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13. The sing. der Soltat is used as a collective term instead of the plural.

15. Roßbach is a small village about eight miles to the south of the town of Merseburg; it was there that Frederick obtained a splendid victory over the French army combined with the Imperial troops, Nov. 5, 1757. Carlyle XVIII. 8. The 'admirable march' to Silesia is related by Carlyle in the ninth chapter of the same book.

19. Wirthe means here tie Quartiergeber (those upon whom the soldiers were quartered).

20. der Brauch is a less usual and more dignified expression than Gewohnheit.

24. Colberg is a small fortified town in the district of Köslin, near the river Persante and on the Baltic. Comp. Carlyle, XVIII. 13, "Though Colberg is the paltriest crow's nest, according to all engineers, and is defended only by 700 militia...Palmbach (the Russian general) could make nothing of it," and again xx. 7 (in 1761) where the third siege of Colberg' is narrated.

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26. Volfskrieg denotes here a war carried on by the people at large, not by regular soldiers. Elsewhere it also bears the sense of a national

war.

27. selbstkräftig in eigener Kraft.

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28. heimsuchen is often employed in the sense of 'visiting with punishment,' hence Heimsuchung, 'a visitation,' 'an affliction.'

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8. Frederick is compared to a lion who defends himself gallantly, but will be overpowered at last in spite of all his bravery, as he is completely surrounded with enemies.

9. Parteigänger, 'a partisan,' is not exactly a dignified expression when applied to Frederick II. The word properly denotes a condottiere and should not be loosely employed to denote a 'champion,' which might be more correctly expressed by Vorkämpfer.

15. Germany was at that time divided into more than 300 different territories!

16. Ich seze mich gegen etwas is said after the analogy of the phrase fich gegen etwas (or Jemand) stellen, which is employed of game standing at bay; in the present passage the usual phrase would be sich widerseßen.

22. Herzensfreude, 'heartfelt joy.'-Das Reich is the German Empire exclusive of Prussia and Austria.

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2. Todesnoth = Totesgefahr. The noun Moth is often used in a rhetorical style as a synonym of Gefahr.

3. wunde Soldaten is less usual than verwundete Soldaten.-For the fact referred to, comp. the ballad Der Choral von Leuthen in the collection edited in the Pitt Press Series.

4. We do not remember a particular occasion on which Frederick the Great is reported to have doffed his hat to one of his regiments.

9. Gleim, one of the best-known poets of that time, was born on Apr. 2, 1719, and died Febr. 18, 1803. He wrote Preußische Kriegslieder eines Grenadiers, one of which we have reproduced in the appendix of the present volume. Gleim followed Prince Wilhelm von Schwedt as secretary, and was subsequently attached to Prince Leopold von Dessau in the same quality.

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10. Leffing (Gotthold Ephraim), one of the principal writers of German literature, born on Jan. 22, 1729, became secretary to the General von Tauentzien at Breslau in 1760, and in 1770 was appointed keeper of the Duke of Brunswick's Library at Wolfenbüttel. He died at Brunswick, Feb. 15, 1781.-Ewald von Kleist was born March 3, 1715, and died Aug. 24, 1759, at Frankfort-on-Oder, in consequence of the wounds he had received in the battle of Kunersdorf, Aug. 12, 1759. One of his patriotic poems on the Prussian army will be found in the appendix of the present volume.

17. Der kleine Mann means the ordinary citizen in moderate circum. stances.-Eigenes Leiten, his personal suffering, persönliche Verlufte.

20. Ravensperg is part of Westphalia; the country became Prussian in 1666; the capital of it is the well-known manufacturing town of Bielefeld.

21. fahnenflüchtig werden is a German rendering of the foreign term desertiren. In the next line, Ausreißer ('runaway') is again identical in meaning with Deserteur.

27. The common expression is Antheil an etwas nehmen.

28. Die Rütlimänner are the men who met in the Rütli (a mountain, meadow not far from Brunnen in the canton of Schwytz) in order to form a 'solemn league and covenant' against the Austrian oppressors of their country. The rebellion broke out on New-year's day, 1308; the Austrian governors were expelled from the country and their castles destroyed. The independence of the confederacy of the Swiss cantons

of the German Empire was not however recognised until the West. phalian peace, 1648.

30. erleuchtet, instead of the foreign term illuminirt.

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William Pitt, subsequently Earl of Chatham, born at Boconnock in Cornwall, Nov. 15, 1708, died May 11, 1778.—Alliirten=Verbündeten. 4. The French term Clique is always used in a contemptuous sense. 6. mit etwas laut werden is an unusual expression instead of etwas laut werten lassen. There is also the phrase (sich) etwas verlauten lassen.

IO. Der Enthusiasmus is a Greek word (évlovocaσμós) which may be rendered in German by Begeisterung.—Pietät=liebevolle Anhänglichkeit.

12. Philip Hackert, one of the best-known painters of the 18th century, born at Prenzlau on Sept. 15, 1737, was appointed painter to the king of Naples in 1786, and died near Florence, April 28, 1807. His life has been written by Goethe.

14. Früchten=Obst.-The plural sie is somewhat negligently employed after the sing. der Magistrat, which should be considered as a collective.

I.

18. Emden, a sea-trading town, on the Dollart, not far from the river Ems, became Prussian in 1744, Dutch in 1806, French in 1809, Prussian again in 1814, Hanoverian in 1815, and once more Prussian in 1866.-Mogador or Suêra is one of the principal ports in Morocco, on the Atlantic.

19. Die Lösung is less usual than das Lösegeld.

26. vor andern mehr als andere.

29. Der Landsmann, 'compatriot,' should be carefully distinguished from der Landmann, 'peasant.'

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4. Das deutsche Wesen is considered as a jewel which gains by the setting (Fassung).

9. Die Flügel regen is said of the young bird first attempting to use its wings.

16. Ein gespannter Blick, an eager look.

19. The author means to say that Frederick felt he had done all human energy could do.

21. Queen Sophia Dorothea died at Berlin, June 28, 1757, in her seventy-first year. See Carlyle, XVIII. 5.-The misfortune of Prince August Wilhelm is narrated by Carlyle in the same place. Frederick wrote to his brother, "I do not complain of your heart, but I do of your incapacity, of your want of judgment in not choosing better methods."

27. See n. on p. 5, I.

· 30. Einer Sache gewachsen sein, to be equal to a task.

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3. die weiten Gaffen are the wide gaps made by death in the ranks of the soldiers. In this sense Winkelried is reported to have said: Ich will der Freiheit eine Gaffe machen.

6. In a more diffuse style we might have added the words ja vielleicht noch before strenger.

7. die Bravour= Lapferkeit.

9. Er lebte fort (or weiter), he went on living. Thus we should always translate these phrases, e. g. only go on (with your) reading, lies nur immer weiter.

12. Observe the omission of the verb in the sentence beginning with und doch. We may supply either sah er or zeigte sich.

16. Algarotti (Francesco), an Italian scholar and artist, was among the foremost of Frederick's friends. He was born at Venice, Dec. 11, 1712, and died at Pisa, March 3, 1764. Frederick conferred upon him the title of Count.

18. An allusion to the poison Frederick used to carry about his person.

19. Der ganze Handel is a contemptuous expression, in imitation of the French toute l'affaire.

23. Observe the subj. in the depending clause after a verb of demanding. We might also say verdienen wohl von dem Deutschen mit Ehrfurcht beachtet zu werden.

24. herausheben means merely 'to pick out' without regard to the judgment shown in the selection; hervorheben (which is far more frequent) is to distinguish, or emphasize something.

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2. Life is often compared to a tempestuous voyage, and Death to a tranquil harbour in which the tempest-tost bark finds rest at length.

8. The expressions employed by Frederick are of classical origin. In Greek we find that a steady worker is called xaλkévrepos, 'with iron bowels,' and for the next we may refer to Horace's illi robur et aes triplex etc.

13. The more usual form of the plural is die Schrecknisse. Die Schrecken is, however, found in the best writers. See again 1. 19. 15. Alles again = Alle.

16.

17.

Leiten is the dative, as the construction is einer Sache abhelfen. The expression gefüllt mit den Eindrücken is a manifest imitation of the French rempli des impressions. In German we should more commonly say, voll von den Eindrücken.

19. The allusion is to the fearful devastations of the Russian troops. 20. Auf meine alten Tage is more idiomatic than the same phrase with in.

21. Theaterkönig, a stage-king, one who merely 'struts and frets his hour upon the stage' without real sovereignty.—herabkommen is metaphorically used of 'sinking down' in the social scale, in wealth and possessions; in the present passage we might also employ herabgesunken.

22. reizvoll=anziehend, 'attractive.'

26. The more usual form of the apodosis would be, so soll es (mir) der Feind theuer bezahlen.

27. Klausner is a somewhat quaint word, denoting a hermit (Ein. siedler): eine Klause is 'a hermitage.' We find the word chlûsa as early as the tenth century; it is, of course, derived from the Latin claudere, past part. clausum (clusum); compare the synonymous term Kloster ('cloister'), from claustrum.

30. auf die Länge=

e=wenn die Sache lange dauert.

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2. Compare the phrase alle feine Kraft anspannen, 'to exert all one's strength.'

4.

Ideen Gedanken.

12.

Compare the French se couper la gorge.

14. We say more commonly für etwas einstehen. But when the dative of the person is added, we always employ the simple verb: ich stehe vir dafür.

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16. Streich Fr. coup.-Einer Sache quitt sein means to be rid of it, in as far as an account is paid. Compare the ordinary term 'pour acquit.'

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