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structions, and particularly from the general and state grand officers:

6. That to the utmost of your power you will preserve the solemnities of our ceremonies, and behave, in open chapter, with the most profound respect and reverence, as an example to your companions:

7. That you will not acknowledge or have intercourse with any chapter that does not work under a constitutional warrant or dispensation:

8. That you will not admit any visitor into your chapter who has not been exalted in a chapter legally constituted, without his being first formally healed:

9. T'hat you will observe and support such by-laws as may be made by your chapter, in conformity to the general grand royal arch constitution and the general regulations of the grand chapter:

10. That you will pay due respect and obedience to the instructions of the general and state grand officers, particularly relating to the several lectures and charges, and will resign the chair to them, severally, when they may visit your chapter:

11. That you will support and observe the general grand royal arch constitution, and the general regulations of the grand royal arch chapter under whose authority you act.

Do you submit to all these things, and do you promise to observe and practice them faithfully?”

These questions being answered in the affirmative, the companions all kneel in due form, and the grand high priest or grand chaplain, repeats the following, or some other suit. able prayer.

“Most holy and glorious Lord God, the great High Priest of heaven and earth.

“We approach thee with reverence, and implore thy blessing on the companion appointed to preside over this new assembly, and now prostrate before thee; fill his heart with thy fear, that his tongue and actions may pronounce thy glory. Make him steadfast in thy service; grant him firmness of mind; animate his heart, and strengthen his endeavours; may he teach thy judgments and thy laws;a nd may the incense he shall put before thee, upon thine altar, prove an acceptable sacrifice unto thee. Bless him, O Lord, and bless the work of his hand. Accept us in mercy; hear thou from Heaven, thy dwelling place, and forgive our transgressions.

«Glory be to God the Father; as it was in the beginning, &c.Response, so mote it be.”

All the companions except high priests and past high priests, are then desired to withdraw, while the new high priest is solomnly bound to the performance of his duties; and after the performance of other necessary ceremonies, not proper to be written, they are permitted to return.

The grand high priest then addresses the new high priest, as follows:

Most Excellent Companion; In consequence of your cheerful acquiesence with the charges and regulations just recited, I now declare you duly installed and anointed high priest of this new chapter; not doubting your determination to support the reputation and honor of our sublime order. I now cheerfully deliver unto you the warrant under which you are to work; and I doubt not you will govern with such good order and regularity, as will convince your companions that their partiality has not been improperly placed.”

The grand high priest then clothes and invests the new high priest with the various implements and insignia of the order, with suitable charges to each of them.

The grand high priest then installs the several subordinate officers in turn; and points out to them the duties appertaining to their respective offices; after which, he pronounces a suitable address to the new chapter, and closes the ceremopy, with the following benediction:

"The Lord be with you all; let brotherly love continue; be not forgetful to entertain strangers. Now the God of peace, our supreme high priest, make you perfect to do his will.

“Glory be to God on high, and on earth peace and good will to men. As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, &c.”

SECT. 2. At the institution of all lodges of mark master masons, under this jurisdiction, the same ceremonies as are prescribed, in the foregoing section, are to be observed, as far as they will apply to that degree.

Sect. 3. Whenever it shall be inconvenient for the general grand officers, or the grand or deputy grand high priests, respectively, to attend in person, to constitute a new chapter or lodge, and install the officers, they shall severally bave power and authority, to appoint some worthy high priest, or past high priest, to perform the necessary ceremonies.

Sect. 4. · The officers of every chapter and lodge under this jurisdiction, before they enter upon the exercise of their respective offices, and also the members of all such chapters and lodges, and every candidate upon his admission into the same, shall take the following obligation, viz: “I, A. B. do promise and swear, that I will support and maintain the general grand royal arch constitution.”

I hereby certify, that the foregoing is a true copy of the general grand royal arch constitution for the United States of America, as altered, amended and ratified, at a meeting of the general grand chapter, begun and holden at New-York, in the State of New York, on the 6th day of June, A. D. 1816.

Witness,

JOHN ABBOT, G. G. Secretary.

The following Emminent Companions, at the above Chapteral

communication, were elected to the offices attached to their

respective names. s. M. E. His Excellency, the Hon. DE WITT CLINTON,

Governor of the State of New York, General Grand

High Priest. M. E. THOMAS SMITH WEBB, Esq. of Boston, Mas

sachusetts, Deputy General Grand High Priest. M. E. JOHN H. LYNDE, Esq. of New Haven, Connecti

cut, General Grand King. M. E. PHILIP P. ECKEL, Esq. of Baltimore, Mary

land, General Grand Scribe. M. E. JOHN ABBOT, Esq. of Westford, Massachusetts,

General Grand Secretary. M. E. PETER GRINNĚL, Esq. of Providence, Rhode

Island, General Grand Treasurer. M. E. and Rev. JONATHAN NYE, of Newfane, Vermont,

General Grand Chaplain. M. E. JOHN HARRIS, Esq. of Hopkinton, New Hamp

shire, General Grand Marshal.

278

CHAPTER XVIII.

Observations on the order of knighthood. THE order of Knighthood as it relates to freemasonry has given rise to much speculation among the different writers, who have at different periods, published their opinions to the world. It will doubtless be admitted, that those only, who have made themselves perfectly acquainted with the order, by having been regularly dubbed, and thus put in legal possession of every thing relating to the order, can be competent to judge of its merits, and particularly of its connexions with what is usually denominated ancient masonry. There are among those with whom I have frequently conversed, (not a few ) who insist that every thing relating to the first seven degrees, terminating with the degree of Royal Arch, was utterly unknown in Europe, until after the crusades; in short, that all its impor. tant secrets were communicated to European Knights, by enlightened Jews, and the few remaining Christians, at that period, inhabitants of the holy land.

Be that as it may, it is not our intention at present, to enter the lists, knights as we are, with those who may be opposed to our opinion on this subject, but to give a faithful history of the or. ders now practised among masons. Before we enter upon our work, it will however, be expedient and proper, to give some account of the origin of knighthood, and to add the opinions of the most eminent writers on this interesting subject.

«The different orders of knighthood, are divided into two classes; the first consists of the religious, which not only includes the defence of the princes or rulers, the state and of christianity, but also by particular vows and other rules, is rendered entirely subject to the chief. The second class comprehends, the military, which sovereigns have established to encourage and cherish emulation among their subjects, in the wars, and the management of state affairs."

The institution of orders of knighthood, as a recompense for the heroick achievements of a hero, is traced to the highest antiquity.* Although it cannot be denied, that many military orders, seem also to have been instituted from quite a different cause, the promotion of loyalty, literary pursuits, and other virtues; and are conferred on those who have deserved well of the prince, or of the state.t

*Vid. Aubert. Miracus de Origin. equestr. lib. i. cap. i. † Mirabas, l. c.

If we look back to the beginning of this laudable institution, we must confess that the origin of the orders of knighthood is not easy to be traced. For some refer to too remote a period, when they tell us that Pharaoh the king of the Egyptians instituted such; resting on too slight an argument, which they do not scruple to draw from the sacred writings, where it is said: “That Pharaoh honored Joseph with a golden chain, and a ring as a testimony of the Royal favor." Gen. C. 41. v. 42. from whence they conclude that Joseph was invested with the dignity of some order of knighthood, but as the delivery of a ring, or a golden chain, does not imply the investment with an order, but is only a public testimony of favor such as is frequently at this day, conferred on men who have acquired considerable fame, or gained the peculiar favor of the prince, it follows that the origin, or institution, by no means appear from this example. Otherwise Mardochæus clothed by Ahasuerus the king of Persia, with a purple robe, (Esther c. 8. v. 15,) might claim the like honor. *

Others assert that the Romans conferred the orders of ·knighthood. To enter into the discussion of which, is foreign to our subject and to our intention.

If we investigate the reason why a knight, on his creation is to submit to a blow, or the laying on of one or more swords on his head or shoulder, we discover that this usage was observed by the king of Bohemia, towards William of Holland, when he conferred knighthood upon him at Becka: the king saying, remember that the saviour of the world was buffetted, and scoffed before the High Priest!"

We believe that the praise of this most salutary institution is due to those, who, with Godfrey of Bouillon restored the kingdom of Jerusalem; and by entering into a society for collecting together, and protecting strangers, which they bound by some vows, gave rise to the orders of hospitalers, and the templars, afterwards so famous over the whole globe.” For in imitation of these various orders of knighthood under various titles, patrons and constitutions, were afterwards erected by almost all the powers of Christendom, existing in different parties of the world, some of which will be hereafter slightly noticed.

* Conf. Giustiniani historie Chronologiche dell'origine degl'ordiai militari.

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