendered by 'hook-plough.'

14. Holzpantoffeln, 'wooden shoes,' are rarely worn by German peasants, but are common in Belgium and France. The French term is sabots.

24. Starost=Landhauptmann, the nobleman presiding over the administration of a province.-Die Güter der Krone are the crown domains.

30. Geheimmittel, 'a secret mysterious medicine,' in which sense we often employ the Latin arcanum.

PAGE 57.

I. We might also employ the genitive here after the verb bedürfen : see Aue, § 349 (p. 288).

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