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is seven diameters high; and its capital, base and entablature bave but few mouldings. The simplicity of the construction of this column renders it eligible, where ornament would be superfluous.
The Doric, Which is plain and natural, is the most ancient, and was invented by the Greeks. Its column is eight diameters high, and has seldom any ornaments on base or capital, except mouldings; though the frieze is distinguished by triglyphs and metopes, and triglyphs compose the ornaments of the frieze. The solid composition of this order gives it a preference, in structures where strength, and noble simplicity, are chiefly required.
The Doric is the best proportioned of all the orders. The several parts of which it is composed are founded on the natural position of solid bodies. In its first invention, it was more simple than in its present state. In after times, when it began to be adorned, it gained the name of Doric; for when it was constructed in its primitive and simple form, the name of Tuscan was conferred on it. Hence the Tuscan precedes the Doric in rank, on account of its resemblance to that pillar in its original state.
The Ionic Bears a kind of mean proportion between the more solid and delicate orders. Its column is nine diameters high; its capital is adorned with volutes, and its cornice has dentals. There is both delicacy and ingenuity displayed in its pillar; the invention of which is attributed to the Ionians, as the famous temple of Diana at Ephesus was of this order. It is said to have been formed after the model of an agreeable young woman, of an elegant shape, dressed in her hair; as a contrast to the Doric order, which was formed after that of a strong, robust man.
The Corinthian, The richest of the five orders, is deemed a masterpiece of art. Its column is ten diameters high, and its capital is adorned with two rows of leaves, and eight volutes, which sustain the abacus. The frieze is ornamented with curious devices, the cornice with dentals and modillions. This order is used in stately and superb structures.
of the Invention of this Order. It was invented at Corinth, by Callimachus, who is said to have taken the hint of the capital of this pillar from the following remarkakle circumstance: Accidentally passing by the tomb of a young lady, he perceived a basket of toys, covered with a tile, placed over an acanthus root, having been left there by her nurse.
As the branches grew up, they encompassed the basket, till arriving at the tile, they met with an obstruction, and bent downwards. Callimachus, stiuck with the object, set about imitating the figure; the vase of the capital he made to represent the basket; the abacus the tile; and the volutes the bending leaves.
The Composite Is compounded of the other orders, and was contrived by the Romans. Its capital has the two rows of leaves of the Corinthian, and the volutes of the Ionic. Its column has the quarter-round, as the Tuscan and Doric order; is ten diameters high, and its cornice has dentals, or simple modillions. This pillar is generally found in buildings where strength, elegance and beauty are displayed.
of the Invention of Order of Architecture. The ancient and original orders of architecture, revered by masons, are no more than three, the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian, which were invented by the Greeks. To these the Romans have added two; the Tuscan, which they made plainer than the Doric; and the Composite, which was more ornamental, if not more beautiful, than the Corinthian. The first three orders alone, however, shew invention and particular character, and essentially differ from each other; the two others have nothing but what is borrowed, and differ only accidentally: the Tuscan is the Doric in its earliest state; and the Composite is the Corinthian, enriched with the Ionic. To the Greeks, therefore, and not the Romans, we are indebted for what is great, judicious and distinct in architecture.
of the Five Senses of Human Nature. An analysis of the human faculties is next given in this section, in which the five external senses particularly claim attention: these are Hearing, Seeing, Feeling, Smelling and Tasting.
Hearing Is that sense by which we distinguish sounds, and are capable of enjoying all the agreeable charms of music. By it we are enabled to enjoy the pleasures of society, and reciprocally to communicate to each other our thoughts and intentions, our purposes and desires; while thus our reason is capable of exerting its utmost power and energy.
The wise and beneficent Author of Nature, intended, by the formation of this sense, that we should be social crea. tures, and receive the greatest and most important part of our knowledge by the information of others. For these purposes we are endowed with hearing, that, by a proper exertion of our rational powers, our happiness may be complete.
Seeing Is that sense by which we distinguish objects, and in an instant of time, without change of place or situation, view armies in battle array, figures of the most stately structures, and all the agreeable variety displayed in the landscape of nature. By this sense, we find our way in the pathless ocean, traverse the globe of earth, determine its figure and dimensions, and delineate any region, or quarter of it. By it we measure the planetary orbs, and make new discoveries in the sphere of the fixed stars. Nay, more: by it we perceive the tempers and dispositions, the passions and affections, of our fellow-creatures, when they wish most to conceal them, so that though the tongue may be taught to lie and dissemble, the countenance would display the hypocrisy to the discerning eye. In fine, the rays of light which administer to this sense, are the most astonishing parts of the animated creation, and render the eye a peculiar object of admiration.
Of all the faculties, sight is the noblest. The structure of the eye, and its appurtenances, evince the admirable contrirance of nature for performing all its various external and internal motions, while the variety displayed in the eyes of different animals, suited to their several ways of life, clearly demonstrates this organ to be the masterpiece of nature's work.
Feeling Is that sense by which we distinguish tlıc different quali. ties of bodies; such as heat and cold, hardness and softness, roughness and smoothness, ligure, solidity, motion, and ex. tension.
These three senses, hearing, seeing and feeling are deemed peculiarly essential among masons.
Smelling Is that sense by which we distinguish odours, the various kinds of which convey different impressions to the mind. Animal and vegetable bodies, and indeed most other bodies, while exposed to the air, continually send forth effluvia of vast subtilty, as well in the state of life and growth, as in the state of fermentation and putrifaction, These effluvia, being drawn into the nostrils along with the air, are the means by which all bodies are smelled. Hence it is evident, that there is a manifest appearance of design in the great Creator's having planted the organ of smell in the inside of that canal, through which the air continually passes in respiration.
Tasting Enables us to make a proper distinction in the choice of our food. The organ of this sense guards the entrance of the alimentary canal, as that of smelling guards the entrance of the canal for respiration. From the situation of both these organs, it is plain that they were intended by nature to distinguish wholesome food from that which is nauseous. Ev. ery thing that enters the stomach must undergo the scrutiny of tasting; and by it we are capable of discerning the changes which the same body undergoes in the different campositions of art, cookery, chemistry, pharmacy, &c.
Smelling and tasting are inseparably connected; and it is by the unnatural kind of life men commonly lead in society, that these senses are rendered less fit to perform their natural offices.
On the mind, all our knowledge must depend; what, therefore, can be a more proper subject for the investigation of masons? By anatomical dissection and observation, we become acquainted with the body; but it is by the anatomy of the mind alone we discover its powers and principles.
To sum up the whole of this transcendant measure of God's bounty to man, we shall add, that memory, imagination, taste, reasoning, moral perception, and all the active powers of the soul, present a vast and boundless field for philosophical disquisition, which far exceeds human inquiry, and are peculiar mysteries, known only to nature, and to nature's God, to whom we, and all, are indebted for creation, preservation, and every blessing we enjoy.
of the Seven Liberal Arts and Sciences. The seven liberal Arts and Sciences are next illustrated in this section: it may not, therefore, be improper to insert here a short explanation of them.
Grammar. Grammar tərches the proper arrangement of words, according to the idiom, or dialect, of any particular people; and that excellency of pronunciation, which enables us to speak or write a language with accuracy, agreeably to reason and correct usage.
Rhetoric. Rhetoric teaches us to speak copiously and fluently on any subject, not merely with propriety alone, but with all the advantages of force and elegance; wisely contriving to captivate the hearer by strength of argument, and beauty of expression, whether it be to entreat and exhort, to admonish or applaud.
Logic. Logic teaches us to guide our reason discretionally in the general knowledge of things, and directs our inquiries after truth. It consists of a regular train of argument, whence we infer, deduce, and conclude, according to certain premises laid down, adınitted, or granted; and in it are employed the faculties of conceiving, judging, reasoning, and disposing; all of which are naturally led on from one gradation to another, till the point in question is finally determined.
Arithmetic. Arithmetic teaches the powers and properties of numbers, which is variously effected, by letters, tables, figures, and instruments. By this art, reasons and demonstrations are given, for finding out any certain number, whose relation or affinity to another is already known or discovered.
Geometry.* Geometry treats of the powers and properties of magnitudes in general, where length, breadth, and thickness, are
Geometry is said originally to have signified nothing more than the art of measuring the earth, or any distances or dimensions within it: but at pre