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58. Epicharmus of Cos, born B. C. 540, died 450; resided in Sicily, at Megara, and after the destruction of that city, at Syracuse, in the courts of Gelon and Hiero. His plays are supposed to have combined the character of the old Megarian comedy (see Arist. Vesp. 57, sqq.) with gnomic and philosophical discourses. The parasite, so conspicuous in the later comedy, was first introduced in his plays (see Biog. Dict.).

71. Orbilium. Orbilius Pupillus, of Beneventum; he had served in the army, and with distinction : 'corniculo, mox equo meruit' (Sueton. de Gramm. 9). He settled in Rome B. C. 63 as a professor of literature, and obtained reputation and influence. He seems to have entered keenly into literary contests, as well as vindications of his profession. He published a book the title of which is corrupt in Suetonius, but is given by Walckn. as lleplanyńs, le souffre-douleur, in which he brought forward the injustice of parents towards schoolmasters. After his death a marble statue was raised to him in his native town.

93. Cp. Virg. Æn. i. 291: “ Aspera tum positis mitescent sæcula bellis.' [0.]

97. Suspendit. The same metaphor is used for attentive listening, 'pendet ... Tarrantis ab ore,' Virg. Æn. iv. 79.

105. Cautos ... rectis. These are technical and legal terms. [0.] cites Plin. Ep. x. lxii. 2: distribuendam inter decuriones pecuniam ita, ut recte reipublicæ caveant.' See Shakesp. Merch. of Ven, Act I. Sc. III.: . Shylock. Antonio is a good man, Bass. Have you heard any imputation to the contrary ? Shylock. Oh, no, no; my meaning in saying he is a good man, is to have you understand me that he is sufficient.' A word of opposite meaning is levis, see A. P. 423.

106. audire. Cp. the frequent Ciceronian use of this verb, to attend the lectures of.

110. dictant. This should mean as in v. 71, and S. 1. x. 75, 'recite or dictate as a lesson to be learnt. And so [0.] : 'tam graviter alta voce recitant quasi a convivis calamo excipienda essent.' Dillenb. and others interpret it simply and plausibly, dictate to their amanuenses,' i. e. compose.' So the verb is used by Persius, i. 51:

non si qua elegidia crudi Dictarunt proceres ? non quidquid denique lectis

Scribitur in citreis ? 114. Cp. Xen. Mem. III. v. 21: oùx dpas ti kilapiotwv mèv kal... ουδέ εις επιχειρεί άρχειν μή επιστάμενος ... των δε στρατηγών οι πλείστοι αυτοσχεδιάζουσι,

120. hoc studet. Observe the pronominal construction, as in Cic. Phil. vi. vii. 18, unum studetis. (0.) quotes one passage from Plautus, Mil. Gl. v. 44, where studeo governs a noun in the acc. c., 'minus has res studeant.'

135. In times of drought rites (Aqucelicium) were celebrated at Rome to Jupiter Pluvius.

144. memorem. This epithet more properly belongs to the Agricolae themselves, but they ascribed their own feelings to the Genius.

152. lex. This sketch of early Roman poetry and its restrictions corresponds in a general way to that of the Greek comedy in A. P. 281. [0.] calls it historiam poeticam,' i. e. ' talem qualem ipse sibi conjecturâ informârat.' He cites, however, Cicero's mention (de Rep. i. 4) of a law in the XII. Tables, ‘si quis occentavisset’ (occentare = 'to libel or lampoon'), making it a capital offence; from which he infers that fustis here means not simply beating,' but beating to death,' supplicium fustuarium.

154. vertere modum. Eng. changed their note.' 167. Pope, Imitation:

Even copious Dryden wanted or forgot

The last and greatest art, the art to blot. 176. See Pers. v. 104, recto vivere talo,' and Jahn’s note.

192. petorrita. Derived from tégrapes, in its Æolic form of floupes, TÉTopes. See Donaldson, Varron. ch. iv.

195. The camelopard or giraffe was first exhibited at Rome in the circus games by Julius Cæsar. See Plin. N. H. VIII. xviii. 27. [O.]

204. Cp. Juv. x. 212: quibus auratâ mos est fulgere lacernâ' (said of public performers). Cp. also Lucian, Nigrin. 11.

244. Cp. ovoßouwtoi from Cratinus, quoted in Porson's Preface, p. 55. C. Nepos, in Alcib. 11, speaks of their bodily strength, 'magis firmitati corporis quam ingenii acumini inserviunt.'

264. Cp. Eur. Troad. 466: oštou pina tà per piaa. 269. Deferar. See on E. 1. xx. 5.

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80. contracta seems to be a metaphor from a pathway; if broad, easy, if narrow, difficult to follow. So e contr, Propert. 111. i. 14: 'Non datur ad Musas currere lata via.' 83. Pope, Imitation :

So stiff, so mute ! a statue, you would swear,

Stept from its pedestal to take the air. 93. molimine, i.e. with what an air of importance.' The meaning of molimine is explained and defined by its combination with fastu; a species of hendiadys, which may be illustrated from Virg. Æn. xi. 801:

neque auræ nec sonitûs memor,' where the second nonn explains the first; and En. xi. 896, where implet is connected with the interpretative ‘ingentem fert tumultum.'

100. Haud inscita fuit Torrentii conjectura,' [0.]; that Horace here refers covertly to Propertius, and his line (El. iv. i. 64) descriptive of himself, Umbria Romani patria Callimachi.'

108. Cp. Ov. Pont. Ill. ix. 9: 'Auctor opus laudat.'

111. splendoris. Cp. Cic. Brut. lxxxvii. 303: “in verborum splendore elegans' (sc. Hortensius).

136. opibus. "In prosâ oratione ope, auxilio ut E. 1. x. 36; C. III. iii. 28.” [0.] This is denied by Obbar (see his note on E. 1. x, 36); and though the plural comes very near the singular in meaning, it is more accurate to distinguish them. Opes in the other two passages may be translated power, might;' in this one, perhaps, resources.' Or opibus çurisque may be a double phrase for a single idea = the care and attendance their means provided for him.' (Obbar has another explanation, viz. cognatorum opibus ex lege linguæ bene dici, cognati opibus non item.') In Virg. Æn. viii. 171, Auxilio lætos dimittam opibusque juvabo,' the sense is clearly distinguished. Cicero contrasts the plural with the singular, Ad. Att. ix. 16: Cæsar jam opes meas, non ut superioribus litteris, opem expectat.'

144. Cp. Cic. Off. 1. xl. 12: Ut in fidibus , ... sic videndum est in vitâu ne forte quid discrepet; vel multo etiam magis, quo major et melior actionum quam sonorum concentus est.'

149, monstratâ, prescribed.' Cp. monstrata piacula, Virg. Æn. iv. 636. Cp. Æsch. P. V. 490: EDEL&a kpáo els naiwv åkeoutwv (though the verb is there used properly of the discovery of medicinal herbs).

152. donarent. Donârint, a conjecture of Bentley, admitted in some editions, is an undoubted solecism,

159. Lord Plunkett defined the nature of prescriptive title as follows (see Lord Brougham's Life of Chief Justice Bushe, "an application of figure to argument absolutely magical'): “If Time destroys the evidence of title, the laws have wisely and humanely made length of possession a substitute for that which has been destroyed. He comes with his scythe in one hand to mow down the muniments of our rights; but in his other hand the lawgiver has placed an hourglass, by which he metes out incessantly those portions of duration which render needless the evidence that he has swept away.'

166. vivas numerato. Cp. S. 1. iv. 79; A. P. 104 (also S. 11. ii. 32, and note). In each of these passages the idiom differs from the English by making the verb unimportant and subordinate to the participle; vivas numerato is = numeraveris.' In A. P. 104 the literal translation in English would not only be unidiomatic, but contrary to the meaning; which is not, .if you speak your part ill,' but, if the part which you have to speak is ill set.' This idiom is of constant recurrence in Greek: e. g. Thuc. i. 20, Túpavyov orta åtolaveiv (i. e. 'that he was tyrant when he was slain;' the question was not whether he died, but whether he reigned); and in the same chapter, Bourbevoi . . . . Spdo avtés Ti kal κινδυνεύσαι (where the English idiom would put δράσαντες in the infinitive, as, .wishing to effect something in their peril,' or, not to run into such peril without achieving something '). Cp. Xen. Cyrop. v. vii. 9: capnvioavta kataliteiv. Cp. Lucian, Timon, 33: où gàp av πους όντας βαλείς, and, μή τι κακόν απέλθω προσλαβών.

- nuper, olim, quondam. Nuper (as distinguished from modo, which expresses the very shortest time preceding) denotes time absolutely distinct from the present, and (it may be) relatively long gone by. So nuper, i.e. paucis ante sæculis, Cic. N. D. ii. 50; quid dico nuper ? immo vero modo,' Ib. Ven. iv. 3. Olim (properly the locative of ille), "at that time, another time, sometimes,' refers to indefinitely distant time, whether past or future, and is opposed to nuper. Quondam (properly the locative of quidam) refers only to the past, and is opposed to nunc. See Donaldson, Lat. Gr. p. 166.

177. vici, manors.'

184. Herodis. Herod the Great. Virgil, Geor. iii. 12, mentions Idumæas palmas. 187. Cp. Spenser, F. Qu. 11. xii. 47:

Genius .

That celestiall powre to whom the care
Of life, and generation of all
That lives, perteines in charge particulare,
Who wondrous things concerning our welfare,
And strange phantomes doth lett us ofte foresee,
And ofte of secret ills bids us beware;

That is ourselfe, whom though we do not see,
Yet cach doth in himselfe it well perceive to bee;
Therefore a god him sage Antiquity

Did wisely make, and good Agdistes call. 189. mutabilis. • Variable in aspect, bright and dark,' i. e. subject to and reflecting the vicissitudes of life.

199. utrum .... an. There is an analogous construction in Ov. Rem. A. 797:

Daunius an Libycis bulbus tibi missus ab oris

An veniat Megaris noxius omnis erit. That passage as well as this may be explained by supposing anacolutha; ferar unus and noxius erit may be looked on as substitutions for nihil refert. In some cases an may stand for dubium an, e.g. Lir. xxviii, 43;

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23. dumtaxat (provided one estimates it, i. e. dum aliquis taxat) denotes only,' as expressing a limitation in the judgment of the speaker =not less than, i. e. at least;' or, not more than, i.e.‘at most.' Here the sense is, ' let any poem, whatever be its merits, at least have those of simplicity and uniformity.'

29. prodigialiter. In a marvellous way, i. e. ' by introducing prodigies.'

32. Æmilium ludum. Said by the Schol. to be an old gladiatorial school of Æmilius Lepidus. It stood in the Forum Romanum.

45, 46. These two verses are transposed in some editions.
49. abdita fata is used of future time in Tibull. ii. 5,
71. in honore. “In vogue.'

91. Cp. Cic. Off. i. 28: Natis sepulchro ipse est parens. A line spoken by Atreus in a play (supposed) of Attius.

94. delitigat, gives full vent to his wrath.' See on E. II. iii. 315; de, properly down from,' passes into the sense of going forward, headlong, right through to the end.

104. See on E. 11. ii. 166.

113. equites peditesque, i. e. all ranks. Cp. the proverbial phrase, equis virisque, 'horse and foot.' [0.] cites Liv. i. 44; and Soph. Ed. Col. 898: Trávt åvaykácel dedov dviTTOV IN TOTNU TE.

116. sedula nutrix. Homericè órpnphs Tauln.
121. Thus rendered vernacularly by Struan Robertson.

“A fiery ettercap, a fractious chiel,

As het as ginger, and as stieve as steel." ' W. Scott, Waverley, ch. xxxv.

143. Lucian, Timon, 1: tauta impos hon åvanéonve kal karydS Toin. Tikós. [O.) 145. Cp. Juv. xv. 16 :

in mare nemo Hunc abicit sævâ dignum verâque Charybdi

Fingentem immanes Læstrygonas atque Cyclopas ? 146. Eneus was father of Meleager; afterwards he married Peribea and became father of Tydeus.

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