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22. pelle. [O.] quotes Martial, iii. 16. 44. tubas, used at funerals. So Pers. iii. 103: ‘Hinc tuba, candelæ.' [D.]

49. forsit. &Tag deyóuevov.

54. See further markings of time in S. 11. vi. 40, and note; and the Chronological Table.

57. Infans. Cic. de Cl. Or. 80, 278.

59. caballo. A rustic or low class term for horse;' yet the term from which the Fr. cheval, the Eng. chivalry and cavalry are derived. Has the old word capul (Scott's Ivanhoe, ch. xxxix.) any connection with it?

67. nævos. Cic. de Cl. Or. 313. 68. lustra. Cp. Liv. xxv. 43. 74. suspensi. Cp. 8 Thu nhpav etmptnuévos, Lucian, V. Auct. 7.

75. It is implied here that the Ides were a pay-day; that they were the day of the school meeting may be inferred from Martial. His lines are as follow :

Ludi magister parce simplici turbæ ...
Albæ Leone flammeo calent luces,
Tostamque fervens Julius coquit messem ;
Cirrata luris horridis Scythæ pellis,
Quâ vapulavit Marsyas Celæneus,
Ferulæque tristes, sceptra pædagogorum,

Cessent et Idus dormiant in Octobres. octonis has been variously explained. 1. quia Idus omnes in octavum post Nonas diem incidunt' (but this according to Roman calculation is not true). 2. "sive, ut ait Lambinus, Iduum dies sunt octo.' [0.] 3. de exercitiis puerorum qui computarent æra,' i.e. quæ Idibus exigerentur. Octonce .... quia post Nonas sunt octo. (Zeun.) 4. It has been thought that octonce may be equivalent to Octobres.' (There is something plausible in this last, if it be not an anachronism; for the year in the Augustan age began with January, not March as anciently.) But the interpretation given in the footnote is the best. The only difficulty is Macrobius's statement that ‘Martio mense mercedem exsolvebant magistris quam completus annus deberi fecit ' (Macr. Saturn. i. 12). But this is done away by Becker's explanation, that the monthly payments and the four months' holiday belonged only to the poorer and inferior schools. In the higher schools the payments were annual, and made probably in March after the Quinquatria. He cites Ov. Fast. iii. 829. The verse of Juvenal, x. 116 :

Quisquis adhuc uno partam colet asse Minervam, he interprets as referring to the Minerval, or entrance fee. (See the dissertation in Gallus, esp. p. 194.)

78. vidisset ... crederet. This may in some measure be compared with C. iv. vi. 16–22 : "falleret, ureret, annuisset.' Cp. too Virg.

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SAT. VIII. 10. commune. Such sepulture in ante-Christian times was looked on aș contemptible. See Maitland on the Catacombs, p. 39, who remarks on this passage. (There is some mistake in his rendering of it.)

15. quo= in quo, non repetitâ præp. in post in aprico. (O.) the sense is, Now there are sunny walks and cheerful views, where lately all was gloom and whitening bones. 22. ossa legant. Ov. Her, vi. 90:

Certaque de tepidis colligit ossa rogis. And cp. Sophocl. (Fr. 479, a passage imitated by Virgil, Æn. iv. 513. [0.]

28. cruor ... ut inde. This remarkable superstition, of the ghosts gathering round sacrificial blood, is in Hom. Od. i. 34, sqq.

48. caliendrum, A head dress.

SAT. IX. 5. cupio, etc. Cp. omnia quæ tu vis ea cupio,' Plaut. Pers. v. i. 14; Id. Rud. iv. iv. l. [O.]

7. Noris=“you must know me, surely.' Cp. the use of fugerit, S. 11. vi. 40.

8. Misere. So in v. 14. Cp. the Gr. compound, duo épws; and Ov. Her. vii. 30, pejus amo. Compare too the Virgilian phrase, dira cupido,' Georg. i. 37; Æn. ix. 185.

16. I cannot think Orelli's punctuation of this verse an improvement upon the common text. Hinc weakens and interferes with the sense if joined with persequar (if he had not been persequens all along it might have some meaning). And, unless the sentence is interrogative, nunc is ont of place, and cunque is wanted. The sentences run thus : 'You want to get away; it is of no use; I shall hold on, and follow you ( per) to the end. Where may you be going to next?' Then the next line is natural as a reply. [B.] reads with some MSS. prosequar; the difference of meaning is worth notice. Prosequar esset, officii causa porro sequar.' [0.]

21. subiit On the quantity of this termination, see Lachmann, Lucr. iii, 1042.

32. laterum dolor = pleuritis, Sch. Qu.: whether laterum dolor and lateris dolor are properly the same ? lateris dolor, in Cic. de Or. 111. ii. 6, was no doubt a sudden and short illness, such as pleurisy. But latera specially signifies “lungs,' and laterum dolor might be inferred to mean lung-disease, or 'consumption.' 35. Martial's epigram continues as follows:

In quintam varios extendit Roma labores;

Sexta quies lassis; septima finis erit.
Sufficit in nonam nitidis octava palæstris;

Imperat extructos frangere nona toros.
Hora libellorum decima est, Eupheme, meorum

Temperat ambrosias cum tua cura dapes, 38. paulum may be here for paulisper, as in C. 11. i. 9. "Stop a - ades, as in Plaut. Amph. iv. iii. 3; advocatus mihi adsis. (O.) Op. Liv. xxvi. 48, aderat, explained as it is immediately afterwards by advocatis partis utriusque. So Gr. mapeîval, e.g. Demosth. p. 890, 26; 911, 7.

75. Adversarius. Some have supposed this litigant to be different from the one alluded to as vadatur, in v. 36, since that suit would have been lost by default. But it is easier to suppose one person meant; and the explanation will be, either that the lis of v. 37 was not the full amount the defendant would lose if nonsuited, or that, as (0.] interprets it, the plaintiff was so hot and so self-confident as not to be content without open decision in court.

76. antestari. Cp. Plaut. Pers. iv. ix. 8, sq. [0.] See in Varronianus, p. 241, the comment on Table I. of the XII. Tables : ‘Si in jus vocat ni it antestator igitur em capito.'

78. Apollo. Some suppose a reference to the statue of Apollo in the Forum Augusti; “forum jurisque peritus Apollo, Juv. i. 128.' (Sed hoc minus probabile videtur. [0.])

SAT. X. 3. sale. It is usually in the plural (see [G.] and the Sch.) that this word has the metaphorical meaning of wit and humour.' But (O.) quotes instances of the singular from Cic. N. D. II. xxix. 74; Tusc. Qu. V. xix. 55; Brut. xxxiv. 128, omnes sale facetiisque superabat.

6. [O.] comments thus: "mimi ipsi non solum Horatio sed etiani Ciceroni haud nimis placebant. Cic. ad Fam. XII. xviii. 2: Equidem sic jam obdurui ut ludis Cæsaris nostri animo æquissimo .... audirem Laberii et Publii (Syri) poemata.' Laberius and his plays gave rise to some jests, and perhaps some jealousy; see Sueton. J. Cæsar, 39. A. Gellius says, l. xvii. 14: ' Cæsarem ita Laberii maledicentia et arrogantia offendebat, ut acceptiores et probatiores sibi esse Publii quam Laberii mimos prædicaret.' [D.]

13. urbani, i.e. the polished wit, not coarse, who prefers tempered pleasantry (ridiculum) to savage or cruel jest. For an exposition of urbanus the English student may consult Trench, Synonyms, p. 147. 15. Churchill says of B. Jonson :

His comic humour kept the world in awe,

And Laughter frightened Folly more than Law. 17. pulcher, pulchellus ille et delicatus (stutzerhafte).' [0.] Is the epithet to be explained from theatrical language ? Among the characters brought forward in the Roman farces (see the account of the Atellanæ in Varronianus, ch. iv.) “ Pulchellus, like the Greek Kardías, was used to denote apes and puppets." From hence is derived our 'Punch, or Polichinello. It is to be observed that pulcher here is joined with simius.

46. Varrone. Quintil. x. ), quoted by [D.J: A tacinus Varro in iis per quæ nomen adeptus est interpre's operis alieni non spernendus quidem: verum ad augendam facultatem parum locuples.

58. factos. Cp. factus imperator, Cic. Ac. Qu. 4, procem. Plautus even uses a comparative factius, Trin, 11. iii. 6. 68. dilatus. So Ovid, Metam. xiii. 518:

Quid, di crudeles, nisi quo nova funera cernam,

Vivacem differtis anum? (why do you lengthen out her life ?) [0.] 84. ambitio. Cp. the phrase per ambitionem= to curry favour,' Liv. iii. 47; xxviii. 40.

92. I puer = puer ad manum. Horace bids his amanuensis (cp. dictabam, E. 1. x. 49) add this Satire to the rest, and complete the Book.

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43. Cp. Sueton. Caligula, 53: Peroraturus stricturum se lucubrationis telum minabatur.' 45. Cp. Ter. Andria, Prol. 22:

Dehinc ut quiescant porro moneo, et desinant

Maledicere, malefacta ne noscant sua. 46. Cp. Æsch. S. c. Th. 7:

úuvoio° ún' dotv oposuious torupsóbous. Pope's translation :

Whoe'er offends, at some unlucky time
Slides into verse and hitches in a rhyme,
Sacred to ridicule his whole life long,

And the sad burden of a merry song. 62. Quid, cum est Lucilius? Cp. Cic. ad Fam. XII. xvi. 3: Deinde qui magis hoc Lucilio licuerit assumere libertatis quam nobis ? etc.' [0.]

65. aut qui. Bentley contends for et qui ; on weak gronds, for the plural number is equally implied in either reading. [O.] cites a parallel

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