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20. Das Aufleben, 'the development,' not a common word.—bie Kinderseele means the same as die findliche Seele or die Seele des Kindes.

23. unhold, unamiable, unkind.

25. The instructions written down by the king himself concerning Fritz's education and studies have been partly translated and discussed by Carlyle, IV. 3:

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10.

4. rich gehen lassen is an idiomatic phrase denoting to be careless, negligent,' or 'to take things easily.'

7. Frederick's gouvernante was Madame de Roucoulles, whose history and character have been detailed by Carlyle, IV. I.

Appartements (which should be pronounced in the French manner) is a more elegant expression than Gemächer or Zimmer.

14. bedeutsam, ‘significantly.' Here is Wilhelmina's own nårrative as given by Carlyle, Vi. 2 :--"My brother and I had all the mind in the world to laugh; we tried hard to keep from laughing, but often we burst out. Thereupon reprimand, with all the anathemas of the Church hurled out on us; which we had to take with a contrite penitent air, a thing not easy to bring your face to at the moment."

16. kindisch, 'childish'; kindlich, 'childlike.' 19.

“ The Boy does not take to hunting at all ; likes verses, story. books, flute-playing better ; seems to be of effeminate tendencies, an effeminirter Kerl ; affects French modes, combs-out his hair, like a cockatoo, the foolish French fop, instead of conforming to the Army. regulation, which prescribes close-cropping and a club." Carlyle, iv. 11.malpropre is the French term (used by the king himself) instead of unrein, unsauber.

28. innerlichst=in seinem tiefsten Innern.--widerstand is used in the sense of witerstrebte or zuwider war. We properly say this of food which goes against the stomach.

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2.

als Troß, in the form of defiance. 4. zutragen is often used of carrying tales (comp. a talebearer, ein Zuträger, and the Latin expression delator).

5. Our author is fond of omitting the verb wherever it may be easily understood by the reader (here e. g. entwidelte fich). The omission of the verb produces the effect of describing, instead of narrating.

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22.

Friedrich Wilhelm's visit to Dresden, where the Prussian King was splendidly entertained by the Elector of Saxe and King of Poland, August der Starke, took place in January and February 1728, when the Crown-prince was sixteen years old. See Carlyle, vi. 3, who observes that Frederick's life for the next four or five years' after the Dresden visit was extremely dissolute.'

17. steigend, increasing.
20. ftille Ansprüche, 'silent claims.'

Frederick's attempt at flight occurred in August 1730 (Carlyle, VII. 6), during a tour in the South of Germany. The prince was henceforth considered a prisoner and placed before a court-martial as having intended to desert, but the court refused to pass sentence of death. Frederick's friend and abettor in this scheme, Lieutenant von Katte, was executed under Frederick's window in the fortress of Küstrin. Carlyle, VII. 9.

25. Süftrin is a strong fortress on the junction of the Warthe and Oder.—Kuppin, 'a quiet dull little town in that north-western region' (Carlyle, IX. 2), was Frederick's place of residence from the spring of 1732 till August 1736.

26. Lehrjahre, 'years of apprenticeship’-a term rendered famous through Goethe's novel of Wilhelm Meister's Lehrjahre,

12 sq.

PAGE 8. 3. doch, after all.' In this way we employ doch to meet a possible objection.

5. Argwohn, “suspicion'; the old form of the word was Argwahn (M. H. G. arcwân), the second part being the noun Wahn connected with wähnen and E. to ween. See note on Kohlrausch p. 8, 6.

"In all outward particulars the Crown-Prince conforms; in the inward, he exercises a judgment, and if he cannot conform, is at least careful to hide." Carlyle, ix. 2.

22 sq. On Frederick's studies " in the Domain-Sciences and otherwise" at Küstrin see Carlyle, VIII. 5.

26. For the derivation of the name of Mecklenburg we refer to our note on Kohlrausch p. 25, 2.—(Frederick) “is very industrious... to get tall recruits, as a dainty to Papa. Knows that nothing in nature is so sure of conciliating that strange old gentleman.” Carlyle, ix. 2.

31. ein Plus, i.e. an increase of the profits hitherto attained.an die Hand geben is an idiomatic phrase meaning 'to point out voluntarily

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1. die Riesen are the gigantic soldiers of King Friedrich Wilhelm ; see p. 8, 26.

5. Wirthschaftlichkeit has occurred before, p. 8, 19.-wunderlich and verwunderlich are always used in an unfavourable, or at least ironical sense : 'strange, curious, queer,' and especially of persons whose manner and mind create wonder (but not admiration) ; wunderbar= wie ein Wunder erscheinend, miraculous, marvellous. Another adjective, wundersam, is used in pretty much the same way, but appears to be limited to an elevated style. See Sanders, Wörterb. deutscher Synony. men, p. 39 sq.

8. bis in das Einzelne, 'not excepting even the smallest details.'

9. eingreifen in etwas, lit. 'to put (one's hand or finger) in something,' i.e. to meddle (interfere) with it.

14. ge-läuf-ig (from laufen), properly 'current’; hence eine Sache ist mir geläufig, a matter is familiar to me, or 'I am quite familiar with it.'

16. das kleine leben means the life of the lower ranks.
18. Hauswirth, comp. Goethe, Hermann and Dorothea 1, 32.

23. Detail = Einzelheiten, p. 10, I. The word should be pronounced in the German (not in the French) manner.

24. In this phrase it would, perhaps, be more usual to employ the simple verb heben, instead of the compound which our author has preferred. Thus we say der Wohlstand dieses Landes hat sich sehr gehoben, the prosperity of this country has greatly increased.

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I.

Observe the difference between geschäftlich, 'appertaining to business,' and geschäftig, 'busy.'

IO.

6. verwinden is idiomatically used of getting over' something unpleasant. Comp. überwinden l. 14.

See Carlyle's account, ix. I, where several authentic letters are inserted to show Frederick's great aversion to this match. The marriage took place on June 12, 1733. (Carlyle, IX. 7.) 17. In a less concise style sondern would be added before auch.

“The young wife had an honest guileless heart, considerable sense.—With the gay temper of eighteen, and her native loyalty of mind, she seems to have shaped herself successfully to the Prince's

20.

taste, and growing yearly gracefuller and better-looking was an ornament and pleasant addition to his Ruppin existence.” Carlyle, ix. 7.

23. wäre fie, etc. is a shortened conditional clause instead of wenn sie auch (even if) ein Engel gewesen wäre.

27. wohl expresses conjecture (we may here translate it by 'pretty generally'); see Aue, 243, 7 (p. 200).

29. Rheinsberg, an old castle in Frederick's Amt Ruppin, was purchased by the king in autumn, 1733. Frederick made many improvements so as to render it "a really handsome princely kind of residence." (Carlyle.) At Rheinsberg Frederick resided from autumn, 1736, until his accession to the throne, in 1740.

“ Friedrich's happiest time was this at Rheinsberg. ... His wife too appears to have been happy. She had the charm of youth, of good looks; a wholesome perfect loyalty of character withal.... This poor Crown-Princess, afterward Queen, has been heard, in her old age, reverting, in a touching transient way, to the glad days she had at Rheinsberg." (Carlyle, X. 1.)

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4. aufgewedt, 'bright, quick-witted'; comp. the English expression wide awake.'

15. “ We can observe these meetings, within two or three years after the death of Friedrich Wilhelm I., “have become much rarer, and perhaps about the end of the third or fourth year, they altogether cease and pass merely into the formal character." Carlyle, XI. I.

16. etwa should be translated by a verbal phrase, e. g. which she may be supposed to have acquired.'

19. sparsam is used in the sense of spårlich (=selten, rare). It generally means “frugal.'

20 sq. Compare the account given by Carlyle, XXI. 8, of the king's visits to the queen's apartments, when “he usually said not a word to her. He merely, on entering, on sitting down at table and leaving it, made the customary bows and sat opposite to her.” She survived Frederick and was holding a soirée at her country-seat of Schönhausen the very evening of her husband's death.

25. See note on p. 5, 1. Wilhelmina died in October 1758 (Carlyle, XVIII. 14). 31. Sophia Dorothea died on June 28, 1757.

Frederick never spoke to her but with his hat in his hand.

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4. Fronde machen is an imitation of the French fronder.

" Fronde est le nom du parti qui prit les armes contre la cour, sous la minorité de Louis XIV. Fronder signifie, parler contre le gouvernement, ou, en général, montrer une humeur morose, chagrine, désapprouver, blâmer tout." Dictionnaire de l'Académie.

5. Madame de Camas, whom Frederick used to style Ma bonne Maman, the widow of a German-French officer, the Queen's Oberhofmeisterin, died at the age of eighty, Nov. 18, 1765.

29. The Encyclopédie, a vast undertaking originally designed by Diderot, comprises a series of articles on all branches of human knowledge in alphabetical order. It consisted of 22 volumes in folio. The principal contributors to it were Diderot, D'Alembert, Condillac, Hel. vétius, d'Holbach, and Voltaire.—Christian Wolf (or Wolff) was born at Breslau in 1679, became professor of philosophy at the newly founded university of Halle in 1707, was deprived of his professorship in 1723, whereupon he went to Marburg, was recalled by Frederick the Great immediately on his accession to the throne in 1740, and died at Halle in 1752. He was, perhaps, the most influential philosopher in Germany between Leibnitz and Kant. Frederick had tried to read Wolf's chief work in German, but found it too abstruse ; he got through a French translation made for him by Suhm. Carlyle, X. 2.

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3. A few hours before his death, Friedrich Wilhelm I. abdicated in favour of his son. The day was May 31, 1740. Carlyle, X. 8.

8. The agent in question was Seckendorf ; see his Journal, and Jan. 1738.

15. Many superfluous posts and court charges had been abolished by Friedrich Wilhelm I. It was thought likely that Frederick would revive the shallow magnificence and splendour of Frederick I.

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7. For the phrase auf Erden as compared with auf der Erde, see Aue § 137, note.

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