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the law of nature and of nations and the fine arts to the duties of the moral professor." This would seem to be the earliest instance of instruction in International Law in an American College which has come to light.

At HARVARD in 1828-29, Honorable Joseph Story, appointed Dane Professor of Law, gave lectures on the Law of Nature and of Nations. The regular course in this branch used as text-books de Marten's Law of Nations and Rutherforth's Institutes. A parallel course of reading comprised Ward, Vattel, and Bynker. shoek on the laws of war. Wheaton on Captures was added in 1832-33, and the same author's Elements of International Law in 1836-37. Grotius and Puffendorf seem also to have been included in the course in 1841-42.

Professor Story died September 10, 1845, and until 1848 the course on the Law of Nations was omitted. Henry Wheaton was engaged to lecture in 1847 upon his return from Europe, with the prospect of having a chair of Civil and International Law, but his death prevented.

Honorable Franklin Dexter lectured upon International Law, 1848-49, but in 1849-50 there was no instruction in the subject, nor for a number of years thereafter. In 1860-61, however, Woolsey's International Law was used in the department of History, and this continued at intervals for some years. Professor Parsons lectured on the topic in the Law School, 1863-65, and R. H. Dana, 1866-67, while for certain years neither Academic nor Law Department gave attention to the subject. In 1869-70, Eliot came in, and the next year International Law was made an undergraduate elective in History.

At PRINCETON, a Law Department was established in 1846, but it was shortlived. From 1873 to 1882 International Law was taught as a Senior elective.

COLUMBIA COLLEGE.-Chancellor Kent taught at Columbia as Professor of Municipal Law, 1793-98 and 1823-47. His Commentaries were given as lectures to students in 1825-26, and in 1836 lectures upon International Law were arranged for. Professor H. B. Adams, in Circular of Information No. 2, 1887 (Bureau of Education), is authority for the statement that Lieber was advertised to teach International Law in Columbia College, 1857-65. But in Professor Barnard's report of 1865, it was not given as one of Lieber's topics.

DARTMOUTH College. · At Dartmouth in 1843, Professor Haddock gave a course in Kent's Commentaries, Vol. I., presumably including Part I. on International Law, but in 1851 this was dropped. Instruction in this subject was resumed in 1867. During the single year 1860-61, Woolsey's International Law had been used, however.

AMHERST COllege. · Professor H. B. Adams' Report on the Study of History to Bureau of Education, 1887, p. 74, says of Amherst College, "almost from the beginning of the College in 1821, such works as Vattel's Law of Nations and others, were taught by the philosophical department." The Amherst catalogue of 1848-49 places International and Constitutional Law, as given in Kent's Commentaries, among the Senior studies. But this does not occur again and hardly warrants Mr. Adams' statement.


As already mentioned, President Stiles used Vattel at Yale 1792-1795. Judge Daggett heard recitations in Kent's Commentaries, 183334, in the Law School. In 1841 his courses covered International Law, as the manuscript notes of a student under him testify. The Law School prospectus of 1845 puts the Conflict of Laws and Law of Nations among the topics of its

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professional course. In the Academic Department President Woolsey began lecturing on the subject in 1846, the first edition of his treatise having appeared in 1860. Immediately after his resignation of the Presidency, he began in 1871 the delivery of an annual course of lectures on International Law in the Law Department, since which time it has been continuously taught there, and is a subject of instruction among each of the Middle, Senior, and Graduate years.

RUTGERS COLLEGE. — The catalogue of 1840 contains no course of study, but its President, Hasbrouck, is entitled also Professor of Constitutional and International Law, of Political Economy, of Rhetoric and of Belles-Lettres.

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. Between 1836 and 1840 the Department of Rhetoric and English Literature gave Kent on International Law to the Seniors of the Collegiate Department. In 1843-44 lectures upon International Law were substituted for the earlier treatment.


In 1863-64 lectures upon International Law were given to Seniors by the Professor of Moral Philosophy, while Professor Sharswood taught the topic in the Law Department. This was the usage until 1867-68, when lectures on International Law were given to Seniors under the head of “Required English.” In 1868-69 Professor Hare replaced Professor Sharswood in teaching this subject in the Department of Law.

WILLIAMS COLLEGE. The course of study in the early Williams catalogues includes Vattel's Law of Nations, from 1822 to 1835, for Seniors and quite evidently as a branch of moral philosophy. After 1836-37 the topic seems to have been omitted.




Abandonment of invention, 409; of
trade-mark, 442.

Abridgments, 430.

Acadia, 493.


Act of Union of 1707, 10.
Actions, increase in those of tort, 84;
survival, 95; arrest on, 111; damages,
111; in rem, 455, 456; in personam, in
admiralty, 456, 457.
Adams, John, legal education, 16; de-
fence of American Constitution, 30.
Adams, H. B., 519.
Administrative law, 37.
Admiralty defined, 448; procedure,
449; old English practice, 449; the
Black Book, 450; Coke's attacks, 450;
in the American colonies, 450, 451;
under the Confederation, 451; under
our Constitution, 451-453; its Ameri-
can judicial history, 453; navigable
waters, 453, 454; dividing damages,
455; suits in rem,455,456; in personam,
456, 457; maritime liens, 457-459;
priorities, 459-462; subrogation, 462 ;
preferences, 462, 463; State statutory
liens, 463-466; order of preferences,
466; laches, 466, 467; judicial sales,
467; salvage, 468, 469; charters, 469:
the master, 470; the pilot, 470, 471;
common carriers. 471, 472; marine pro-
tests, 472; marine survey, 472; con-
flict of laws; foreign ships, 472, 473;
Acts of Congress, 473-479; Limited
Liability Act, 474-477; the Harter
Act, 477-479; saving of common-law
remedies, 479, 480; enforcing State
liens, 480, 481; contracts of insurance,
481; general average, 482; negligence,
482; of municipal corporation, 482-

484; seizures, 484; prize cases, 484-
488; doctrine of the continuous voy-
age, 485, 486; provisions, 486, 487;
blockades, 487; fishing-boats, 487;
practice, 487, 488; defects in, 488.
Adultery as a crime, 360.
Adverse possession, 64.
Agamenticus, 209.

Agency, liability of principal, 288; in
case of public corporations 288 289.
Aggregations, 402.
Air, rights to, 60.

Albany, Congress of 1754, 21.
Aliens, land titles, 54; as shareholders
in domestic corporations, 282.
Allegiance, 282; indelible, 507; modern
treaties, 508, 509.

Allodial title, 53.

American Bar Association, 417, 518.
American law, development of in gen-
eral, 1-6; our system of law reports
as sources of history, 6, 7, 84, 259;
influence on, of our colonial charters,
13, 261-264; early American bar, 13-
17, 268; beginnings of our constitu-
tional law, 18-20; of legal education,
our judicial system, 22; be-
ginnings of judicial constitutional
interpretation, 23-26; American po-
litical ideals, 26, 27; right of judicial
interpretation, 27, 28; the interlac-
ing of State and federal courts, 28,
29; common-law doctrines, 29; fed-
eral commercial jurisprudence, 29, 30;
literary history of our constitutional
law, 30-33; field of the XIVth amend-
ment, 35, 36, 295; of the XVth, 36;
distribution of governmental powers,
37, 38; main doctrines of our consti-
tutional law, 38-40; drift toward cen-
tralization, 40, 41; the police power,

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